• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inhomogeneous

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Evaluation and interpretation of the effects of heterogeneous layers in an OBS/air-gun crustal structure study (OBS/에어건을 이용한 지각구조 연구에서 불균질층의 영향에 대한 평가와 해석)

  • Tsuruga, Kayoko;Kasahara, Junzo;Kubota, Ryuji;Nishiyama, Eiichiro;Kamimura, Aya;Naito, Yoshihiro;Honda, Fuminori;Oikawa, Nobutaka;Tamura, Yasuo;Nishizawa, Azusa;Kaneda, Kentaro
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2008
  • We present a method for interpreting seismic records with arrivals and waveforms having characteristics which could be generated by extremely inhomogeneous velocity structures, such as non-typical oceanic crust, decollement at subduction zones, and seamounts in oceanic regions, by comparing them with synthetic waveforms. Recent extensive refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys in oceanic regions have provided us with a huge number of high-resolution and high-quality seismic records containing characteristic arrivals and waveforms, besides first arrivals and major reflected phases such as PmP. Some characteristic waveforms, with significant later reflected phases or anomalous amplitude decay with offset distance, are difficult to interpret using only a conventional interpretation method such as the traveltime tomographic inversion method. We find the best process for investigating such characteristic phases is to use an interactive interpretation method to compare observed data with synthetic waveforms, and calculate raypaths and traveltimes. This approach enables us to construct a reasonable structural model that includes all of the major characteristics of the observed waveforms. We present results here with some actual observed examples that might be of great help in the interpretation of such problematic phases. Our approach to the analysis of waveform characteristics is endorsed as an innovative method for constructing high-resolution and high-quality crustal structure models, not only in oceanic regions, but also in the continental regions.

GPR Development for Landmine Detection (지뢰탐지를 위한 GPR 시스템의 개발)

  • Sato, Motoyuki;Fujiwara, Jun;Feng, Xuan;Zhou, Zheng-Shu;Kobayashi, Takao
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.270-279
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    • 2005
  • Under the research project supported by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), we have conducted the development of GPR systems for landmine detection. Until 2005, we have finished development of two prototype GPR systems, namely ALIS (Advanced Landmine Imaging System) and SAR-GPR (Synthetic Aperture Radar-Ground Penetrating Radar). ALIS is a novel landmine detection sensor system combined with a metal detector and GPR. This is a hand-held equipment, which has a sensor position tracking system, and can visualize the sensor output in real time. In order to achieve the sensor tracking system, ALIS needs only one CCD camera attached on the sensor handle. The CCD image is superimposed with the GPR and metal detector signal, and the detection and identification of buried targets is quite easy and reliable. Field evaluation test of ALIS was conducted in December 2004 in Afghanistan, and we demonstrated that it can detect buried antipersonnel landmines, and can also discriminate metal fragments from landmines. SAR-GPR (Synthetic Aperture Radar-Ground Penetrating Radar) is a machine mounted sensor system composed of B GPR and a metal detector. The GPR employs an array antenna for advanced signal processing for better subsurface imaging. SAR-GPR combined with synthetic aperture radar algorithm, can suppress clutter and can image buried objects in strongly inhomogeneous material. SAR-GPR is a stepped frequency radar system, whose RF component is a newly developed compact vector network analyzers. The size of the system is 30cm x 30cm x 30 cm, composed from six Vivaldi antennas and three vector network analyzers. The weight of the system is 17 kg, and it can be mounted on a robotic arm on a small unmanned vehicle. The field test of this system was carried out in March 2005 in Japan.

Synthesis of Nano TiO2 Coated on Fly Ash Composites by the Precipitation Dropping Method (침전제적하법에 의한 나노 TiO2코팅 석탄회 복합체 제조)

  • 신대용;한상목
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.550-557
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    • 2002
  • TiO$_2$ particles coated on fly ash composites for use in photocatalyst were synthesized by the precipitation dropping method and heated at $700^{\circ}C$ for 2 h. The pH of reaction solution, the addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$, the stirring speed, the reaction temperature and the concentration of TiC1$_4$ had a pronounced effect on the nature of precipitated TiO$_2$ particles on the surface off fly ash and the crystal structure of precipitated TiO$_2$ particles. At an addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$; 1.0 ml/min, the pH of the reaction solution; 6, the stirring speed; 1,000 rpm and the reaction temperature; 8$0^{\circ}C$, about 10 nm of TiO$_2$ particle size and homogeneous precipitated layer on the surface of a fly ash was achieved. On the contrary, at an addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$; 0.3,0.5 ml/min, the pH of the reaction solution; 2 and 11, the stirring speed; 300~500 rpm and the reaction temperature; lower than 5$0^{\circ}C$:, Inhomogeneous precipitated layer was developed on a fly ash. TiO$_2$ particles with anatase phase was formed as-dried precipitation at the low concentration of Tic14, the high addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$ and the high reaction temperature, the crystalline fraction of anatase increased with raising heat-treatment temperature and rutile phase began to formation at 80$0^{\circ}C$. The crystal size of TiO$_2$ particles increased with raising the heat-treatment temperature, the crystal size was showed about 21 m at $700^{\circ}C$. Anatase type of TiO$_2$ coated on the fly ash heated at $700^{\circ}C$ for 2 h showed 1.25 g/cm$^3$of particle density, 82.8% of strength and 69.5 Lab of whiteness and can be used as a photocatalyst.

Secondary Chondrosarcoma Arising from Osteochondroma(tosis) (골연골종(증)에서 발생한 속발성 연골육종)

  • Cho, Hyun-Min;Rhee, Seung-Koo;Kang, Yong-Koo;Chung, Yang-Guk;Lee, An-Hi;Park, Jung-Mi;Bahk, Won-Jong
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: To analyze clinical, radiological and pathological features as well as clinical outcome after surgical treatment of patients with secondary chondrosarcoma arising from osteochondroma(tosis). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records, radiographs, pathologic slides of 14 patients. Nine patients were male and fi ve were female. The mean age was 34 years. The mean follow-up period was 54 months. Results: All patients had a history of previous mass since childhood or puberty. Preexisted osteochondroma was single in 3 patients and multiple in 10. Remaining 1 patient had multiple osteochondromatosis with enchondromatosis. MRI clearly provided thickness of cartilage cap, which was over 2 cm except in 2 cases. Chondrosarcoma was grade 1 in all except 1 case, which was grade 2. Wide excision was performed in 10 patients, marginal excision in 3 and amputation in 1. Twelve patients were doing very well without evidence of disease. Among 3 patients with marginal excision, 1 patient had local recurrence and 1 patient died of disease. Conclusion: Comprehensive understanding of clinical, radiological and pathological features of secondary chondro sarcoma is warranted for accurate diagnosis. The best result can be expected with early recognition of malignant change of osteohcondroma(tosis) and wide excision.

Determination of Adsorption Isotherms of Hydrogen at an Ir Electrode Interface Using the Phase-Shift Method and Correlation Constants (Ir 전극 계면에서 위상이동 방법 및 상관계수를 이용한 수소의 흡착동온식 결정)

  • Jeon, Sang-K.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2007
  • The phase-shift method and correlation constants for studying a linear relationship between the behavior ($-{\varphi}\;vs.\;E$) of the phase shift ($0^{\circ}{\leq}-{\varphi}{\leq}90^{\circ}$) for the optimum intermediate frequency and that (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) of the fractional surface coverage ($1{\geq}\theta{\geq}0$) have been proposed and verified to determine the Langmuir, Frumkin, and Temkin adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) at noble metal/aqueous electrolyte interfaces. At an Ir/0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte interface, the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$), equilibrium constants ($K=3.3{\times}10^{-4}\;mol^{-1}$ for the Langmuir and $K=3.3{\times}10^{-3}{\exp}(-4.6{\theta})\;mol^{-1}$ for the Temkin adsorption isotherm), interaction parameter (g = 4.6 for the Temkin adsorption isotherm), and standard free energies (${\Delta}G_{ads}^0=19.9kJ\;mol^{-1}\;for\;K=3.3{\times}10^{-4}\;mol^{-1}$ and $16.5<{\Delta}G_{\theta}^0<23.3\;kJ\;mol^{-1}\;for\;K=3.3{\times}10^{-3}{\exp}(-4.6{\theta})\;mol^{-1}\;and\;0.2<\theta<0.8$) of H for the cathodic $H_2$ evolution reaction are determined using the phase-shift method and correlation constants. The inhomogeneous and lateral interaction effects on the adsorption of H are negligible. At the intermediate values of ${\theta},\;i.e,\;0.2<{\theta}<0.8$, the Temkin adsorption isotherm (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) correlating with the Langmuir or the Frumkin adsorption isotherm (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$), and vice versa, is readily determined using the correlation constants. The phase-shift method and correlation constants are accurate and reliable techniques to determine the adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) and related electrode kinetic and thermodynamic parameters(K, g, ${\Delta}G_{ads}^0, {\Delta}G_{\theta}^0$).

Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Calculations with a PBC and AAA Algorithms in the Lung Cancer (폐암의 세기조절방사선치료에서 PBC 알고리즘과 AAA 알고리즘의 비교연구)

  • Oh, Se-An;Kang, Min-Kyu;Yea, Ji-Woon;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2012
  • The pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithms in radiation treatment planning system have been widely used to calculate the radiation dose. A new photon dose calculation algorithm, referred to as the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), was released for use by the Varian medical system. The aim of this paper was to investigate the difference in dose calculation between the AAA and PBC algorithm using the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan for lung cancer cases that were inhomogeneous in the low density. We quantitatively analyzed the differences in dose using the eclipse planning system (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) and I'mRT matirxx (IBA, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) equipment to compare the gamma evaluation. 11 patients with lung cancer at various sites were used in this study. We also used the TLD-100 (LiF) to measure the differences in dose between the calculated dose and measured dose in the Alderson Rando phantom. The maximum, mean, minimum dose for the normal tissue did not change significantly. But the volume of the PTV covered by the 95% isodose curve was decreased by 6% in the lung due to the difference in the algorithms. The difference dose between the calculated dose by the PBC algorithms and AAA algorithms and the measured dose with TLD-100 (LiF) in the Alderson Rando phantom was -4.6% and -2.7% respectively. Based on the results of this study, the treatment plan calculated using the AAA algorithms is more accurate in lung sites with a low density when compared to the treatment plan calculated using the PBC algorithms.

Verification of Skin Dose in Tomotherapy Using the Developed Phantom for Image Based Radiation Treatment System (영상 기반 치료 장비용 팬톰을 이용한 토모테라피 피부 선량 검증)

  • Park, Ji-Yeon;Chang, Ji-Na;Oh, Seung-Jong;Kang, Dae-Gyu;Jung, Won-Gyun;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Jang, Hong-Suk;Kim, Hoi-Nam;Park, Hae-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.88-96
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    • 2009
  • Radiation treatment for skin cancer has recently increased in tomotherapy. It was reported that required dose could be delivered with homogeneous dose distribution to the target without field matching using electron and photon beam. Therapeutic beam of tomotherapy, however, has several different physical characteristic and irradiation of helical beam is involved in the mechanically dynamic factors. Thus verification of skin dose is requisite using independent tools with additional verification method. Modified phantom for dose measurement was developed and skin dose verification was performed using inserted thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic EBT films. As the homogeneous dose was delivered to the region including surface and 6 mm depth, measured dose using films showed about average 2% lower dose than calculated one in treatment planning system. Region indicating about 14% higher and lower absorbed dose was verified on measured dose distribution. Uniformity of dose distribution on films decreased as compared with that of calculated results. Dose variation affected by inhomogeneous material, Teflon, little showed. In regard to the measured dose and its distribution in tomotherapy, verification of skin dose through measurement is required before the radiation treatment for the target located at the curved surface or superficial depth.

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Clinical Significance of Reverse Redistribution on Tc-99m MIBI and T1-201 Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Images (Tc-99m MIBI와 T1-201 심근 SPECT에서 역재분포의 임상적 의의)

  • Song, Ho-Cheon;Bom, Hee-Seung;Kim, Ji-Yeul;Jeong, Myung-Ho;Gill, Kwang-Chae;Park, Joo-Hyung;Cho, Jeong-Gwan;Park, Jong-Choon;Kang, Jung-Chaee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 1996
  • Reverse redistribution(RRD) refers to a perfusion defect that develops or becomes more evident on rest imaging compared with the stress imaging. This phenomenon was not uncommonly noted on myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the clinical significance and pathophysiological mechanism of RRD were unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical significance of RRD on either dipyridamole T1-201 or Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT. RRD was defined as ${\geq}10%$ decrease in relative T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI uptakes on rest images compared to the stress images or as an appearance of new perfusion defects on rest images. It was observed in both T1-201 (44/463, 9.5%) and Tc-99m MIBI (124/999, 12.4%) myocardial SPECTs similarly, with an overall incidence of 11.5%(168/1462). Many apparent)y unrelated disease groups showed the finding: post-revascularization(53.9%), coronary artery disease(24.6%), myocardial infarction(12.3%), and those with normal coro-nary arteries (9.2%). Clinical and angiographic characteristics of 65 consecutive patients who underwent coronary arteriography in 168 patients who had RRD on myocardial perfusion SPECT were reviewed. Tc-99m MIBI was used in 44 patients, and T1-201 was used in 21 patients. Of the 81 myocardial segments analyzed which showed RRD, 32 segments(39.5%) were in septum, 24(29.5%) in inferior wallL, 12(14.8%) in anterior wall, 7(8.7%) in apex and 6(7.4%) in lateral wall. There was no clear association between RRD and coronary arterial stenosis or Presence of collateral circulations. Ventriculographical wall motion was evaluated in 27 regions with RRD; it was normal in 12 regions, hypokinetic in 12 regions and dyskinetic in 3 regions. In 14 of 21 patients who showed RRD on T1-201 myocardial SPECT, T1-201 reinjection was performed immediately after the 3-4 hour redistribution studies. Ten of 14 (71.4%) showed enhanced T1-201 activity(${\geq}10%$ increased) after reinjection. We conclude that RRD is not related to mode of stress or radiopharmaceuticals. RRD might represent many inhomogeneous pathophysiological processes.

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Analysis of Respiratory Motional Effect on the Cone-beam CT Image (Cone-beam CT 영상 획득 시 호흡에 의한 영향 분석)

  • Song, Ju-Young;Nah, Byung-Sik;Chung, Woong-Ki;Ahn, Sung-Ja;Nam, Taek-Keun;Yoon, Mi-Sun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2007
  • The cone-beam CT (CBCT) which is acquired using on-board imager (OBI) attached to a linear accelerator is widely used for the image guided radiation therapy. In this study, the effect of respiratory motion on the quality of CBCT image was evaluated. A phantom system was constructed in order to simulate respiratory motion. One part of the system is composed of a moving plate and a motor driving component which can control the motional cycle and motional range. The other part is solid water phantom containing a small cubic phantom ($2{\times}2{\times}2cm^3$) surrounded by air which simulate a small tumor volume in the lung air cavity CBCT images of the phantom were acquired in 20 different cases and compared with the image in the static status. The 20 different cases are constituted with 4 different motional ranges (0.7 cm, 1.6 cm, 2.4 cm, 3.1 cm) and 5 different motional cycles (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 sec). The difference of CT number in the coronal image was evaluated as a deformation degree of image quality. The relative average pixel intensity values as a compared CT number of static CBCT image were 71.07% at 0.7 cm motional range, 48.88% at 1.6 cm motional range, 30.60% at 2.4 cm motional range, 17.38% at 3.1 cm motional range The tumor phantom sizes which were defined as the length with different CT number compared with air were increased as the increase of motional range (2.1 cm: no motion, 2.66 cm: 0.7 cm motion, 3.06 cm: 1.6 cm motion, 3.62 cm: 2.4 cm motion, 4.04 cm: 3.1 cm motion). This study shows that respiratory motion in the region of inhomogeneous structures can degrade the image quality of CBCT and it must be considered in the process of setup error correction using CBCT images.

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