• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inhomogeneous

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Lumen Wall using Quadrature-typed Inside-out Receiver Coil (회전자계 역수신 코일을 이용한 관벽의 자기공명 영상)

  • 문치웅;조종운
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2001
  • This study Proposes a quadrature-typed inside-out receiver coil to obtain magnetic resonance(MR) images of lumen wall. This means that the coil should receive the signals from out-side of receiver coil. This coil has wide and uniform sensitive region to compare with previous coils such as anti-solenoid coil, octal-pole coil and so on. These coils have the disadvantages that sensitive region is narrow and inhomogenous. The proposed coil is consist of two saddle coils of which directions are orthogonal to one another. The sensitivity maps of octal-Pole coil single-saddle coil and quadrature-typed inside-out coil were obtained by computer simulation. And phantom images for each coil were obtained to evaluate the performances of the coil using both 1.5T superconducting and 0.3 Permanent magnet MRI system. The uniformity of quadrature coil's sensitivity map was superior to that of octal-polel coil. Experimentally measured SNR of quadrature coil is also 36% higher than that of single-saddle coil This study shows the possibility of quadrature-typed inside-out receiver coil for the MR lumen wall images.

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Intercomparison of Change Point Analysis Methods for Identification of Inhomogeneity in Rainfall Series and Applications (강우자료의 비동질성 규명을 위한 변동점 분석기법의 상호비교 및 적용)

  • Lee, Sangho;Kim, Sang Ug;Lee, Yeong Seob;Sung, Jang Hyun
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.47 no.8
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    • pp.671-684
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    • 2014
  • Change point analysis is a efficient tool to understand the fundamental information in hydro-meteorological data such as rainfall, discharge, temperature etc. Especially, this fundamental information to change points to future rainfall data identified by reasonable detection skills can affect the prediction of flood and drought occurrence because well detected change points provide a key to resolve the non-stationary or inhomogeneous problem by climate change. Therefore, in this study, the comparative study to assess the performance of the 3 change point detection skills, cumulative sum (CUSUM) method, Bayesian change point (BCP) method, and segmentation by dynamic programming (DP) was performed. After assessment of the performance of the proposed detection skills using the 3 types of the synthetic series, the 2 reasonable detection skills were applied to the observed and future rainfall data at the 5 rainfall gauges in South Korea. Finally, it was suggested that BCP (with 0.9 posterior probability) could be best detection skill and DP could be reasonably recommended through the comparative study. Also it was suggested that BCP (with 0.9 posterior probability) and DP detection skills to find some change points could be reasonable at the North-eastern part in South Korea. In future, the results in this study can be efficiently used to resolve the non-stationary problems in hydrological modeling considering inhomogeneity or nonstationarity.

A study on image distortion improvement using silicon device in thyroid diffusion MRI images (갑상선의 확산강조영상 검사 시 실리콘 이용한 뒤틀림 감소에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kwan-Woo;Seo, Dae-Keon;Lee, Ho-Beom;Goh, Hee-Jin;Na, Sa-Ra;Han, Dong-Kyoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.4380-4386
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to minimize the imaging distortion by reducing the differences in susceptibility between the tissue and air surrounding it while performing a thyroid diffusion imaging procedure. The study group was composed of 23 healthy adults. Thyroids with many distortions near the air, larynx, and trachea were chosen to test and evaluate the diffusion imaging difference between before and after an application of silicon. As a result, there was reduced distortion with silicon application, and the differences decreased from 30% to 10%. According to One-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test, there were no significant differences between imaging with a silicon application and T2 imaging of the surface area, which was the standard image. In conclusion, this study presented a radical improvement in reducing the distortions in imaging by compensating for an uneven tissue surface near air without affecting the magnetic resonance contrast and complicating the imaging processes.

The Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Thermal Stresses for Welding Part in Double Capstan Drum (더블 캡스턴 드럼의 용접부에 대한 탄소성 열응력해석)

  • 김옥삼
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.329-336
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    • 2000
  • Welding is a important technological method in mechanical engineering. $CO_2$MAG(metal active gas) welding means that metal part in double capstan drum for the inshore and costal vessels are joined by melting(with or without a filler material) or that new material is added to a metal part by melting. The thermal stresses appear due to a non-uniform temperature field, inhomogeneous material properties, external restraint and volume changes during phase transformations. In this study analysis the elasto-plastic thermal stresses distribution of welding part in double capstan drum for the inshore and costal vessels using finite element method (FBM). Therefore it calculates the numerical value that can be applied to the optimum design of welding parts and the shapes. The significant results obtained in this study are summarized as fellows. At early stage of the cooling after welding process, the abrupt thermal stresses gradient has been shown in the vicinity of welding part. In the thermal stresses analysis due to temperature gradient and heat shocking maximum stress was occurred of welding part and stresses were distributed from 54MPa~48MPa.

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The suggestion of Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Beam Shape with Bolts (볼트 체결형 강판-콘크리트 합성보의 형상 제안)

  • Cho, Tae-Gu;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.305-314
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    • 2018
  • The steel-plate concrete composite beam is composed of a steel plate, concrete and a shear connector to combine the two inhomogeneous materials. In general, the steel plate is assembled by welding an existing composite beam. In this study, a new steel-plate concrete composite (SPCC) beam was developed to reduce the size of the shear connector and improve its workability. The SPCC beam was composed of folded steel plates and concrete, without any shear connector. The folded steel plate was assembled with high strength bolts instead of welding. To improve the workability in field construction, a hat-shaped cap was attached in the junction with the slab. Monotonic two-point load testing was conducted under displacement control mode. The flexural strength of the SPCC beam specimen was calculated to be 76% of that of the complete composite beam by using the plastic stress distribution method and strain compatibility method. The cap acted as the stud and accessory. The synthesis rate could be increased by controlling the gap of the cap, and the bending performance could be evaluated by using the strain fitting method considering the synthesis rate of the SPCC beam.

Analysis about Flexural Strength of Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Beam using Folded Steel Plate (Cap) as Shear Connector (절곡 강판(Cap)을 전단연결재로 사용한 강판-콘크리트 합성보의 휨강도 분석)

  • Cho, Tae-Gu;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.481-492
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    • 2018
  • The steel-plate concrete composite beam is composed of a steel plate, concrete and shear connector to combine two inhomogeneous materials. In general, the steel plate is assembled by welding an existing composite beam. In this study, the SPC beam was composed of folding steel plates and concrete, without a headed stud. The folding steel plate was assembled by a high strength bolt instead of welding. To improve the workability in a field construction, a hat-shaped cap was attached to the junction with a slab. Monotonic load testing under two points was conducted under displacement control mode to analyze the flexural strength of the SPC beam using a cap as the shear connector. Five specimens with shear connector types, protrusion length, and different thickness of steel plates were constructed and tested. The experimental results were analyzed through the relationship between the shear strength ratio and flexural strength in KBC 2009. The test results showed a shear strength ratio of more than 40 %. In the case of using a cap-like specimen as the shear connector, the flexural strength was 70% of the value calculated as a fully composite beam. In addition, the cap showed a smaller shear strength than the stud, but the cap served as a shear connection. When the thickness of the steel plate was taken as a variable, the steel plate exhibited a bending strength of approximately 70% compared to a fully formed steel plate, and exhibited similar deformation performance. Local buckling occurred due to incomplete composite behavior, but local buckling occurred at a 5% higher strength for a relatively thick steel plate. The buckling width also decreased by 15%.

Flexural Strength Evaluation of Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Beam using Bolted (절곡 강판을 볼트로 체결한 강판-콘크리트 합성보의 휨강도 평가)

  • Han, Myoung-Hwan;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.126-136
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    • 2018
  • A steel-plate concrete composite beam is composed of a steel plate, concrete and shear connector to combine inhomogeneous two materials. The steel plate is assembled by welding an existing composite beam. In this study, new steel-plate concrete composite beam, called a SPC Beam, was developed to reduce the shear connector and improve the workability. The SPC Beam was composed of folding steel plates and concrete, without a shear connector. The folding steel plate was assembled using high strength bolt instead of welding. To improve the workability in field construction, a hat-shaped Cap was attached to the junction with a slab. Monotonic load testing under two points was conducted under displacement control mode. The flexural strength of the specimen for positive moment and negative moment was calculated using the plastic stress distribution method. The test results showed that the flexural strength of the new SPC Beam had 80% of the strength of a complete composite beam. In addition, increasing the composite ratio was possible through clearance controls of the cap. In this study, the performance of the SPC Beam was verified through additional experiments and analyses with the cross-sectional shape and cap as variables, because the representative shape in the positive negative moment region is targeted.

Removal of residual VOCs in a collection chamber using decompression for analysis of large volatile sample

  • Lee, In-Ho;Byun, Chang Kyu;Eum, Chul Hun;Kim, Taewook;Lee, Sam-Keun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 2021
  • In order to measure the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of a sample which is too large to use commercially available chamber, a stainless steel vacuum chamber (VC) (with an internal diameter of 205 mm and a height of 50 mm) was manufactured and the temperature of the chamber was controlled using an oven. After concentrating the volatiles of the sample in the chamber by helium gas, it was made possible to remove residual volatile substances present in the chamber under reduced pressure ((2 ± 1) × 10-2 mmHg). The chamber was connected to a purge & trap (P&T) using a 6 port valve to concentrate the VOCs, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after thermal desorption (VC-P&T-GC-MS). Using toluene, the toluene recovery rate of this device was 85 ± 2 %, reproducibility was 5 ± 2 %, and the detection limit was 0.01 ng L-1. The method of removing VOCs remaining in the chamber with helium and the method of removing those with reduced pressure was compared using Korean drinking water regulation (KDWR) VOC Mix A (5 μL of 100 ㎍ mL-1) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 2 μL of 500 ㎍ mL-1). In case of using helium, which requires a large amount of gas and time, reduced pressure ((2 ± 1) × 10-2 mmHg) only during the GC-MS running time, could remove VOCs and BHT to less than 0.1 % of the original injection concentration. As a result of analyzing volatile substances using VC-P&T-GC-MS of six types of cell phone case, BHT was detected in four types and quantitatively analyzed. Maintaining the chamber at reduced pressure during the GC-MS analysis time eliminated memory effect and did not affect the next sample analysis. The volatile substances in a cell phone case were also analyzed by dynamic headspace (HT3) and GC-MS, and the results of the analysis were compared with those of VC-P&T-GC-MS. Considering the chamber volume and sample weight, the VC-P&T configuration was able to collect volatile substances more efficiently than the HT3. The VC-P&T-GC-MS system is believed to be useful for VOCs measurement of inhomogeneous large sample or devices used inside clean rooms.

THEORETICAL STUDY ON OBSERVED COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS

  • Lee, See-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.41-70
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    • 1979
  • From $B\ddot{o}hm$-Vitense's atmospheric model calculations, the relations, [$T_e$, (B-V)] and [B.C, (B-V)] with respect to heavy element abundance were obtained. Using these relations and evolutionary model calculations of Rood, and Sweigart and Gross, analytic expressions for some physical parameters relating to the C-M diagrams of globular clusters were derived, and they were applied to 21 globular clusters with observed transition periods of RR Lyrae variables. More than 20 different parameters were examined for each globular cluster. The derived ranges of some basic parameters are as follows; $Y=0.21{\sim}0.33,\;Z=1.5{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}4.5{\times}10^{-3},\;age,\;t=9.5{\sim}19{\times}10^9$ years, mass for red giants, $m_{RG}=0.74m_{\odot}{\sim}0.91m_{\odot}$, mass for RR Lyrae stars, $m_{RR}=0.59m_{\odot}{\sim}0.75m_{\odot}$, the visual magnitude difference between the turnoff point and the horizontal branch (HB), ${\Delta}V_{to}=3.1{\sim}3.4(<{\Delta}V_{to}>=3.32)$, the color of the blue edge of RR Lyrae gap, $(B-V)_{BE}=0.17{\sim}0.21=(<(B-V)_{BE}>=0.18),\;[\frac{m}{L}]_{RR}=-1.7{\sim}-1.9$, mass difference of $m_{RR}$ relative to $m_{RG},(m_{RG}-m_{RR})/m_{RG}=0.0{\sim}0.39$. It was found that the ranges of derived parameters agree reasonably well with the observed ones and those estimated by others. Some important results obtained herein can be summarized as follows; (i) There are considerable variations in the initial helium abundance and in age of globular clusters. (ii) The radial gradient of heavy element abundance does exist for globular clusters as shown by Janes for field stars and open clusters. (iii) The helium abundance seems to have been increased with age by massive star evolution after a considerable amount (Y>0.2) of helium had been attained by the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, but there is not seen a radial gradient of helium abundance. (iv) A considerable amount of heavy elements ($Z{\sim}10{-3}$) might have been formed in the inner halo ($r_{GC}$<10 kpc) from the earliest galactic co1lapse, and then the heavy element abundance has been slowly enriched towards the galactic center and disk, establishing the radial gradient of heavy element abundance. (v) The final galactic disk formation might have taken much longer by about a half of the galactic age than the halo formation, supporting a slow, inhomogeneous co1lapse model of Larson. (vi) Of the three principal parameters controlling the morphology of C-M diagrams, it was found that the first parameter is heavy clement abundance, the second age and the third helium abundance. (vii) The globular clusters can be divided into three different groups, AI, BI and CII according to Z, Y an d age as well as Dickens' HB types. BI group clusters of HB types 4 and 5 like M 3 and NGC 7006 are the oldest and have the lowest helium abundance of the three groups. And also they appear in the inner halo. On the other hand, the youngest AI clusters have the highest Z and Y, and appear in the innermost halo region and in the disk. (viii) From the result of the clean separations of the clusters into three groups, a three dimensional classification with three parameters, Z, Y and age is prsented. (ix) The anomalous C-M diagrams can be expalined in terms of the three principal parameters. That is, the anomaly of NGC 362 and NGC 7006 is accounted for by the smaller age of the order of $1{\sim}2{\times}10^9$ years rather than by the helium abundance difference, compared with M 3. (x) The difference in two Oosterhoff types I and II can be explained in terms of the mean mass difference of RR Lyrae variables rather than in terms of the helium abundance difference as suggested by Stobie. The mean mass of the variables in Oosterhoff type I clusters is smaller by $0.074m_{\odot}$ which is exactly consistent with Rood's estimate. Since it was found that the mean mass of RR Lyrae stars increases with decreasing Z, the two Oosterhoff types can be explained substantially by the metal abundance difference; the type II has Z<$3.4{\times}10^{-4}$, and the type I has higher Z than the type II.

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The Effect of Exercise Program on Chronic Low Back Pain in Female Teachers of Elementary School (만성요통 여교사에 대한 운동프로그램의 효과 - 근력, 근지구력, 유연성, 통증, 기능장애, 우울 및 생활만족도를 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Soon-Young
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.169-187
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to probe the effect of exercise program on muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, pain, disability level and life satisfaction in female teachers of elementary school who complain of low back pain. For this study, 44 female teachers aged 30-50 years with mechanical low back pain of 6 months' duration, who had the structural normalities in the lumbar spine, were recruited from April 1 to July 10 1999. Twenty three out of them were assigned to the experimental group and twenty one to the control group. The exercise program consisted of education on right postures, the etiology and diagnosis of low back pain, and exercise intervention such as muscle relaxation, elongation and strengthening. With 8 weeks program, the subjects received two sessions of education and six sessions of group exercise in the 1st week, while three sessions of group exercise and four sessions of individual exercise weekly and two sessions of education during the later 7 weeks. The muscle strength and endurance were measured by Cybex 770, the flexibility by flexibility measurement machine, the intensity of pain by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the level of disability by Oswestry low back pain disability scale, depression by Beck depression inventory (BDI), and life satisfaction by Life satisfaction index-Z. Study measurements were taken before and after 8 weeks exercise program. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, t-test, and ANCOVA. The results were as follows ; 1. The flexors and extensors peak torque and flexors peak torque per body weight of experimental group were significantly increased at test velocities $30^{\circ}$/sec, $60^{\circ}$/sec compared with those of control group. There was no significant difference in extensors peak torque per flexors peak torque at $30^{\circ}/sec$, $60^{\circ}/sec$ between experimental and control group. 2. The flexors and extensors total work and flexors total work per body weight of experimental group were significantly increased at $120^{\circ}/sec$, compared with those of control group. 3.The flexibility of lumbar spine in experimental group was significantly increased compared with that of control group. The pains in anterior, posterior, left lateral and right lateral bending and in rotation of experimental group were significantly increased compared with those of control group. 4. The Oswestry disability scores of experimental and control group were significantly decreased, and there was no difference in the Oswestry disability score change between experimental and control group. 5. The scores of BDI of experimental group were significantly decreased compared with those of control group. Life satisfaction index-Z scores of experimental group were not changed, but those of control group were significantly decreased. There was no difference in the score change of Life satisfaction index-Z between experimental and control group. 6. ANCOVA analysis for the data variables of inhomogeneous baseline represented that there was no significant difference in extensors peak torque and extensors total work at $120^{\circ}/sec$ and extensor total work per body weight at $120^{\circ}/sec$ change between experimental group and control group. These findings indicate that the exercise program could be effective in increasing the muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and decreasing pain, improving depression in female teachers of elementary school with chronic low back pain. It is suggested that the exercise program could be an essential factor for the effective nursing intervention to the patients suffered from chronic low back pain.

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