• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inhomogeneous

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Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Calculations with a PBC and AAA Algorithms in the Lung Cancer (폐암의 세기조절방사선치료에서 PBC 알고리즘과 AAA 알고리즘의 비교연구)

  • Oh, Se-An;Kang, Min-Kyu;Yea, Ji-Woon;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2012
  • The pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithms in radiation treatment planning system have been widely used to calculate the radiation dose. A new photon dose calculation algorithm, referred to as the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), was released for use by the Varian medical system. The aim of this paper was to investigate the difference in dose calculation between the AAA and PBC algorithm using the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan for lung cancer cases that were inhomogeneous in the low density. We quantitatively analyzed the differences in dose using the eclipse planning system (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) and I'mRT matirxx (IBA, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) equipment to compare the gamma evaluation. 11 patients with lung cancer at various sites were used in this study. We also used the TLD-100 (LiF) to measure the differences in dose between the calculated dose and measured dose in the Alderson Rando phantom. The maximum, mean, minimum dose for the normal tissue did not change significantly. But the volume of the PTV covered by the 95% isodose curve was decreased by 6% in the lung due to the difference in the algorithms. The difference dose between the calculated dose by the PBC algorithms and AAA algorithms and the measured dose with TLD-100 (LiF) in the Alderson Rando phantom was -4.6% and -2.7% respectively. Based on the results of this study, the treatment plan calculated using the AAA algorithms is more accurate in lung sites with a low density when compared to the treatment plan calculated using the PBC algorithms.

Clinical Significance of Reverse Redistribution on Tc-99m MIBI and T1-201 Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Images (Tc-99m MIBI와 T1-201 심근 SPECT에서 역재분포의 임상적 의의)

  • Song, Ho-Cheon;Bom, Hee-Seung;Kim, Ji-Yeul;Jeong, Myung-Ho;Gill, Kwang-Chae;Park, Joo-Hyung;Cho, Jeong-Gwan;Park, Jong-Choon;Kang, Jung-Chaee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 1996
  • Reverse redistribution(RRD) refers to a perfusion defect that develops or becomes more evident on rest imaging compared with the stress imaging. This phenomenon was not uncommonly noted on myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the clinical significance and pathophysiological mechanism of RRD were unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical significance of RRD on either dipyridamole T1-201 or Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT. RRD was defined as ${\geq}10%$ decrease in relative T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI uptakes on rest images compared to the stress images or as an appearance of new perfusion defects on rest images. It was observed in both T1-201 (44/463, 9.5%) and Tc-99m MIBI (124/999, 12.4%) myocardial SPECTs similarly, with an overall incidence of 11.5%(168/1462). Many apparent)y unrelated disease groups showed the finding: post-revascularization(53.9%), coronary artery disease(24.6%), myocardial infarction(12.3%), and those with normal coro-nary arteries (9.2%). Clinical and angiographic characteristics of 65 consecutive patients who underwent coronary arteriography in 168 patients who had RRD on myocardial perfusion SPECT were reviewed. Tc-99m MIBI was used in 44 patients, and T1-201 was used in 21 patients. Of the 81 myocardial segments analyzed which showed RRD, 32 segments(39.5%) were in septum, 24(29.5%) in inferior wallL, 12(14.8%) in anterior wall, 7(8.7%) in apex and 6(7.4%) in lateral wall. There was no clear association between RRD and coronary arterial stenosis or Presence of collateral circulations. Ventriculographical wall motion was evaluated in 27 regions with RRD; it was normal in 12 regions, hypokinetic in 12 regions and dyskinetic in 3 regions. In 14 of 21 patients who showed RRD on T1-201 myocardial SPECT, T1-201 reinjection was performed immediately after the 3-4 hour redistribution studies. Ten of 14 (71.4%) showed enhanced T1-201 activity(${\geq}10%$ increased) after reinjection. We conclude that RRD is not related to mode of stress or radiopharmaceuticals. RRD might represent many inhomogeneous pathophysiological processes.

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Analysis of Respiratory Motional Effect on the Cone-beam CT Image (Cone-beam CT 영상 획득 시 호흡에 의한 영향 분석)

  • Song, Ju-Young;Nah, Byung-Sik;Chung, Woong-Ki;Ahn, Sung-Ja;Nam, Taek-Keun;Yoon, Mi-Sun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2007
  • The cone-beam CT (CBCT) which is acquired using on-board imager (OBI) attached to a linear accelerator is widely used for the image guided radiation therapy. In this study, the effect of respiratory motion on the quality of CBCT image was evaluated. A phantom system was constructed in order to simulate respiratory motion. One part of the system is composed of a moving plate and a motor driving component which can control the motional cycle and motional range. The other part is solid water phantom containing a small cubic phantom ($2{\times}2{\times}2cm^3$) surrounded by air which simulate a small tumor volume in the lung air cavity CBCT images of the phantom were acquired in 20 different cases and compared with the image in the static status. The 20 different cases are constituted with 4 different motional ranges (0.7 cm, 1.6 cm, 2.4 cm, 3.1 cm) and 5 different motional cycles (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 sec). The difference of CT number in the coronal image was evaluated as a deformation degree of image quality. The relative average pixel intensity values as a compared CT number of static CBCT image were 71.07% at 0.7 cm motional range, 48.88% at 1.6 cm motional range, 30.60% at 2.4 cm motional range, 17.38% at 3.1 cm motional range The tumor phantom sizes which were defined as the length with different CT number compared with air were increased as the increase of motional range (2.1 cm: no motion, 2.66 cm: 0.7 cm motion, 3.06 cm: 1.6 cm motion, 3.62 cm: 2.4 cm motion, 4.04 cm: 3.1 cm motion). This study shows that respiratory motion in the region of inhomogeneous structures can degrade the image quality of CBCT and it must be considered in the process of setup error correction using CBCT images.

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