• Title/Summary/Keyword: India

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A Study on the Efficacy for Promising Ex-Importable Items of CEPA between Korea & India - Focused on the Ex-Import Performance in 2010 - (한.인도 CEPA 수출입유망품목의 효과 연구 - 2010년 수출입실적을 중심으로 -)

  • Lim, Mok-Sam
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.49
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    • pp.545-566
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    • 2011
  • This paper study on the effect of the removal or reduction of the tariff on Korea-India trade by CEPA between Korea & India and then examines the effects of increased exports & imports to Korea on India. Despite the analysis is based on data over a short period of time, this paper shows that CEPA between Korea & India has substantially increased Korean exports(42.7%) and imports(37%) to India in 2010. It is also shown that CEPA between Korea & India has had a considerable impact on market. As a result can be summarized as follows. The potential fields of expanding the trade between the two countries due to the tariff concessions of the removal or reduction. Consequently the effect of the removal or reduction of tariff will be low our expectation but CEPA between Korea & India would have a positive effect on Korea's exports to India in the long term. This paper has examined the impact of CEPA between Korea & India on general economy. It needs a further study to estimate trade diversion effect of CEPA and to find out the impacts on specific industry.

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Silk and Cotton Textiles, the Principal Maritime Trade Commodities of Ancient India

  • DAYALAN, Duraiswamy
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 2021
  • India has had a rich and diverse textile tradition since the 3rd millennium BCE. The origin of Indian textiles can be traced back to the Harappan period. Owing to the hot and humid climate in most parts of India, cotton has remained India's favourite choice of fabric for normal use. Thus, India is supposed to be the first nation to have grown, woven, and patterned cotton fabrics. Moreover, India is one of the leading cotton-growing countries in the world. The earliest occurrence of cotton thread in India is roughly datable to 4000 BCE and of dyed fabrics to about 2500 BCE. Large numbers of needles and spindle-whorls found in Harappa and other early historic sites in India reveal the prosperous state of textile production and its trade in the early period. The textile producers used a wide range of skills to process raw materials and make regionally idiosyncratic dyes, weaves, prints, and embroideries. Additionally, the silk from wild indigenous forms of silkworms was known in the Indian sub-continent roughly contemporary with the earliest clear archaeological evidence for silk in China. The analysis of thread fragments found inside a copper bangle and ornament from Harappa and steatite beads from Chanhu-daro, have yielded silk fibers dating to 2500-2000 BCE. Apart from other products, cotton and silk textiles were important export materials from India right from the Harappan period. Actually, the sea-borne trade had played an important role in the economic growth and prosperity of the Harappan civilization. Several ancient seaports in the entire coastline of India played a vital role in the maritime trade during the Harappan period and cotton and silk textiles of Indian origin have been found in various countries. The contemporary writings and epigraphy have also attested to the vast maritime trade network of India and the export of textile materials. The paper discusses in detail the origin and development of cotton and silk textile production in India through the ages and its role in maritime trade networks.

A Study of Costumes of India - Focusing on Distribution and Localization of Tailored Garment (인도 복식에 관한 고찰 -바지의 전파와 토착화를 중심으로-)

  • 유수경
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.941-955
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the researcher investigated how tailored garment were accepted and developed in India where the traditional costumes, such as Sari and Dhothi, excluding the tailored process, were mainly worn. It is suspected that pants and coats were first introduced during the Kushan Dynasty but they scarcely influenced on the costumes of India. In the 7th Century when Islam made its entrance in India, pants and coats were not accepted in India due to the exclusive attitudes of Indians, Hindu. Pants and coats were worn locally as Indian costumes through the Islamic Mughul Empire in the 16th Century. During that period, the cultural exchange between Islam and Hindu made the change of the clothes of India reflected the mixing of Islamic and Hindu elements. The colonization of India by Great Britain that was the turning point for diverse kinds of tailored garment in the costume history of India inasmuch as western elements were introduced. The western style tailored method and design changed the appearance of Indian pants into slimmer style. The style spread and influenced on the design of indian clothes greatly; hence, western style shirts and coats were accepted in India.

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Progress of renewable energy in India

  • Kar, Sanjay Kumar;Gopakumar, K.
    • Advances in Energy Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.97-115
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    • 2015
  • Energy holds key to economic growth and prosperity of India. Currently, India has very high-energy import dependence, especially in the case of crude oil (80%) and natural gas (40%). Even coal import has been increasing over the years. Considering India's population growth, emphasis on manufacturing, production, and service industry, energy consumption is bound to increase. More fossil energy consumption means greater dependence on energy import leading to widening trade deficit and current account deficit. Therefore, exploitation of indigenous renewable energy production is necessary. The paper reviews the progress and growth of renewable energy production, distribution, and consumption in India. The paper highlights some of the enablers of renewable energy in India. The authors discuss the opportunities and challenges of increasing share of renewable energy to reduce energy import and address issues of energy security in India. The findings suggest that India is ready for a quantum leap in renewable production by 2022.

Cases of Disputes and Patterns of Dispute Resolution in the Area of Public-Private Partnership(PPP) in India (인도의 민관협력사업(PPP): 분쟁사례와 분쟁해결유형)

  • Chung, Yongkyun
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.47-76
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    • 2021
  • India is one of the fast growing country in the world. For the acceleration of economic growth of India, it is indispensable for Indian government to construct infrastructure, such as railroad, airport, harbor, power plant, and water management system. For example, Modi, prime minister of federal government of India proclaimed that Indian government plans to construct 100 smart cities in 2015. In recent times, India is expected to be the largest recipient of Public-Private Partnership(PPP) type projects in the world. Owing to PPP, it is possible for India to pursue her objective to transform the whole economy into digital economy beyond agricultural society. One of major problem related with implementation of PPP type projects is the growth of disputes concomitant to the rising phenomena of PPP type projects in order to build infrastructure in India. Because of this, non-negligible number of projects has been cancelled during last two decades. This study investigates seven failure cases of PPP in India. Those include Nabi mumbai airport, Dabhol power plant, Munbai water project, and Kolkata subway project. Main types of dispute resolution are mediation or conciliation, dispute review board, arbitration, expert adjudication in PPP.

Extending Application of the 'Hardcore' Definition to Smokeless Tobacco Use: Estimates from a Nationally Representative Population in India and its Implications

  • Jena, Pratap Kumar;Bandyopadhyay, Chandan;Mathur, Manu Raj;Das, Sagarika
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.5959-5963
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    • 2012
  • Background: The term 'hardcore' has been applied to use of smoking tobacco and generally referred to as the inability or unwillingness of regular smokers to quit. The component constructs of hardcore except nicotine dependence are product neutral. With the use of 'time to first chew' as a measure of nicotine dependence, hardcore definition can be extended to characterize smokeless tobacco users. Hardcore users respond less to tobacco cessation interventions, and are prone to tobacco induced diseases including cancer. Thus identifying hardcore users would help in estimate the burden of high risk population for tobacco induced diseases. Smokeless tobacco use is predominant and accounts for more than 50% of oral cancer in India. Hence, hardcore chewing information could be used for planning of tobacco and cancer control interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)-India 2010 data were analyzed to quantify hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India with following five criteria: (1) current daily smokeless tobacco use; (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration; (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting; (4) time to first use of smokeless tobacco product within 30 minutes of waking up; and (5) knowledge of smokeless tobacco hazards. Results: The number of hardcore smokeless tobacco users among adult Indians is estimated to be 5% (39.5 million). This group comprises 23.2% of daily smokeless tobacco users. The population prevalence varied from 1.4-9.1% across different national regions of India. Logistic regression modeling indicated age, education and employment status to be the major predictors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Conclusions: The presence of a huge number (39.5 million) of hardcore smokeless tobacco users is a challenge to tobacco control and cancer prevention in India. There is an unmet need for a universal tobacco cessation programme and intensification of anti-tobacco education in communities.

Type-Specific Incidence and Persistence of HPV Infection among Young Women: A Prospective Study in North India

  • Datta, Palika;Bhatla, Neerja;Pandey, R.M.;Dar, Lalit;Patro, A. Rajkumar;Vasisht, Shachi;Kriplani, Alka;Singh, Neeta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1019-1024
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    • 2012
  • Background: Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are highly prevalent among sexually active young women in India. However, not much is known about the incidence of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their patterns of persistence, especially in the Indian context. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of acquisition and persistence of HPV types in young women. Methods: Women residing in an urban slum in Delhi (n=1300) were followed for 24 months at 6 monthly intervals. Exfoliated cervical cells collected at each visit were tested for the presence of HPV DNA. Genotyping was performed using the reverse line blot assay. Results: The incidence rate for any HPV type was calculated to be 5 per 1000 women-months. Among high risk HPV types, HPV16 had the highest incidence rate followed by HPV59, HPV52 and HPV18, i.e., 3.0, 0.58, 0.41 and 0.35 women per 1000 women-months respectively. The persistence rate was higher for high-risk than low-risk HPV types. Among low-risk types, HPV42, HPV62, HPV84 and HPV89 were found to persist. Whereas almost all high risk types showed persistence, the highest rate was found in women with HPV types 16, 45, 67, 31, 51 and 59. The persistence rate for HPV16 infection was 45 per 1000 women-months. Conclusion: Incident HPV infections and high risk HPV type-specific persistence were found to be high in our study population of young married women. Understanding the patterns of HPV infection may help plan appropriate strategies for prevention programs including vaccination and screening.

Ancient Seaports on the Western Coast of India: The Hub of the Maritime Silk Route Network

  • DAYALAN, DURAISWAMY
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.49-72
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    • 2018
  • The extensive maritime trade network between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the $3^{rd}$ millennium BCE is a testimony to the long maritime trade history of India. From the dawn of the historical epoch, the maritime trade network of India expanded extensively. The findings of a large number of coins, pottery, amphorae and other materials from Italy and various other European countries, west Asia, China, Korea, Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and Far-East countries in India, particularly in the coastal regions, are a testimony to the dynamic maritime trade of India with other countries in the early period. Similarly, pottery, sculptures, inscriptions and other materials of Indian origin are also found in those countries. The depiction of different types of ships on the coins, paintings, sculptures, seals and sealing, exhibit the variety of vessels used for navigation and other purposes in the early period. The over 7500 km-long coastline of India is well known for its seaports located at river mouths or outlets to the sea. The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Ptolemy, and Indian literary sources mention many seaports on the western coast of India. Interestingly, archaeological investigations in many of these port towns have yielded material evidence exhibiting their dominant role in transoceanic trade and commerce with many countries in the early period. This paper discusses in detail all the major ancient seaports on the western coast of India and their maritime trade activities. At the outset, the paper briefly deals with the Harappan's maritime network, their seaports and the type of ships of that period. Following this, the maritime trade network of India during the historical period with various countries in the east and west, the traces of Indian influence and materials abroad and foreign materials found in India, the products exported from India, the trade winds and navigational devices and the depiction of ships on the coins, paintings, and sculptures of the period are discussed in detail. After briefly highlighting the coastline of India and its favourable nature for safe anchorage of ships and the strategic position of the seaports of western India, an extensive account of the major ancient seaports of western India like Barygaza, Ashtacampra, Gundigar, Kammoni, Khambhat, Bardaxema, Suparaka, Calliena, Semylla, Sanjan, Naura, Tyndis, Muziris, Nelcynda and other seaports, and their maritime trade activities are given based on archaeological excavations and explorations, literature, epigraphy, foreign accounts, and numismatic evidence.