• Title, Summary, Keyword: Indirect Cost Model

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Ratio Estimation of Indirect Cost Sector about Defense Companies by Statistic Technique (통계 기법에 의한 방산업체의 간접원가부문 비율 추정)

  • Lim, Hyeoncheol;Kim, Suhwan
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.246-252
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    • 2017
  • In the defense acquisition, a company's goal is to maximize profits, and the government's goal is to allocate budgets efficiently. Each year, the government estimates the ratio of indirect cost sector to defense companies, and estimates the ratio to be applied when calculating cost of the defense articles next year. The defense industry environment is changing rapidly, due to the increasing trend of defense acquisition budgets, the advancement of weapon systems, the effects of the 4th industrial revolution, and so on. As a result, the cost structure of defense companies is being diversifying. The purpose of this study is to find an alternative that can enhance the rationality of the current methodology for estimating the ratio of indirect cost sector of defense companies. To do this, we conducted data analysis using the R language on the cost data of defense companies over the past six years in the Defense Integrated Cost System. First, cluster analysis was conducted on the cost characteristics of defense companies. Then, we conducted a regression analysis of the relationship between direct and indirect costs for each cluster to see how much it reflects the cost structure of defense companies in direct labor cost-based indirect cost rate estimates. Lastly a new ratio prediction model based on regularized regression analysis was developed, applied to each cluster, and analyzed to compare performance with existing prediction models. According to the results of the study, it is necessary to estimate the indirect cost ratio based on the cost character group of defense companies, and the direct labor cost based indirect cost ratio estimation partially reflects the cost structure of defense companies. In addition, the current indirect cost ratio prediction method has a larger error than the new model.

Application of Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing(TDABC) for Total Productive Maintenance(TPM) and Cost of Quality(COQ) Processes (TPM과 COQ 프로세스에서 시간동인 ABC시스템의 활용)

  • Choi, Sungwoon
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.321-335
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    • 2015
  • This study introduces the methods to apply and develop the integrated Cost of Quality (COQ) and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC) model for seeking not only quality improvement but also reduction of overhead cost. Inefficient and uneconomical COQ activities can be identified by using time driver which also maximizes the quality improvement for Prevention-Appraisal- Failure (PAF) quality costs. In contrast, reduction of the indirect cost of unused capacity resource using Quality Cost Capacity Ratio (QCCR) of TDABC minimizes overhead cost for COQ activities. In addition, linkage between Overall Equipment Effective (OEE) and Time Driver develops the integrated system of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and TDABC model. Lean OEE maximizes when an Unused Time (UT) of TDABC that are TPM losses and lean wastes reduces whereas the TPM Cost Capacity Ratio (TCCR) of TDABC minimizes indirect cost for non-value added TPM activities. Numerical examples are derived to better understand the proposed COQ/TDABC model and TPM/TDABC model from this paper. From the proposed model, process mapping and time driver of TDABC are known to lessen indirect cost from general ledger of comprehensive income statement with a better quality innovation and improvement of equipment.

Evaluating the Economic Damages to Anglers of the Marine Recreational Charter due to the Herbei Spirit Vessel Oil Spill (허베이 스피리트호의 기름유출에 따른 바다유어낚시어선 이용객의 경제적 손실평가연구)

  • Pyo, Heedong
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.289-302
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    • 2014
  • This paper aims to evaluate the indirect economic damages to anglers of the marine recreational charter caused by marine pollution associated with the Herbei Spirit vessel, which spilled 12,547 kl of crude oil in Taean coastal areas in December 2007. In order to evaluate the indirect cost to anglers of the charter fishing, consumer surplus for charter fishing is estimated using a Poisson model (PM), a negative binomial model (NBM), a truncated Poisson model (TPM), and a truncated negative binomial model (TNBM), which account for the characteristics of count data (non-negative discrete data), for individual travel cost method (ITCM). Because of over-dispersion problem in PM and TPM, NBM and TNBM are considered to be more appropriate statistically. All parameters such as income, fishing careers, travel cost and catch that are estimated are statistically significant and theoretically valid. Based on TNBM results, consumer surplus per trip and per person was estimated to be 277 thousand won, total consumer surplus per person and per year about 2.3 million won, and the marginal effect of consumer surplus on % changes in catch rate is about 33 thousand won. The consumer surplus was converted into total indirect economic damages for aggregation which are evaluated to be 125 billion won, reflecting the number of anglers and damage rate.

Optimum Life-Cycle Cost Design of Steel Bridges (강교의 생애주기비용 최적설계)

  • Cho, Hyo-Nam;Lee, Kwang-Min;Kim, Jung-Ho;Choi, Young-Min;Bong, Youn-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.341-358
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    • 2003
  • This paper proposed a general formulation of Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) models and LCC effective design system models of steel bridges suitable for practical implementation. An LCC model for the optimum design of steel bridges included initial cost and direct/indirect rehabilitation costs of a steel bridge as well as repair/replacement costs, loss of contents or fatality and injury losses, road user costs, and indirect socioeconomic losses. The new road user cost model and regional socioeconomic losses model were especially considered because of the traffic network. Illustrative design examples of an actual steel box girder and an orthotropic steel deck bridge were discussed to demonstrate the LCC effectiveness of the design of steel bridges. Based on the results of the numerical investigation, the LCC-effective optimum design of steel bridges based on the proposed LCC model was found to lead to a more rational, economical, and safer design compared with the initial cost-optimum design and the conventional code-based design.

The Calculation Method for Prolongation cost of Sub-Constract in Domestic Public Construction Project (국내 공공 공사 하도급계약 공기연장 추가간접비 산정방안)

  • Jeong, Kichang;Lee, Jaeseob
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2018
  • Research on additional indirect cost due to construction period extension in general contracts has continuously been active whereas the same for the subcontract operations has not been. In this research, we review previous research on evaluation methods for additional indirect costs which are widely being used on construction sites as well as previously proposed methods altogether, applying them to analyze model-cases for comparison. We acknowledge that this pattern for construction cost fluctuation over the construction period demonstrates an S-curve. This S-curve shaped indirect cost occurrence is then used to generate model-cases that are used throughout the research which models we applied previous evaluation methods on. Finally in pursuit of finding out some problems of evaluation methods, we came to derive a conclusion that the "Average Actual Cost Evaluation Method on Extended Duration," which, in turn, were proved to be valid for application on general contracts, was also valid for general application on subcontractor operations.

A Study on the Cost Estimation in Case of Termination in the Building Construction Contract (건축공사 계약해지에 따른 비용산정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ho-Il;Choi, In-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2003
  • Financial difficulties and claims frequently stop construction works and cause subsequent contract cancellations. However, as the criteria to assess costs have not been established, many cases of legal disputes over the assessment of cancellation costs are taking place and the concerned parties are suffering the loss of time and money. Therefore, the present research aimed at developing a rational and systematic model of cancellation cost assessment following the cancellation of contracts. The research was carried out in the following methods and scopes. 1 ) The research was focused on the assessment of fair cancellation costs from constructors' side for contracts cancelled by any causes for which the owners have liability. 2) To obtain basic materials about cancellation cost assessment methods, contracts, claims, contract cancellations and construction-related laws at home and abroad were examined. 3) A cost assessment model was developed for systematization and efficient operation of cancellation cost assessment, and the reliability and efficiency of the proposed model was verified through a case study. The conclusions drawn from the research are as follows. The importance of the cancellation cost assessment model was confirmed as, using the cancellation cost assessment model, direct cancellation cost and indirect cancellation cost could be assessed systematically, the number of disputable items could be reduced because reasonable evidences of actual spending were presented, and the loss of constructors could be minimized because systematic and rational cost assessment became possible for many disputable cases of indirect cancellation cost, which the constructors had been unable to prove so far though having spent.

Development of Regression Model to evaluate the indirect costs of Life-Cycle Costs (생애주기비용의 간접비용 산출을 위한 Regression Model의 개발)

  • 조효남;이종순;김충완;박경훈
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2004
  • Though the concept of Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) itself is not new, its effectiveness for planning, design, rehabilitation and maintenance/management of civil infrastructures is becoming increasingly recognized. For the decision problems as in the case of the LCC of plant facilities, equipments, bridge decks, pavements, etc., the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is relatively simple, and thus its practical implementation is rather straightforward. However, when it comes to major infrastructures such as bridge, tunnels, underground facilities, etc., the LCCA problem becomes extremely complex because lack of cost data associated with various direct and indirect losses, and the absence of uncertainty data available for the assessment as well. As a result, the LCC studies have been largely limited only to those relatively simple LCCA problems of planning or conceptual design for making decisions. Accordingly, in the recent years, the researchers have pursued extensive studies on the LCC effectiveness mostly related to LCC models and frameworks for civil infrastructures. Moreover, recently the demand on the practical application of LCC effective decisions in design and maintenance is rapidly growing unprecedently in civil engineering practice. Indirction cost is very important on LCC formulation. But that is very difficult and complicate the estimation every LCC. The objective of this paper is to suggest efficient regression model for the estimation of indirect cost approach to the practical application of LCC for the design and rehabilitation of civil. infrastructures considering traffic, traffic network, detour condition, and workzone condition. In this paper, it performed the sensitivity analysis and correlation analysis of parameter for development of regression model of inflection cost.

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Indirect Kalman Filter based Sensor Fusion for Error Compensation of Low-Cost Inertial Sensors and Its Application to Attitude and Position Determination of Small Flying robot (저가 관성센서의 오차보상을 위한 간접형 칼만필터 기반 센서융합과 소형 비행로봇의 자세 및 위치결정)

  • Park, Mun-Soo;Hong, Suk-Kyo
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.637-648
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    • 2007
  • This paper presents a sensor fusion method based on indirect Kalman filter(IKF) for error compensation of low-cost inertial sensors and its application to the determination of attitude and position of small flying robots. First, the analysis of the measurement error characteristics to zero input is performed, focusing on the bias due to the temperature variation, to derive a simple nonlinear bias model of low-cost inertial sensors. Moreover, from the experimental results that the coefficients of this bias model possess non-deterministic (stochastic) uncertainties, the bias of low-cost inertial sensors is characterized as consisting of both deterministic and stochastic bias terms. Then, IKF is derived to improve long term stability dominated by the stochastic bias error, fusing low-cost inertial sensor measurements compensated by the deterministic bias model with non-inertial sensor measurement. In addition, in case of using intermittent non-inertial sensor measurements due to the unreliable data link, the upper and lower bounds of the state estimation error covariance matrix of discrete-time IKF are analyzed by solving stochastic algebraic Riccati equation and it is shown that they are dependant on the throughput of the data link and sampling period. To evaluate the performance of proposed method, experimental results of IKF for the attitude determination of a small flying robot are presented in comparison with that of extended Kaman filter which compensates only deterministic bias error model.

A Study on Interaction of Cause and Effect among Personal Involvement, Satisfaction, Trust, Switching Cost and Loyalty Regarding Casual Dining Restaurant (레스토랑에 대한 소비자의 개인적 관여도와 만족, 신뢰, 전환비용, 충성도의 인과관계 연구)

  • Cho, Woo-Je
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.496-505
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to provide basic data and insight into behaviors that result in increased continuous sales and competitiveness. This was done by examining the effect of personal involvement on customer satisfaction and trust, the effect of customer satisfaction on switching cost and loyalty, the effect of trust on switching cost and loyalty and by analyzing the indirect effect of trust and loyalty to personal involvement on switching cost and loyalty of the patrons of casual dining restaurants. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a hypothesis and structural equation were proposed based on preceding research and the proposed model was analyzed using LISREL 8.30 to prove the hypothesis and better understand the interactions between the cause and effect. The results were as follows: Six proposed hypothesis were chosen and the indirect effect was verified. In other words, customers' personal involvement was shown to have an effect on trust and devotion and satisfaction influenced switching cost and loyalty. Trust had an effect on switching cost and loyalty and by analyzing the indirect effect the customers' personal involvement was shown to affect the switching cost and loyalty through satisfaction and trust. The result of this analysis provides clues to better understand the eating-out behavior of customers and proves that personal involvement, satisfaction, trust, switching cost and loyalty are directly and indirectly related.

A Simulation Analysis of Producton/Inventory Policy with Interference (간섭현상을 고려한 생산/재고 정책의 시뮬레이션 분석)

  • 박회룡;최진영
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.18 no.35
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 1995
  • For the purpose of the reduction of tile cost, a production/inventory model including the interference phenomenon was developed. By investigating the cause and the characteristics of the direct/indirect cost due to the interference phenomenon, a strategy for suitable production was developed. The developed model was quantitatively validated using an existing-EPQ model and the SIMAN package was used to simulate and animate the model. Consequently, it was presented that the total operating cost of the system could be decreased with tile proposed model.

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