• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inflammatory

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Regulatory roles of ginseng on inflammatory caspases, executioners of inflammasome activation

  • Yun, Miyong;Yi, Young-Su
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.373-385
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    • 2020
  • Inflammation is an immune response that protects against pathogens and cellular stress. The hallmark of inflammatory responses is inflammasome activation in response to various stimuli. This subsequently activates downstream effectors, that is, inflammatory caspases such as caspase-1, 4, 5, 11, and 12. Extensive efforts have been made on developing effective and safe anti-inflammatory therapeutics, and ginseng has long been traditionally used as efficacious and safe herbal medicine in treating various inflammatory and inflammation-mediated diseases. Many studies have successfully shown that ginseng plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting inflammasomes and inflammasome-activated inflammatory caspases. This review discusses the regulatory roles of ginseng on inflammatory caspases in inflammatory responses and also suggests new research areas on the anti-inflammatory function of ginseng, which provides a novel insight into the development of ginseng as an effective and safe anti-inflammatory herbal medicine.

Role of inflammasomes in inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic diseases

  • Yi, Young-Su
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2018
  • Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that coordinate anti-pathogenic host defense during inflammatory responses in myeloid cells, especially macrophages. Inflammasome activation leads to activation of caspase-1, resulting in the induction of pyroptosis and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$ and IL-18. Although the inflammatory response is an innate host defense mechanism, chronic inflammation is the main cause of rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and $Sj{\ddot{o}}gren^{\prime}s$ syndrome (SS). Since rheumatic diseases are inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, it is reasonable to hypothesize that inflammasomes activated during the inflammatory response play a pivotal role in development and progression of these diseases. Indeed, previous studies have provided important observations that inflammasomes are actively involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on several types of inflammasomes during macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and discuss recent research regarding the role of inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases. This avenue of research could provide new insights for the development of promising therapeutics to treat inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

Role of Salvia miltiorrhiza for Modulation of Th2-derived Cytokines in the Resolution of Inflammation

  • Moon, Sun-Hee;Shin, Seul-Mee;Kim, Seul-Ah;Oh, Hee-Eun;Han, Shin-Ha;Lee, Seung-Jeong;Kim, Kyung-Jae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.288-298
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    • 2011
  • Background: Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including edema and arthritis; however, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of SM action remains unresolved. Methods: The effects of an ethanol extract of SM (ESM) on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and NO, and on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, TGF-${\beta}$, and IL-1Ra have been studied in an attempt to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism in murine macrophages. Results: ESM inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via down-regulation of gene and protein expression whereas it increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, ESM inhibited the expression of the chemokines, RANTES and CX3CL1, as well as of inflammatory mediators such as TLR-4 and $11{\beta}$-HSD1. Conclusion: These results indicated that the regulatory effects of ESM may be mediated though the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, we speculate that ESM has therapeutic potential for inflammation-associated disorders.

Study on the Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Remedy Prescripted with Lonicerae Flos and Scutellariae Radix in U937 cells (금은화(金銀花)와 황금(黃芩)이 배오(配伍)된 처방제(處方劑)의 항염증(抗炎症) 효과(效果) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Yong-Suk;Jang, Seon-Il
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2010
  • Inflammatory reaction is characterized by over-production of inflammatory mediators due to an up-regulation of inflammatory pathways, which produce pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-$1{\beta}$), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-$\alpha$), prostaglantin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$), and nitric oxide (NO) in U937 cells. We investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of water extracts from Lonicerae Flos and Scutellariae Radix in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated U937 cells. Each extract suppressed the production of inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-$1{\beta}$, TNF-$\alpha$, and $PGE_2$) and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS- stimulated U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These suppressive effects were synergistically increased by their combination. Their combination extract also inhibited NF-${\kappa}B$-DNA complex of NF-${\kappa}B$ binding activity and translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ from cytosol to nucleus. These results suggest that the combination of water-extractable components of Lonicerae Flos and Scutellariae Radix may be useful for therapeutic drugs against inflammatory immune diseases, probably by suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Water Extract from Tuna Heart on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 RAW 264.7 세포에 대한 참치심장 물 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Bae, Nan-Young;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Park, Ji-Hye;Park, Sun-Hee;Cho, Young-Je;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.326-331
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    • 2015
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of tuna heart water extract (THWE) was investigated using lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in this study. Anti-inflammatory effect was detected by the cell proliferation and the production levels of nitric oxide, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-$1{\beta}$, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. As a result, there were no cytotoxic effects on proliferation of macrophages treated with THWE compared to the control. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was remarkably suppressed compared with that of the LPS only group. These results suggest that THWE exerts the anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting production of inflammatory factors and may be a potential material for anti-inflammatory therapy.

Effect of Sanyeoleumja on Inflammatory Response of RAW 264.7 Cells (RAW 264.7 cell의 염증반응에 대한 산열음자(散熱飮子)의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Tae Yeon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2020
  • Sanyeoleumja (SY) is the traditional Korean medicinal prescription for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of eyes. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of SY water extract were investigated. To measure the anti-inflammatory effects of SY, we examined the productions of inflammatory factor including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SY inhibited NO and PGE2 production in a dose dependent manner and decreased the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and COX-2. Also, SY decreased the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In conclusion, SY downregulated LPS-induced inflammatory factor productions, which could be a clinical basis for inflammatory diseases.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Abeliophyllum distichum Flower Extract and Associated MAPKs and NF-κB Pathway in Raw264.7 Cells

  • Lee, Jin-Wook;Kang, Yoon-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2018
  • Abeliophyllum distichum is a medicinal plant used in regional traditional medicine to relieve pain in inflammatory processes. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Abeliophyllum distichum flower (ADF) extract were examined. Furthermore, possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects were dissected. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine macrophage-like cell line Raw264.7 cells. The measurement of the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were carried out by ELISA. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and MAPK, and the nuclear expression of nuclear factor NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 were investigated by Western blot analysis. The extract of ADF significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the extract suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 in activated cells. Our findings provide evidence for the popular use of Abeliophylli distichum in inflammation around Goesan region and also suggest that the flower extract has potential therapeutic benefits against various inflammatory diseases.

Sesquiterpene Derivatives Isolated from Cyperus rotundus L. Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling Mediated by NF-${\kappa}B$

  • Khan, Salman;Choi, Ran-Joo;Lee, Dong-Ung;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.250-255
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    • 2011
  • The immune system is finely balanced by the activities of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators or cytokines. Unregulated activities of these mediators can lead to the development of various inflammatory diseases. A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available with many more drugs under development. Of the natural compounds, the sesquiterpenes (nootkatone, ${\alpha}$-cyperone, valencene and ${\alpha}$-selinene) isolated from C. rotundus L. have received much attention because of their potential antiinflammatory effects. However, limited studies have been reported regarding the influence of sesquiterpene structure on anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of four structurally divergent sesquiterpenes was evaluated in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, murine macrophages. Among the four sesquiterpenes, ${\alpha}$-cyperone and nootkatone, showed stronger anti-inflammatory and a potent NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Molecular analysis revealed that various inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2) were reduced significantly and this correlated with downregulation of the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway. Additionally, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) elucidated that nootkatone and ${\alpha}$-cyperone dramatically suppressed LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$-DNA binding activity using 32Plabeled NF-${\kappa}B$ probe. Hence, our data suggest that ${\alpha}$-cyperone and nootkatone are potential therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.

Flavonoid and Skin Inflammation

  • Kim, Hyun-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2007
  • There have been various inflammatory skin disorders in humans including atopic dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. Although some drugs have been used for these disorders, there is an urgent need for safer and more effective topical anti-inflammatory agents. Plant flavonoids possess anti-inflammatory activity and some of them have multiple pharmacological mechanisms, inhibition of eicosanoid metabolizing enzymes, histamine release and/or down-regulation of pro inflammatory gene expression. These properties of flavonoids may be suitable for treating chronic skin inflammatory disorders. Especially, wogonin, some prenylated flavonoids and biflavonoids have a strong potential as new anti-inflammatory agents by topical application.

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Anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana in lipopolysaccharide-exposed rats

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Eun;Ko, Young-Tag
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the therapeutic effect of a Korean herbal medicine Pulsatilla koreana as an anti-septic agent, anti-inflammatory effects of the herbal medicine were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed rats. Treatment with a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Results from ELISA analysis showed that Pulsatilla koreana decreased the plasma and hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ while increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-exposed rats. Pulsatilla koreana also decreased the plasma levels of other inflammatory mediators such as $NO_3{^-}/NO_2{^-}$, ICAM-1, $PGE_2$, and CINC-1 in LPS-exposed rats. Although no significant effects were observed in the phagocytic activities, the distribution of lymphocyte population was significantly shifted by the treatment with Pulsatilla koreana. All together, Pulsatilla koreana exerts anti-inflammatory activities in the immune-challenged animals implicating that this Korean herbal medicine is therapeutically useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases like sepsis.