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Integrated RT-PCR Microdevice with an Immunochromatographic Strip for Colorimetric Influenza H1N1 virus detection

  • Heo, Hyun Young;Kim, Yong Tae;Chen, Yuchao;Choi, Jong Young;Seo, Tae Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.273-273
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    • 2013
  • Recently, Point-of-care (POC) testing microdevices enable to do the patient monitoring, drug screening, pathogen detection in the outside of hospital. Immunochromatographic strip (ICS) is one of the diagnostic technologies which are widely applied to POC detection. Relatively low cost, simplicity to use, easy interpretations of the diagnostic results and high stability under any circumstances are representative advantages of POC diagnosis. It would provide colorimetric results more conveniently, if the genetic analysis microsystem incorporates the ICS as a detector part. In this work, we develop a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) microfluidic device integrated with a ROSGENE strip for colorimetric influenza H1N1 virus detection. The integrated RT-PCR- ROSGENE device is consist of four functional units which are a pneumatic micropump for sample loading, 2 ${\mu}L$ volume RT-PCR chamber for target gene amplification, a resistance temperature detector (RTD) electrode for temperature control, and a ROSGENE strip for target gene detection. The device was fabricated by combining four layers: First wafer is for RTD microfabrication, the second wafer is for PCR chamber at the bottom and micropump channel on the top, the third is the monolithic PDMS, and the fourth is the manifold for micropump operation. The RT-PCR was performed with subtype specific forward and reverse primers which were labeled with Texas-red, serving as a fluorescent hapten. A biotin-dUTP was used to insert biotin moieties in the PCR amplicons, during the RT-PCR. The RT-PCR amplicons were loaded in the sample application area, and they were conjugated with Au NP-labeled hapten-antibody. The test band embedded with streptavidins captures the biotin labeled amplicons and we can see violet colorimetric signals if the target gene was amplified with the control line. The off-chip RT-PCR amplicons of the influenza H1N1 virus were analyzed with a ROSGENE strip in comparison with an agarose gel electrophoresis. The intensities of test line was proportional to the template quantity and the detection sensitivity of the strip was better than that of the agarose gel. The test band of the ROSGENE strip could be observed with only 10 copies of a RNA template by the naked eyes. For the on-chip RT-PCR-ROSGENE experiments, a RT-PCR cocktail was injected into the chamber from the inlet reservoir to the waste outlet by the micro-pump actuation. After filling without bubbles inside the chamber, a RT-PCR thermal cycling was executed for 2 hours with all the microvalves closed to isolate the PCR chamber. After thermal cycling, the RT-PCR product was delivered to the attached ROSGENE strip through the outlet reservoir. After dropping 40 ${\mu}L$ of an eluant buffer at the end of the strip, the violet test line was detected as a H1N1 virus indicator, while the negative experiment only revealed a control line and while the positive experiment a control and a test line was appeared.

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An Empirical Study on the Thermal Performance and Dynamic Behavior of Wall Integrated Thermosiphon Solar Water Heater (벽체일체형 자연순환 태양열온수기의 동적거동과 열성능에 관한 실증연구)

  • Baek, Nam-Choon;Kim, Sung-Bum;Shin, U-Cheul
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the evaluation of the dynamic behavior and thermal performance of the "Façade integrated Natural circulation Solar Water Heating System" installed in the residential house was carried out. Experimental tests were performed during the all year around in the rural houses of $166m^2$ in size. Facade integrated solar collector of $5m^2$ were installed on the south-facing. Electrical heater of 1 kW capacity as an auxiliary heater was installed at the upper part of the heat storage tank. The analyzing results are as follows. (1) Monthly average solar fraction was 51 to 87% and yearly average value is 64%. (2) Hot water supply temperature in December which has the lowest solar altitude is 37 to $76^{\circ}C$. The highest working fluid temperature of solar collector in this period was below $84^{\circ}C$. The temperature difference of working fluid between the collector inlet and outlet has been shown to be around 9 to $26^{\circ}C$. (3) Overheating which is one of the biggest problems during summer did not appear at all, but rather had hot water supply temperature is rather low as $30{\sim}47^{\circ}C$ in summer than winter, which is supplied by a small solar load. The solar collecting temperature has been shown to maintain below $55^{\circ}C$. (5) The thermal performance of Facade integrated solar collector can be increase due to the reduction of heat loss to the back of the collector wall integration of the collector is reduced. As a conclusion, Facade integrated natural circulation type Solar Water Heating System is a well-functioning without any pumps or controllers, and it was found that the disadvantages of conventional solar water heaters, hot water or hot water system can be greatly improved.

Effect of Particulate Matter and Ash Amount on Pressure Drop and Flow Uniformity of Diesel Particulate Filter Reduction System (입자상물질과 Ash양이 디젤매연여과장치 내의 배압 및 유동균일도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, YunJi;Han, DanBee;Seo, TaeWon;Oh, KwangChul;Baek, YoungSoon
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2020
  • Recently, as the fine dust is increased and the emission regulations of diesel engines have been tightened, interest in diesel soot filtration devices has rapidly increased. There is specifically a demand for the technological development of higher diesel exhaust gas after-treatment device efficiency. As part of this, many studies were conducted to increase exhaust gas treatment efficiency by improving the flow uniformity of the exhaust gas in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and reducing the pressure drop between the inlet and the outlet of DPF. In this study, the effects of pressure drop by the flow rate and temperature of exhaust gas, DPF I/O ratio, Ash, and PM amount in diesel reduction device were simulated via a 12" diameter DPF and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) using ANSYS Fluent. As the flow rate and temperature decreased, the pressure drop decreased, whereas the PM amount affected the pressure drop more than the ash amount and the pressure drop was lower in anisotropic DPF than isotropic DPF. In the case of DPF flow uniformity, it was constant regardless of the various variables of DPF. In ESC and ETC conditions, the filtration efficiency for PM was similar regardless of anisotropic and isotropic DPF, but the filtration efficiency for PN (particle number) was higher in anisotropic DPF than isotropic DPF.

Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients and Phytoplankton in Shihwa Reservoir (시화호에서 무기영양염과 식물플랑크톤의 동태)

  • Kim, Dong-Sup;Cho, Kyung-Je;Shin, Jae-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.109-118
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    • 2000
  • The dynamics of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton population were examined at eight stations of Shihwa Reservoir, which situated near the cities newly constructed and the industrial complex of West-sea in Korea, from January to December 1999. Among environmental factors, average concentration of $NH_4$, SRP and SRSi were $522.7\;{\mu}g\;N/l$, $9.8\;{\mu}g\;N/l$ and $0.26\;{\mu}g\;Si/l$, respectively. Water quality was extremely deteriorated by a great amount of pollutants load into inner reservoir after the event of rainfall. Nutrients concentration was suddenly decreased toward the lower part. While $NO_3$ concentration did not much varied among stations, but it was relatively high in winter season. Chlorophyll-a concentration was high at the upper part of the reservoir, with average of $37.2\;{\mu}/l$, and closely related to the fluctuation of $NH_4$, SRP and SRSi concentrations. The phytoplankton development in the water column was dominated by diatom (autumn), prasinoid (winter) and dinoflagellate (summer). Dominant phytoplankton were composed to Skeletonema costatum of diatom, Prorocentrum minimum of dinoflagellate, Chroomonas spp. of cryptomonad, Eutreptiella gymnastica of euglenoid and Pyramimonas spp. of prasinoid. The large bloom of phytoplankton at the upper zone of the Shihwa Reservoir after inflow of a seawater were consistently observed. In consequence, water quality management of the inlet stream was assessed to be very important and urgent.

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CFD Analysis for Microclimate of Venlo Type Glasshouse with the Screen Height and Air-inflow Quantity (스크린설치높이·공기유입량 차이에 따른 벤로형 유리온실 미기상 CFD 유동해석)

  • Yang, Won Mo
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.52-61
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    • 2020
  • The natural change of winter night temperature from 00:00 to 04:30 O'clock with the different height of thermal screen in a venlo type glasshouse (W59×L68×H5.9 m) was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). At the early stage of CFD analysis, the room temperature decrease of glasshouse with the 5.9 m height of thermal screen were faster than it with the 4.1m height of thermal screen, but at 2 hr after analysis it was slower than in it with the 4,1m, the temperature difference was 0.6℃ after 4 hr. If we consider that turn on the heater when the temperature were decrease below 13℃ at 1hr after CFD analysis, it is good for energy saving in the glasshouse with the 4.1 m height of thermal screen rather than in it with the 5.9 m height, because of the temperature decrease were slow during 2 hrs after analysis. The airflow at the height of 2 m which were grown tomato were fast and wide in the glasshouse with the 5.9 m height thermal screen rather than in it with the 4.1 m, the speed difference was 0.034m·s-1 at 1hr after CFD analysis. The effect of temperature decrease in summer season were compared with the different height of shading screen from 12:00 to 14:30 O'clock. The height of shading screen were 5.7, 3.9 m, the gap of it were 30%. The air-inflow quantity by the fan with duct at lower part of venlo glasshouse was 0.67 ㎥·s-1 until 1hr and to increase 3 times of it from 1hr after analysis. The roof window were open 100%. Until 1hr of CFD analysis, the temperature in the 30% open of shading screen was 0.9℃ higher than in the none shading screen. From 13:00 O'clock when the air-inlet quantity to increase 3 times, the temperature in case 30% gap of shading screen were decreased compare with the none shading screen, the temperature difference was 0.5℃ at 14:30 O'clock. The temperature on the floor surface in case 30% gap of shading screen were lower with it's height increase, the temperature difference was 8℃ compare with none shading screen. The relative humidity difference were insignificant by the height and gap of shading screen.