• Title, Summary, Keyword: Incubation

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Incubation Routine and Sex Role of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas at Sasudo Island, South Korea (사수도에서 번식하는 슴새의 포란 일정 및 성 역할)

  • Nam, Ki-Baek;Kwon, In-Ki;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2008
  • Incubation routine and sex role of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas at Sasudo Island, in Jeju, South Korea, were studied during the incubation period, June to August in 2002. Incubation routine in Procellariiformes represents a sequence of alternating shifts taken in turn by female and male in a species-specific pattern. Hence, coordination of individual incubation rhythms between partners is crucial for successful breeding attempt. In Streaked Shearwaters, incubation routine represents a sequence of alternating shifts taken in turn by male and female. The first incubation shift was made by male after female had laid the egg. The mean incubation period was 50.8 days until hatching. Males had spent on average 26.5 days incubating and females 24.3 days accordingly. The mean duration of incubation shifts decreased progressively from 6th and 7th shift to hatching. Overall, males had spent more time incubating than females during the incubation period, but the mean duration of the incubation shift 5.6 days for males and 5.7 days for females did not differ between males and females. There were no effect of the body size of the breeding pair on incubation performance. For males the mean of body weight decreased during the incubation, whereas for females it remained approximately stable. In Streaked Shearwaters, the duration of incubation shift and subsequent foraging trip are related to loss of body weight during the period of fasting. In addition, coordination of individual incubation rhythms affects their incubation behaviour.

Effect of Technology Incubation Programme on Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria

  • NDAGI, Abdulmalik
    • World Technopolis Review
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.15-43
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    • 2018
  • The lack of appropriate performance appraisal and evaluation of incubatees of technology incubation programmes in relation to entrepreneurship development in Nigeria is a major gap that needs to be bridged. This study examined the effect of selected technology incubation programme variables such as training, financing and marketing on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. A closed-ended questionnaire was used for data collection from the quota-sampled population of the six (6) geo-political zones of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data while multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that technology incubation training has a significant effect on entrepreneurial ability in Nigeria; there is a significant and positive effect of technology incubation financing on entrepreneurial funding portfolio; there is no significant impact of technology incubation marketing programme on entrepreneurial turnover; and technology incubation has no significant impact on entrepreneurial propensity. The study recommended that the National Board for Technology Incubation (NBTI) expand the training modules to capture pre, post and virtual incubatees; to facilitate access to risk funds, cheap capital and encourage establishment of venture capital; to improve on its marketing programme to encompass all marketing needs of incubatees beyond trade-fair participation. However, trade-fairs participation has a significant but limited effect on entrepreneurial turnover, while a technology incubation programme has no significant impact on entrepreneurial propensity, as only six (6) out of the twenty-nine (29) respondents started new venture from the incubation centers which are industrial training students and staff of the incubatees.

Anatomical and histological studies on the developing pancreas of chincken embryos (일령에 따른 닭 태자 췌장의 해부학적 및 조직학적 연구)

  • Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Jae-hyun;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1049-1056
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    • 1999
  • Anatomical and histological changes were studied in the dorsal, ventral, third and splenic lobes of the pancreas of the chicken embryos (8 days of incubation, 10 days of incubation to hatching). From 13 days of incubation, all four pancreatic lobes, namely, dorsal, ventral, third and splenic lobes were observed. Histologically, the pancreas of 10-14 days of incubation were consisted of mesenchymal tissue, exocrine acini and pancreatic islets. But mesenchymal tissues were disappeared from 15 days of incubation. The pancreatic ducts were observed from 14 days of incubation. The dark and light typed pancreatic islets were observed in splenic lobe from 13 days of incubation, in the third lobe from 11 days of incubation, and in the dorsal lobe from 13 days of incubation. But no dark typed islets were observed in the ventral lobes.

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Factors Affecting Incubation Rhythm of the Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor) Breeding in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea (경기만 일대에서 번식하는 저어새(Platalea minor)의 포란 행동에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Park, Jong-Hyun;Lee, Kisup;Kwon, In-Ki;Chung, Hoon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 2019
  • Our study was conducted to examine differences in incubation behavior among breeding sites and the relationship between factor affecting environmental change and incubation behavior of the Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor). We set up the remote sensor cameras at three breeding sites (Mae-do, Namdongji, Guji-do) to observe incubation behavior in Gyeonggi Bay, South Korea from 2015 to 2018. We analyzed effects of breeding year, day of incubation started, day of incubation, the time of incubation exchanges and sex on incubation bout length. Mean incubation bout length of females (Mae-do: $7.19{\pm}0.23$ hours, Namdongji: $6.08{\pm}0.23$ hours, Guji-do: $7.96{\pm}0.30$ hours) was longer than males (Mae-do: $6.14{\pm}0.21$ hours, Namdongji: $5.45{\pm}0.28$ hours, Guji-do: $7.38{\pm}0.29$ hours). Mean incubation bout length was longer in Guji-do than other study sites. Incubation bout length tended to increase with the clutch initiation date. Males incubated their eggs at day time while female did at night time, these tendencies were observed more clearly in Guji-do. The proportion of time spent incubating of females was higher than males. Males' proportion increased as incubation progressed and increased rate in Guji-do was higher than other study sites. Our results showed that incubation rhythm of the Black-faced Spoonbill differed among breeding sites and varied with the environmental cycle.

A Chinese Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Did Not Show Infectivity During the Incubation Period: Based on an Epidemiological Survey

  • Bae, Jong-Myon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.67-69
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    • 2020
  • Controversy remains over whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus may have infectivity during the incubation period before the onset of symptoms. The author had the opportunity to examine the infectivity of COVID-19 during the incubation period by conducting an epidemiological survey on a confirmed patient who had visited Jeju Island during the incubation period. The epidemiological findings support the claim that the COVID-19 virus does not have infectivity during the incubation period.

The Relationship Between Egg Incubation Period and Temperature in Several Species of Plecoptera

  • Yoshimura, Mayumi
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.spc
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 2005
  • Egg incubation periods of 14 species of plecoptera were examined at $10^{\circ}\;{\sim}\;11^{\circ}C$, $15^{\circ}\;{\sim}\;16^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$, and $23^{\circ}C$ under dark conditions. The total effective temperature (TET) was calculated by multiplying mean egg incubation days and water temperature of incubation periods. The relation between the TET and the incubation temperature was used to compare the life cycle of respective species. Perlodid species had higher TET values with a positive relation to incubation temperature than those of other species. Perlid species had low TET values in the 14 species with negative to variable relation, and Chloroperlid species showed variable to positive relations to incubation temperature. These results suggest that the relation between the TET and the water temperature reflected on their habitat of respective species.

Histological and immunohistochemical studies on the duodenum of the chicken embryos (닭 태자의 십이지장에 대한 조직학적 및 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Ku, Sae-kwang;Park, Ki-dae;Lee, Jae-hyun;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.704-711
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    • 1998
  • With histological changes, ontogeny and relative frequencies of bovine Sp-1/chromogranin(bCG)-, serotonin-, gastrin-, cholecystokinin-8(CCK-8)-, somatostatin-, S-100 protein-, polypeptide YY(PYY)- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells were investigated in the duodenum of the chicken embryos from 10 days of incubation to hatching. Histologically, pseudostraitified columnar epithelium were observed from 10 days of incubation to 14 days of incubation, thereafter these epithelium were differentiated to simple columnar epithelium. $Liberk{\ddot{u}}hn$ glands were observed from 18 days of incubation and goblet cells were detected from hatching. In the duodenum, bCG-immunoreactive cells were detected from 14 days of incubation and increased to 18 days of incubation, thereafter decreased with ages. Serotonin-immunorecative cells were detected from 14 days of incubation and increased with ages. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were detected from 14 days of incubation and CCK-immunoreactive cells were detected from 19 days of incubation. No gastrin-, S-100 protein-, PYY-, glucagon-immunoreactive cells were detected in this study.

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Histological and immunohistochemical studies on the gizzard and pylorus regions of the chicken embryos (닭 태자의 근육위와 유문부에 대한 조직학적 및 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-hyun;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.686-695
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    • 1998
  • Histological changes, distributions and relative frequencies of bovine Sp-1/chromogranin (bCG)-, serotonin-, gastrin-, cholecystokinin-8(CCK-8)-, somatostatin-, S-100 protein-, polypeptide YY(PYY)- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells were investigated in the gizzard and pylorus of the chicken embryos from 10 days of incubation to hatching. Histologically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium were observed from 10 days of incubation to 15 days of incubation, thereafter these epithelium were differentiated to simple columnar epithelium, gastric gland and/or mucosal gland. In the gizzard, bCG-immunoreactive cells were observed from 19 days of incubation and S-100 protein-immunoreactive cells were detected from 15 days of incubation to 18 days of incubation. No serotonin-, gastrin-, CCK-8-, somatostatin-, PYY- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells were found in this region. In the pylorus, bCG-, gastrin- and somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were observed from 16 days of incubation respectively, thereafter these cells were increased with ages. CCK-8-immunoreactive cells were detected on hatching and S-100 protein-immunoreactive cells were detected from 16 days of incubation to 18 days of incubation. No serotonin-, PYY- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells were observed in this region.

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The "open incubation model": deriving community-driven value and innovation in the incubation process

  • Xenia, Ziouvelou;Eri, Giannaka;Raimund, Brochler
    • World Technopolis Review
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 2015
  • Globalization, increasing technological advancements and dynamic knowledge diffusion are moving our world closer together at a unique scale and pace. At the same time, our rapidly changing society is confronted with major challenges ranging from demographic to economic ones; challenges that necessitate highly innovative solutions, forcing us to reconsider the way that we actually innovate and create shared value. As such the linear, centralized innovation models of the past need to be replaced with new approaches; approaches that are based upon an open and collaborative, global network perspective where all innovation actors strategically network and collaborate, openly distribute their ideas and co-innovate/co-create in a global context utilizing our society's full innovation potential (Innovation 4.0 - Open Innovation 2.0). These emerging innovation paradigms create "an opportunity for a new entrepreneurial renaissance which can drive a Cambrian like explosion of sustainable wealth creation" (Curley 2013). Thus, in order to materialize this entrepreneurial renaissance, it is critical not only to value but also to actively employ this new innovation paradigms so as to derive community-driven shared value that stems from global innovation networks. This paper argues that there is a gap in existing business incubation model that needs to be filled, in that the innovation and entrepreneurship community cannot afford to ignore the emerging innovation paradigms and rely upon closed incubation models but has to adopt an "open incubation" (Ziouvelou 2013). The open incubation model is based on the principles of open innovation, crowdsourcing and co-creation of shared value and enables individual users and innovation stakeholders to strategically network, find collaborators and partners, co-create ideas and prototypes, share their ideas/prototypes and utilize the wisdom of the crowd to assess the value of these project ideas/prototypes, while at the same time find connections/partners, business and technical information, knowledge on start-up related topics, online tools, online content, open data and open educational material and most importantly access to capital and crowd-funding. By introducing a new incubation phase, namely the "interest phase", open incubation bridges the gap between entrepreneurial need and action and addresses the wantpreneurial needs during the innovation conception phase. In this context one such ecosystem that aligns fully with the open incubation model and theoretical approach, is the VOICE ecosystem. VOICE is an international, community-driven innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem based on open innovation, crowdsourcing and co-creation principles that has no physical location as opposed to traditional business incubators. VOICE aims to tap into the collective intelligence of the crowd and turn their entrepreneurial interest or need into a collaborative project that will result into a prototype and to a successful "crowd-venture".

Effect of Bean Water Concentration and Incubation Time of Yukwa Paste and Packaging Method on the Quality of Yukwa (유과 반죽의 콩물 농도 및 Incubation time과 포장방법이 유과의 저장 중 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Mi-Na;Jeon, Hyeong-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.294-300
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    • 2001
  • Effect of bean water concentration and incubation time of Yukwa paste as well as packaging method on the quality of Yukwa was investigated. Quality loss in Yukwa during storage was dependent on the packaging method such as bamboo packaging at $30^{\circ}C$, nitrogen packaging at $30^{\circ}C$ and LDPE packaging at $-18^{\circ}C$. Peroxide value increased with bean water concentration, but showed no significant difference by incubation time. The hardness of Yukwa decreased with the increase of bean water concentration, incubation time, and storage time but showed no significant difference by packaging method. Sensory evaluation after storage for 3 months showed that Yukwa color was significantly influenced by packaging method and bean water concentration. The volume was also significantly influenced by bean water concentration and incubation time. Off-flavor showed significant difference by storage method. Tenderness, taste and overall desirability showed significant difference by bean water concentration. Crispness showed significant difference by storage method and bean water concentration.

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