• Title, Summary, Keyword: IR

Search Result 8,230, Processing Time 0.047 seconds

Ferroelectric Properties and Comparison between $PZT/IrO_2$ and PZT/Ir

  • Jeon, Min-Seok;Lee, Hee-Soo;Kim, Il-Doo;Park, Duck-Kyun
    • The Korean Journal of Ceramics
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.64-67
    • /
    • 2000
  • Reactively sputtered $Pb(Zr,Ti)O_3$(PZT) films on $IrO_2$and Ir were evaluated with particular consideration on interface properties. The $IrO_2$and Ir were previously annealed at $650^{\circ}C$ in $O_2$or $N_2$atmosphere, respectively. There was no appreciable roughening in the interface of the $PZT/IrO_2$respective to that of the PZT/Ir; the rms roughness of $IrO_2$and Ir was about 3nm and 10nm, respectively. The ferroelectric properties of the $PZT/IrO_2$were found to be better than that of the PZT/Ir; however, the leakage current of the $PZT/IrO_2$was slightly larger than that of the PZT/Ir. The $PZT/IrO_2$thin films did not exhibit any fatigue up to $10^{11}$ cycles; the $P^*\;_r-P^r$ value decreased only from 16.6 to 14$\mu$C/$\textrm{cm}^2$ until $10^{12}$ polarization reversals. On the other hand, although thin $IrO_2$layer was formed between PZT and Ir, the PZT/Ir thin films began to undergo fatigue after $10^9$ polarization reversals.

  • PDF

Electronic Structure and Magnetism of Fe Monolayer on Ir(001) (Ir(001) 위의 철 단층의 자성에 대한 전자구조 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Chul;Lee, Jae-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.171-175
    • /
    • 2009
  • The magnetism of the Fe monolayer on Ir(001) substrate [Fe/Ir(001)] was investigated by the first-principles energy band method. For comparison, the Fe and Ir ordered-alloyed monolayer on Ir(001) [Fe$_{0.5}$Ir$_{0.5}$/Ir(001)] was also considered. The calculated magnetic moments for Fe atoms in Fe/Ir(001) system and Fe$_{0.5}$Ir$_{0.5}$/Ir(001) system are 2.95 and 2.83 bohr magnetons, respectively. The detailed aspects of the magnetism and electronic structures for these systems are discussed with the calculated denisty of states and spin densities. The optimized atomic sites for the overlayer Fe and Ir atoms were determined by the total energy and atomic force calculations. The Fe atoms in Fe/Ir(001) move closer to the substrate Ir layer than the Fe atoms in Fe$_{0.5}$Ir$_{0.5}$/Ir(001) do to the Ir substrate.

Studies on the Inheritance of Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice Varieties (수도(水稻) 백엽고병(白葉枯病)의 저항성(抵抗性) 유전(遺傳)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Jae-eul
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.191-198
    • /
    • 1977
  • This study was conducted to determine the inheritance to bacterial leaf blight in rice. Varieties used in the study were IR1544-349-2, IR1698-237-2, IR1529-680-3, IR28, IR29, RP663-337-7-8-4-1-1, RP291-20, 62-595 and Kele. The isolate of bacteial leaf blight used was 71-23, 76-1 of Xanthomonas oryzae. $F_1s$ were obtained from crosses between resistant and susceptible varieties. Field observation was made from the Parents, $F_1s$ and $F_2$ sagregating population. The result is summaryzed as fallow: 1) The resistance to the bacterial leaf blight (71-23) derived from cultivars IR1529-680-3, IR28, IR29, RP663-337-7-8-4-1-1, RP291-20 and 62-595 was controlled by a single dominant gene. 2) The resistance to the bacterial leaf blight (71-23) derived from cultivars IR1545-339-2, IR1544-340, IR1698-237-2 and Kele was controlled by a single recessive gene. 3) The resistance to the bacterial leaf blight (76-1) derived from cultivars IR1545-339-2, IR1544-340, IR 1698-237-2 was controlled by a single dominant gene. 4) Degree of resistance to the bacterial leaf blight and genetic type were different depending on isolates within the same resistant cultivar. 5) There was no relation between resistance to the bacterial leaf blight and heading days.

  • PDF

An empirical Study on Effects that IR activities of construction manufacturers cause to stock prices (건설기업의 IR(투자자관계)활동이 주가에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Kyung-Taek;Yoon, Ja-Young;Kim, Jae-Jun;Choi, In-Sig
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.101-108
    • /
    • 2007
  • Currently construction corporations also is whether executing or planning IR activities as other corporation do. We will analyze correlation between stock price and IR activities and execute actual analysis of how IR activities influence stock price in order to identify positive influence of IR activities on Construction Corporations which are executing IR activities for raising capital and investors. We make two hypothesizes through searching thesis and interviewing experts. Two hypothesizes are as follows. First of all, stock price will increase in terms of public of IR activities. Second of all, IR activities targeted on domestic investors will be very successful. We deduce conclusions through verifying two hypothesizes. Conclusions are as follows. First of all, IR activities of construction corporations influence stock price positively. Second of all, IR activities targeted on international are more effective than on domestic Third of all, even though IR activities targeted on domestic is less effective than on international, it is indicated that it have positive influences. Construction corporations give investors frostiness and then will expect to raise capital and renew $its^{\circ}{\phi}$ imageby well executing IR activities.

KOSDAQ Firm's Cyber IR Activity and Stock Price Behavior (코스닥 기업의 사이버 IR과 주가행태)

  • Song, Myung-Gyu;Cho, Jun-Hee;Kim, Chan-Jung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.388-397
    • /
    • 2012
  • Recently, KOSDAQ company's cyber IR activities has increased. Major advantages offered by the Internet include low cost and high accessibility the Internet is used as a strategic tool of many KOSDAQ companies in IR activity. Thus, this study tried to empirically analyze the overall impact of cyber IR. And this study examine the difference in impact of cyber IR activity on stock prices in the period before and after depending on ownership structure and venture or not. The main result of the study can be summarized as follows. First, IR activities have a positive impact on KOSDAQ firms stock price. This means that the investors are recognizing IR activity of KOSDAQ firm as a good news. Second, The lower stock ownership have great impact on stock prices. The act of reporting and monitoring system are performing effectively to lower stock ownership as compared with higher stock ownership. Third, The return rate of KOSDAQ venture firms with IR enforcement effect appears high than KOSDAQ firms with IR enforcement.

A Study on an Infrared Illumination Stabilization Method in a Head Mounted Eye Tracking System for Sport Applications (착용형 시선 추적 장치의 스포츠 분야 적용을 위한 적외선 조명 변화 최소화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Cheol
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.265-272
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this paper, a simple optical method that uses an infrared(IR) cut filter is proposed to minimize variation of eye image by external infrared(IR) sources in a video based head mounted eye tracking system that is used in the field of sports. For this, the IR cut filter is attached to a head mount of the eye tracking system, and the camera with an IR LED is located between the IR cut filter and eye. In this structure, external IR is blocked by the IR cut filter, and the IR intensity on the eye can be controlled by the IR LED. Therefore, the illumination condition of the camera to capture the eye can be stable without being affected by external IR illuminations. To verify the proposed idea, variation of the eye image and intensity of the IR with/without the IR cut filter is measured under various illumination conditions. The measured data show that the IR cut filter method can block external IR effectively, and complex pupil detection algorithms can be replaced by a simple binarized method.

IR Absorption Property in Nano-thick Ir-inserted Nickel Silicides (이리듐이 첨가된 니켈실리사이드의 적외선 흡수 특성)

  • Yoon, Kijeong;Song, Ohsung;Han, Jeungjo
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
    • /
    • v.46 no.11
    • /
    • pp.755-761
    • /
    • 2008
  • We fabricated thermally evaporated 10 nm-Ni/1 nm-Ir/(poly)Si films to investigate the energy saving property of silicides formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at the temperature range of $300{\sim}1200^{\circ}C$ for 40 seconds. Moreover, we fabricated 100 nm-thick ITO/(poly)Si films with an rf-sputter as references. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an X-ray diffractometer were used to determine cross-sectional microstructure and phase changes. A UV-VIS-NIR and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were employed for near-IR and middle-IR absorbance. Through TEM analysis, we confirmed 20~65 nm-thick silicide layers formed on the single and polycrystalline silicon substrates. Ir-inserted nickel silicide on single crystalline substrate showed almost the same absorbance in near IR region as well as ITO, but Ir-inserted nickel silicide on polycrystalline substrate, which had the uniform absorbance in specific region, showed better absorbance in near IR region than ITO. The Ir-inserted nickel silicide on polycrystalline substrate particularly showed better absorbance in middle IR region than ITO. The results imply that nano-thick Ir-inserted nickel silicides may have excellent absorbing capacity in near-IR and middle-IR region.

A Study on the Magnetic Properties and Microstructures of Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe/Zr Muti layers with Various Compositions, Thicknesses and Base Pressures (Mn-Ir의 조성과 두께 및 초기진공도에 따른 Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe/Zr 다층막의 자기적특성과 미세구조 연구)

  • 노재철;최영석;이경섭;김용성;서수정
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.166-172
    • /
    • 1999
  • The magnetic properties between Mn-Ir antiferromagnetic layer and Ni-Fe ferromagnetic layer have been investigated in Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe/Zr on Si wafer formed by magnetron sputtering. Mn-Ir was sputtered from Ir chips and Mn target using D.C. power, Ni-Fe and Zr were deposited from Ni-Fe and Zr targets using D.C. power under Ar atmosphere. We studied the dependence of the magnetic properties on Ir content of Mn-Ir layer for Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe bilayer, and obtained the highest $H_ex$ of 219 Oe and the low $H_c$ of 30 Oe. And then focused on the effect of base pressure for Mn-Ir containing multilayers. Our experimental data showed that if the base pressure is higher than $3.0{\times}10^{-6}\;Torr$, the exchange anisotropy of Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe/Zr disappeared probably due to the grain refining of Mn-Ir film. In addition we have studied the dependence of Zr buffer on magnetic properties of Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe/Zr multilayers, and observed that Zr buffer about (111) texture and lower $H_c$ of Mn-Ir/Ni-Fe/Zr multilayer.

  • PDF

Implementation of a Counterfeit Notes Detection Method using IR Sensor (적외선(IR) 센서를 이용한 위폐 감별 방법 구현)

  • Kim, Sun-Gu;Kang, Byeong-Gwon
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
    • /
    • v.11 no.8
    • /
    • pp.191-197
    • /
    • 2013
  • In this paper, we implemented a paper currency recognition system using IR(infrared) sensor. The system has 32 channel IR sensor to measure the reflection and penetration quantity of light. The IR image of paper currency of 10-bit gray scale is used to differentiate the real and counterfeit paper currency with image information from 0 to 4095. The characteristics of IR image are recognized by brightness and darkness and the positions of bright and dark portions are different between real and counterfeit paper currency. The price of IR sensors were relatively high, however, it is good price in these days due to mass production to apply to counterfeit detection area. We used a software table having the IR characteristics of real paper currency to compare with the IR images of the input paper currency. The performance of the implemented system shows 1-2% error rates for Euro real paper currency and 0% error rates for various counterfeit paper currencies of several countries.

Grain Yield Potential of a Low-Tillering Large Panicle Type in Rice (벼 소얼 수중형 초형의 수량성)

  • Kim, Je-Kyu;B.S., Vergara
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.37 no.4
    • /
    • pp.361-371
    • /
    • 1992
  • For the increase of grain yield potential in rice, a low-tillering large panicled type has been suggested as an ideotype. A low-tillering plant type may have different yield potential and needs different cultural practices from that used in a high-tillering type for the maximum yield. This study was conducted to evaluate the grain yield performances of a low-tillering large panicled rice and high-tillering small panicled rice at different plant spacings, nitrogen(N) levels and seedling numbers per hill. A low-tillering large panicled genotype, IR25588 was compared with a high-tillering small panicled IR58. The grain yield of IR25588 was significantly higher than that of IR58 under a narrow spacing with high N level. The maximum yields of IR58 and IR25588 were reached at about 35,000 and 40,000 spikelets per m$^2$, respectively. The increased grain yield in IR25588 was mainly due to the increase in spikelet number per unit area which is the most precise indicator of grain yield in rice. The optimum spacing for the maximum yield was denser for IR25588 than that for IR58 under high N level. The intra-hill competition of the low-tillering type was lower than that of the high-tillering type. The higher dry matter production and bigger leaf area and culm weight were the main factors for increased grain yield in a low-tillering panicle weight type. Based on the results, the yield potential of a low-tillering panicle weight type was higher than that of a high-tillering panicle number type, especially under a close spacing with high N level.

  • PDF