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Formation of Sedimentation Pool within Irrigation Reserviors for Water Quality Improvement (저수지 수질개선을 위한 저수지 내 침전지 조성)

  • 박병흔
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2000
  • Large quantitive of polllutants are washed into reservoirs during storm events. These polllutants contribute to eutrophication, such as algal blooms and fish kills. This study was conducted for the purpose of assessing the pollutant removal possibilities of sedimentation pool formed by deep dredging of a reservoir inlet. Water quality data were collected in the Masan reservoir, whose inlet has been dredged deep like sedimentation pool. The average concentration of chemical oxygen demand(COD) , toatal nitrogen(T-N) and total phosphrous(T-P) in the deep dredged area were 8.7 ~20.5mg/ι (T-N), 0.17~0.84mg/ι(T-P), which were 4.9%(COD), 29.0%(T-N) and 44.8%(T-P) higher than those of middle part of the reservior. The texture of sediment in the dredged area was silty loam, while that of the middle part was sandy clay loam. Organic matter contents, T-N and T-P of the bottom soil in the dredge area showed higher values than the middle part of the reservoirs. From these results, it was considered thedeep dredged area in the inlet of reservoir might play a key role to settle pollutant particulate. Based on the result of water quality analysis, deep dredging of the reservoir inlet could be assessed to reduce T-N and T-P of the reservoir about 6.5% , 8.3%, respectively. However, the effect of the sedimentation pool would be raised if the settled particles were taken into account in assessing water quality improvement for the reservoir. Accordingly, dredging of a reservoir inlet to make a shape of sedimentation pool is recommended for water quality improvement of reservoir in the stage of dredging plan.

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Performance Characteristics for Off-design Operation of Micro Gas Turbines (마이크로 가스터빈의 탈설계 운전 성능특성)

  • Hwang, S.H.;Kim, T.S.
    • 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.80-87
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    • 2003
  • Micro gas turbines are designed with low turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio. To overcome the efficiency defect of the simple cycle, adoption of the recuperator is an inevitable choice. In addition to the design performance, we should also pay attention to the off-design performance of gas turbines since they usually operate at part-load conditions for a considerable amount of the time. This study aims at analyzing off-design performance characteristics of micro gas turbines and addressing the importance of the recuperator in the part load operation. Comparative analyses have been performed to evaluate the part load performance differences among various design and operating options : simple vs recuperative cycles, single vs two shaft configurations, various operating strategies for the single shaft configuration (fuel only control, variable speed operation, variable inlet guide vane control), and current vs advanced engines. Major finding is that maintaining turbine at high level is crucial in efficient operation of micro gas turbines.

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The Effects of Operational Factors On the Performance of Husk Separator (왕겨풍구의 성능(性能)에 영향(影響)을 미치는 작동요인(作動要因)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Hyun Taik;Noh, Sang Ha;Chung, Chang Joo
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.22-33
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    • 1984
  • Husk separator is an indispensable equipment in rice milling plants. However, any basic research on the designing and operating criteria of the husk separator have rarely been conducted in Korea. According to the survey results reported recently, grain loss occurs in the process of rice husk separation at custom rice milling plants in Korea and the performance of husk separator has also not been identified. With this regard this study was conducted with a typical commercial husk separator to investigate the effect of the operational factors such as feed rate, blower speed and opening ratio on the velocity distribution in the air duct and the performance of the separator. The results are summerized as follows: 1. The average wind velocity in the primary air duct increased linearly with the blower rpm and the size of air inlet port in both cases of double type and single type operations. 2. The coefficient of variation in the horizontal wind velocities in the primary air duct was the minimum when the opening ratio was 0.22 ($0.052m^2$ of air inlet port) in both cases of single type and double type operations regardless of the blower speeds used in this test. The average wind velocity at the upper part of air duct was greater by 2-5 m/s than the velocity at the bottom part in double type operation. In case of single type operation, however, the average velocity in the middle part was greater than the upper or bottom part when the opening ratio was greater than 0.74. 3. The relationship between the overall effectiveness of separation(Ed for double type and Es for single type) and the average wind velocity (Va) in the primary air duct was expressed in the following quadratic functions. $$Ed=-190.84+106.18Va-10.052Va^2$$ ($r^2$ = 0.97782) $$Es=-223.76+106.23Va-9.1935Va^2$$ ($r^2$ = 0.97029) The average wind velocity required to obtain the overall effectiveness of separation more than 80% ranged from 4.04 m/sec to 5.84 m/sec in case of double type operation, and from 4.70 m/sec to 6.20 m/sec in case of single type. 4. An optimum wind velocity can be obtained with an increase in the blower speed or the size of air inlet port as presented in Figure 8. There was a tendency that the faster the blower speed, the narrower the control range of the air inlet port. 5. The feed rates (1850kg/hr and 2100kg/hr) adopted in this experiment did not bring about a significant difference in both the overall effectiveness of separation and the power consumption. 6. The energy consumption increased cubically with the blower speed but linearly with the size of the air inlet port. On the basis of the results described in items 1, 3, and 6, it would be more economic to adjust the size of the air inlet port larger with a relatively low blower speed than to adjust the size smaller with a relatively high speed.

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Experimental Study on Performance of MEMS(Multi-Effect-Multi-Stage) Distiller for Solar Thermal Desalination (태양열 해수담수화를 위한 증발식 MEMS(Multi-Effect-Multi-Stage)담수기 성능 실험 연구)

  • Joo, Hong-Jin;Jeon, Yong-Han;Kwak, Hee-Youl
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we have carried out development and performance evaluation of optimized MEMS(Multi-Effect-Multi-Stage) fresh water generator with $7m^2/day$ for solar thermal desalination system. The developed MEMS was composed of high temperature part and low temperature part. This arrangement has the advantage of increasing the availability of solar thermal energy. The MEMS consists of 2 steam generators, 5 evaporators, and 1 condenser. Tubes of heat exchanger used for steam generators, evaporators and condenser were manufactured by corrugated tubes. The performance of the MEMS was tested through in-door experiments, using an electric heater as heat source. The experimental conditions for each parameters were $20^{\circ}C$ for sea water inlet temperature to condenser, $8.16m^2$ /hour sea water inlet volume flow rate, $70^{\circ}C$ for hot water inlet temperature to generator of high temperature part, 3.6 4.8, 6.0 $m^2/hour$ for hot water inlet volume flow rate. As a result, The developed MEMS was required about 85 kW heating source to produce $7m^2/day$ of fresh water. It was analyzed that the performance ratio of MEMS was about 2.6.

Review on the Removal of Benzene and Ethylene by a Biofilter (바이오 필터에 의한 벤젠과 에틸렌 처리실험에 대한 고찰)

  • 김종오;이우범
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2003
  • A biofilter study was conducted by changing inlet concentration and residence time for the removal of gaseous benzene and ethylene. In addition, carbon dioxide produced from the biofilters was investigated. Over 96% of benzene was removed at the residence times of 2 and 4.3 min, and inlet benzene concentrations of 220∼300 ppm. The ethylene biofilter was capable of achieving ethylene removal efficiency as much as 100% at a residence time of 14 min, and inlet concentrations of 99∼290 ppm. At a steady state, the carbon dioxide of 409∼611 ppm was produced with an ethylene inlet concentration of 290 ppm. Most of benzene and ethylene were degraded at lower part of the biofilters where more microbial activity occurred.

Effects of Design Parameters on the Thermal Performance of a Brushless DC Motor (BLDC 모터의 열적 성능에 대한 설계 인자의 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Soo;Lee, Kwan-Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2008
  • A numerical simulation of brushless DC motor is performed to elucidate thermo-flow characteristics in winding and bearing with heat generation. Rotation of rotor and blades drives influx of ambient air into the rotor inlet. Recirculation zone exists in the tiny interfaces between windings. The flow separation causes poor cooling performance in bearing part and therefore the redesign of the bearing groove is required. The design parameters such as the inlet location, geometry and bearing groove threshold angle have been selected in the present simulation. As the inlet location moves inward in the radial direction, total incoming flow rate and heat transfer rate are increased. Total incoming flow rate is increased with increasing the inlet inner length. The effect of the bearing groove threshold angle on the thermal performance is less than that of other design parameters.

Numerical simulations on flow and particle behaviors in the upper part of a syngas cooler for IGCC (IGCC 합성가스 냉각기 상부의 열유동 및 입자거동 특성에 대한 전산해석 연구)

  • Park, Sangbin;Ye, Insoo;Ryu, Changkook;Kim, Bongkeun
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.147-148
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    • 2012
  • The syngas produced from coal gasification is cooled down for gas cleaning by a syngas cooler that produces steam. Due to the presence of fly slag in the syngas, erosion, slagging and corrosion especially in the upper part of the syngas cooler may cause major operational problems. This study investigates the flow, heat transfer and particle behaviors in the syngas cooler of a 300MWe IGCC plant by using computational fluid dynamics. For various operational loads and geometry, the gas and particle flows directly impinged on the wall opposite to the syngas inlet, which may lead to erosion of the membrane wall. In the evaporate channels inside the syngas cololr, the particle flows were concentrated more on the outer channel where slagging becomes more serious. The heat transfer to the wall was mainly by convection which was larger on the side wall below the inlet level.

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Geomorphological Properties and Changes on River-Mouth Bar at Song-cheon River (송천 하구 사주의 지형 특성과 변화 과정)

  • Lee, Gwang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.693-706
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    • 2011
  • The Geomorphological properties and ages of river-mouth bar at Song-cheon River in the East Coast of Korea, Yeongdeok-gun, Gyeongbuk Province are estimated, and the long-term and short-term changing processes and causes are analyzed. Sand grains of the bar near the coastline show the finer trends from south to north and these can be attributed to the northward movement of waves and long-shore currents. The absolute ages of bar and nearby coastal sand dune are less than approximately 100 years ago, indicating that the bar has experienced the active geomorphological changes. While the inlet located at south part of the bar between 1971 and 1995, the inlet has located at north or middle part since 1995. These may caused by the changes of movement directions of waves and long-shore currents due to the apparent northward movements of winds and currents. In short-term, the higher elevation, larger area, simpler landform relief and more variable location of inlet and morphology of bar can be observed between September and March due to the dominance of sedimentary processes by wave and wind processes.

Analysis of Images According to the Fluid Velocity in Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography, and Contrast Enhancement Angiography

  • Kim, Eng-Chan;Heo, Yeong-Cheol;Cho, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Lee, Hae-Kag
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2014
  • In this study we evaluated that flow rate changes affect the (time of flight) TOF image and contrast-enhanced (CE) in a three-dimensional TOF angiography. We used a 3.0T MR System, a nonpulsatile flow rate model. Saline was used as a fluid injected at a flow rate of 11.4 cm/sec by auto injector. The fluid signal strength, phantom body signal strength and background signal strength were measured at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25-th cross-section in the experienced images and then they were used to determine signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio. The inlet, middle and outlet length were measured using coronal images obtained through the maximum intensity projection method. As a result, the length of inner cavity was 2.66 mm with no difference among the inlet, middle and outlet length. We also could know that the magnification rate is 49-55.6% in inlet part, 49-59% in middle part and 49-59% in outlet part, and so the image is generally larger than in the actual measurement. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were negatively correlated with the fluid velocity and so we could see that signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio are reduced by faster fluid velocity. Signal-to-noise ratio was 42.2-52.5 in 5-25th section and contrast-to-noise ratio was from 34.0-46.1 also not different, but there was a difference in the 1st section. The smallest 3D TOF MRA measure was $2.51{\pm}0.12mm$ with a flow velocity of 40 cm/s. Consequently, 3D TOF MRA tests show that the faster fluid velocity decreases the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio, and basically it can be determined that 3D TOF MRA and 3D CE MRA are displayed larger than in the actual measurement.

Effect of Sedimentation Pool within Irrigation Reservoirs on Water Quality Improvement (저수지내 침전지가 수질개선에 미치는 영향)

  • 장정렬;박병흔;권순국
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.657-662
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted for the purpose of assessing the pollutant removal possibilities of sedimentation pool formed by deep dredging of a reservir inlet. Water quality data were collected in the Masan reservoir, whose inlet has been dredged deep like sedimentation pool. The average concentration of chemical oxygen demand(COD), total nitrogen(T-N) adnd total phosphorous(T-P) in the deep dredged area were 8.3∼28.4mg/$\ell$ (COD), 2.0∼6.0mg/$\ell$(T-N), 0.17∼1.34mg/$\ell$(T-P), which were 3.3% (COD) , 30.6%(T-N) and 46.4%(T-P) higher than those of middle part of the reservoir. From these results, it was considered the deep dredged area in the inlet of reservoir might play a key role to improve reservoir water quality.

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