• Title, Summary, Keyword: Indirect moxibustion

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A Study of Comparing Thermal Stimulation between Commercial Indirect Moxibustion and Traditional Indirect Moxibustion (격물구와 상용 간접구의 온열자극 비교 연구)

  • Jang, Min-Ki;Kim, Eun-Jung;Jung, Chan-Yung;Yoon, Eun-Hye;Hwang, Ji-Hoo;Kim, Kap-Sung;Choi, In-Hwa;Lee, Seung-Deok
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2010
  • Backgrounds : Recently, commercial indirect moxibustion has been widely used as a substitute for traditional indirect moxibustion by clinicians due to its convenience in using. But, there has been lack of studies about the similarity of thermal stimulation between commercial indirect moxibustion and traditional indirect moxibustion. Objectives : To demonstrate commercial indirect moxibustion can substitute for traditional indirect moxibustion by comparing thermal stimulation between the two. Methods : We measured bottom temperature of commercial indirect moxibustion and traditional indirect moxibustion with various thicknesses of ginger and garlic. A clinical trial was performed on 18 healthy subjects to evaluate thermal stimualtion. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, traditional indirect moxibustion with ginger and garlic. The skin temperature and heating time were measured. They received moxibustion therapy with commercial indirect moxibustion and traditional indirect moxibustion according to their groups. Acupoint Chogcoe($LU_6$), Zusanli($ST_{36}$) and Tianshu($ST_{25}$) were used in each group for 3 times. Results : There was no difference in bottom temperature among commercial indirect moxibustion, traditional indirect moxibustion with 2mm ginger and 3mm garlic. No major difference was detected in the subjects' baseline data. There was no difference in skin temperature and heating time among these 3 type of moxibustions. Also, No major difference was detected in VAS score of thermal stimulation and frequency of burns among these 3 type of moxibustions. But, most subjects regarded their sensation weren't identical because of its own distinct characteristics. Conclusions : Commercial indirect moxibustion, traditional indirect moxibustion with 2mm ginger and 3mm garlic have same thermal stimulation. Thus, commercial indirect moxibustion can substitute for traditional indirect moxibustion.

Usage of Medicinal Moxibustion for the improvement of Moxibustion Treatment Procedure (灸((구)쑥뜸)시술행위의 개선을 위한 藥灸劑(약구제)의 활용)

  • Lee, Bookyun;Kim, Chang-Min;Lee, Jang-Cheon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.99-113
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: To provide theoretical basis for the classification of medicinal moxibustion(藥灸劑) in Health Insurance Medical Benefit in Korea through investigating trend of judicial precedents on indirect moxibustion and usage of medicinal moxibustion in "Donguibogam". Methods: We analyzed statistical data of moxibustion from Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service and National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook. We investigated major judicial precedents on indirect moxibustion to find out some trend and we searched the usages of medicinal moxibustion in "ZhenJiuDaCheng" and "Donguibogam". Results: According to recent judicial precedents, indirect moxibustion with equipment is no loner regarded as Korean Medical Procedure. In composition of 'Oriental Health Treatment', amount for acupuncture has gradually decreased instead, amount for moxibustion has increased steadily for 5 years. Medicinal moxibustion(藥灸劑) is often used as a form of indirect medicinal moxibustion with moxa in "Donguibogam". Argyi Folium, Moschus, Natrii Chloridium, Radix Preparata, Realgar and Olibanum are most frequently used for medicinal moxibustion in "Donguibogam". Medicinal moxibustions are composed of simple prescription or herb-pair or multiple prescription in "Donguibogam". Conclusions: In Health Insurance Medical Benefit in Korea, under the division of moxibustion, direct medicinal moxibustion and indirect medicinal moxibustion should be classified in addition.

Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Combustion in Indirect Moxibustion with Garlic (마늘뜸의 연소특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Geon-mok;Lee, Geon-hyee;Cho, Nam-geun;Park, So-young
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.31-51
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    • 2004
  • Objective: The propose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of combustion in indirect moxibustion with garlic. Methods: We observed the characteristics of combustion by the variations of the thickness(3mm, 4mm, 5mm) of a slice for indirect moxibustion with garlic and mass(80mg, 100mg, 120mg) of moxa cone and existence of holes. The temperature of indirect moxibustion for garlic insulation with holes was higher than temperature of indirect moxibustion for garlic insulation without holes. Combustions time in the preheating period is about 1 minute, it varies by the existence of holes, the thickness of a slice for indirect moxibustion with garlic, and the density of moxa cone. Results: Maximum temperature of heating period was $38.7{\sim}46.2^{\circ}C$, combustion time in the heating period was 118~164sec and maximum ascending temperature gradient was $0.102{\sim}0.264^{\circ}C/sec$. Retaining period was shorter than heating period and stimulus of heating retains more, because it is higher than body temperature. By this report, indirect moxibustion with garlic is more effective with holes and the appropriate thickness of a slice for indirect moxibustion with garlic is 3.5~4mm. It is appropriate that the diameter of moxa cone is 8mm and height of that is 10mm. With this condition, effective combustion period is 120sec, maximum temperature is $42{\sim}44^{\circ}C$, maximum ascending temperature gradient is $0.14{\sim}0.16^{\circ}C/sec$. It is necessary to study clinical correlations for more accurate quantitative standard.

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A Comparative Study on Buffer Characteristic of Indirect Moxibustion (격물구(隔物灸)의 격물(隔物) 특성에 따른 온열자극 비교연구)

  • Wang, Kai-Hsia;Kim, Eun-Jung;Cho, Hyun-Seok;Kim, Kap-Sung;Lee, Seung-Deok;Kim, Kyung-Ho
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : Indirect moxibustion is one of the thermotherapy in Korean medicine and buffer of ginger and mankshood slice are common materials to be used. However it is difficult to control the power of thermal stimulation and the stimulation is greatly influenced by the characteristic of buffer. So we research on the buffer characteristic of indirect moxibustion according to the thickness, diameter and water content changes. Methods : We used thermocouples to measure temperature from surface to depth of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14mm on tissue model and calculated peak temperature($^{\circ}C$). The data were analyzed with student t-test and one-way ANOVA(p<0.05). Results : 1. The peak temperature of indirect moxibustion with ginger were determined by thickness of ginger slice and temperature changes according to the thickness at intervals of 1mm but according to the diameter at intervals of 4mm. 2. The peak temperature of indirect moxibustion with mankshood were determined by thickness of mankshood slice also. The peak temperature of mankshood moxibustion was higher than that of ginger moxibustion. 3. In this study, 2mm-thick-ginger slice and 3mm-thick-mankshood slice were suitable for indirect moxibustion. Variation in the thickness of which is more efficient to control the power of thermal stimulation on indirect moxibustion. 4. The more water loss we got on ginger slice, the higher peak temperature we measured at the surface of moxibustion. But the thermal stimulation was not conducted more than 2mm in the depth. 5. The thickness and water content of buffer are important in indirect moxibustion. Conclusions : The temperature of indirect moxibustion depends on the thickness of buffer than the diameter of it. Therefore, it is more efficient according to the thickness of buffer so that we control the power of thermal stimulation. And water content of buffer is one of the important factor in indirect moxibustion.

Investigation of the Temperature Change and Quantity of Heat Stimulus of the Commercial Indirect Moxibustion (상용 간접구의 연소형태와 열자극량에 대한 연구)

  • Kwon, O-Sang;Lee, Sang-Hun;Cho, Sung-Jin;Choi, Kwang-Ho;Choi, Sun-Mi;Ryu, Yeon-Hee
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : In this research, relatively the characteristic in the combustion according to the brands of the commercial indirect moxibustion is compared and the commercial indirect moxibustion is standardized and this result tries to be provided as necessary basic data. Methods : After adhering to the agarose gel surface in which the thermocouple is inserted, 6 kinds of commercial indirect moxibustion were burnt off and the burning behaviour of the commercial indirect device and heat quantity of stimulus was compared. Results : 1. The form of combustion did not have a difference in 6 kinds of commercial indirect moxibustion combustion. 2. As to the miximum temperature, 'Seoam' and 'Dongbang' was higher than 'Baekryoung' and 'Taeyang'. 3. It was long so that the highest temperature reaching time of 'Seoam' could note in comparison with the other brands. And the highest temperature reaching time of 'Baekryoung' was short to note in comparison with the other brands. 4. As to the quantity of heat stimulus, 'Seoam' was the biggest and 'Baekryoung' was the smallest. 5. The quantity of heat stimulus of 'Dongbang' was the most stable. Conclusions : In this research, relatively the form of combustion of 6 kinds of commercial indirect moxibustion and heat quantity of stimulus were compared. It desires to anticipate the result that it makes the skin.

Research about Spec and Uniformity of Commercial Indirect Moxibustion (상용 간접구의 규격과 품질균일성에 대한 조사)

  • Kwon, O-Sang;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Cho, Sung-Jin;Choi, Kwang-Ho;Yeon, Sun-Hee;Lee, Sae-Bom;Choi, Sun-Mi;Ryu, Youn-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : Burn is most common adverse events of moxibustion. Various kinds of components influence on the heat stimulation of commercial indirect moxa, but there are not enough investigation about the status. The purpose of this study is to investigate the 6 components to build a base data that is currently available to build a standard of an indirect moxibustion. Methods : The length and weight, density, thickness of the paper disk, diameter of the paper disk, and diameter in the paper disk hole were measured against 6 kinds of commercial indirect cautery. Results : 1. 'Seoam', 'Kihwang' and 'Taegeuk' shows uniform length than the other brands. 2. 'Dongbang', 'Kihwang' and 'Taegeuk' shows uniform weight than the other brands. 3. 'Dongbang', 'Kihwang' and 'Taegeuk' shows uniform density than the other brands. 4. 'Dongbang' and 'Kihwang' shows uniform thickness than the other brands. 5. 'Seoam', 'Dongbang' and 'Taegeuk' shows uniform diameter of disc hole than the other brands. Conclusions : As a result of investigation, 'Dongbang' and 'Kiwhang' indirect moxibustion was identified as a uniform product. This results are considered as an important base materials of the KS through commercial indirect moxibustion.

An Experimental Study on the combustion calorie ratio to moxibustion (애구(艾灸)의 연소(燃燒) 구간별(區間別) 열량비(熱量比)에 대(對)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kang Ki-Weon;Nam Sang-Soo;Lee Jae-Dong;Choi Do-Young;Ahn Byoung-Choul;Park Dong-Seok;Lee Yun-Ho;Choi Yong-Tae
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 1998
  • In order to evaluate calorie rate of moxa-combustion(direct moxibustion=DM, indirect moxibustion with stainless steel tube=IMS, indirect moxibustion with ginger slice=IMG), calorie rate(%) in the preheating period, heating period, retaining period, and cooling period was calculated respectively to the total combustion calories in all the periods. The result are as follow: 1. Indirect moxibustion with stainless steel tube had the highest rate with the statistical significance than other groups during the preheating period, represented statistical differences between IMS group and IMG group, and also between DM group and IMS group. 2. Indirect moxibustion with ginger slice group showed the highest rate with the statistical significance and followed by DM group and IMG group during the heating period, represented statistical difference among DM, IMS, and IMG group. 3. Direct moxibustion group had the highest rate with the statistical significance than other group during the retaining period, represented statistical difference between DM group and IMG group, and also between DM group and IMS group. 4. Indirect moxibustion with stainless steel tube had the highest rate with the statistical significance than other groups during the cooling period, represented statistical differences between IMS group and IMG group, and also between IMS group and DM group.

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A Study on the Moxa-extract Moxibustion Method (약쑥엑스제 뜸 방식에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Bong-Kwan;Lee, Yoon-Ho;Yoon, Dong-Eop
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : We implemented the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method in order to improve the conventional moxibustion therapy. This method is aimed to eliminate burning wounds and smoke, which are the defects of conventional moxibustion therapy. And we performed to verify the efficiency by comparing the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method with the conventional Indirect Moxibustion Method. We measured the body heat and the lasting time of blood circulation improveent using thermography. We implemented the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method in order to improve the conventional moxibustion therapy. This method is aimed to eliminate burning wounds and smoke, which are the defects of conventional moxibustion therapy. And we performed to verify the efficiency by comparing the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method with the conventional Indirect Moxibustion Method. We measured the body heat and the lasting time of blood circulation improvement using thermography. Methods : The moxibustion therapy has two kinds of effects: The formers are pharmacological effects of the Moxa's vasodilators and antioxidants. The latters are thermal effects which cause improvement of the blood circulation. To remove the demerits without omission of above therapeutic effects, we extracted the vasodilators and antioxidant compounds from the Moxa-CH2Cl2 fraction Moxa-EtOA and composed the moxibustion kit with (Ba0.8 Sr0.2)0.996 Y0.004 TiO2 + 0.5WT SiO2% positive Temperature Coefficients Thermistor. The experimental demonstrations have been made by the stimulating the spot which is CV4(Kwan-Won), CV8(Shin-Guel), CV12(Jung-Wan) acupuncture points of the conception vessel meridian(CV). And stimulating time was one hour. We divided the subjects into 5 groups such as no stimulation group, conventional Indirect Moxibustion group, only Moxa-Extract stimulation group, only heat stimulation group, and Moxa-Extract Moxibustion group. In the different cases, we have measured the body heat in pre-stimulation, just after stimulation, 2 hours after, and 4 hours after. Results : he body heats of the group who were stimulated by the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion method were increased by over the $2^{\circ}C$. And the body heats of the group who were stimulated by the Indirect Moxibustion Method were increased by average the $1^{\circ}C$. We have evaluated that the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method is improvement on the Indirect Moxibustion Method by the increasing rate is 200% and increasing time is 150% with the body heat of the abdominal region. Conclusion : We have implemented the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method and evaluated the efficiency of the Moxa-Extract Moxibustion Method comparing with the Indirect Moxibustion Method.

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Comparative Study of Treatment Effect between Indirect Moxibustion Treatment with General Acupuncture and General Acupuncture Only on Treatment for Neck Pain Caused by Whiplash Injury (편타성 손상으로 인한 경항통 환자를 대상으로 한 일반침 치료와 간접구 병행치료의 임상적 효과비교연구)

  • Kim, Min-Seok;Park, Jae-Yeon;Choi, You-Jin;Yoon, Kyoung-Jin;Lee, Cham-Gyeol;Lee, Eun-Yong;Roh, Jeong-Du
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of indirect moxibustion treatment for patients with neck pain caused by whiplash injury. Methods : From October 2010 to October 2011, 85 patients with neck pain caused by whiplash injury who admitted to Semyung oriental medical hospital were divided into two groups. Group A was treated by general acupuncture, group B by indirect moxibustion and general acupuncture. The efficacy of treatment was measured by visual analog scale(VAS) scores and neck disability index(NDI) scores of before and after 5 days to start treatment. Results : 1. Both group A and B represented effective improvement in VAS and NDI of neck pain caused by whiplash injury. 2. Group B has more statistical effect than group A. Conclusions : Through this research, indirect moxibustion treatment is considered to be effective reducing pain for patients with neck pain caused by whiplash injury.

Effects of Indirect Moxibustion on Skeletal Muscles in Mouse Model of Skeletal Muscle Adiposity (간접구 시술이 골격근 Adiposity 유발 쥐의 근육조직에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ki Su;Hong, Kwon Eui
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.7-21
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : To observe the regenerative effects of indirect moxibustion, a traditional Korean medical treatment on skeletal muscles using mouse model of skeletal muscle adiposity. Methods : Twenty seven ICR male mice were randomly assigned into Intact control(n=3), glycerol treatment together without moxibustion(n=12), and glycerol treatment together with moxibustion (n=12) groups. Mice of glycerol treatment groups were injected with 50 ${\mu}l$ DW(distilled water) containing 50 % of glycerol into the two tibialis anterior. After injection, moxibustion was applied at 'Shenshu'($BL_{23}$) and 'Zusanli'($ST_{36}$) acupoints three times per each session, every days for twelve days(total 12 treatments). Phospho-Erk1/2, Myostatin protein levels were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluo-rescence staining techniques for tissues of the tibialis anterior muscle. Smad, phospho-Smad were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Results : 1. Histological analysis of sections from injected TA muscles showed that glycerol induced rapidly muscle necrosis, with a maximum at day 3. 6 days and 9 days after injection, muscle was regenerating. 2. According to western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, phospho-Erk1/2 protein signals in glycerol treatment with moxibustion group were stronger compared to Intact and glycerol treatment without moxibustion group. 3. According to western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, myostatin protein signals in glycerol treatment without moxibustion group were stronger compared to Intact and glycerol treatment with moxibustion group. 4. According to immunofluorescence staining, Smad protein signals in glycerol treatment without moxibustion group were stronger compared to Intact and glycerol treatment with moxibustion group. 5. According to immunofluorescence staining, phospho-Smad protein signals in glycerol treatment without moxibustion group were stronger compared to Intact and glycerol treatment with moxibustion group. Conclusions : These results confirm that indirect moxibustion of 'Shenshu'($BL_{23}$) and 'Zusanli'($ST_{36}$) influences muscle regeneration in mouse models of skeletal muscle adiposity. Further discussion, and the establishment of moxibustion mechanism will prompt clinical application of moxibustion.