• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inquiry thinking skill

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Suggestion of Computational Thinking-Scientific Inquiry (CT-SI) Model through the Exploration of the Relationship Between Scientific Problem Solving Process and Computational Thinking (과학적 문제해결과정과 컴퓨팅 사고의 관련성 탐색을 통한 컴퓨팅 사고 기반 과학 탐구(CT-SI) 모형의 제안)

  • Hwang, Yohan;Mun, Kongju
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.92-111
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    • 2020
  • The 2015 revised science curriculum and NGSS (Next Generation Science Standard) suggest computational thinking as an inquiry skill or competency. Particularly, concern in computational thinking has increased since the Ministry of Education has required software education since 2014. However, there is still insufficient discussion on how to integrate computational thinking in science education. Therefore, this study aims to prepare a way to integrate computational thinking elements into scientific inquiry by analyzing the related literature. In order to achieve this goal, we summarized various definitions of the elements of computational thinking and analyzed general problem solving process and scientific inquiry process to develop and suggest the model. We also considered integrated problem solving cases from the computer science field and summarized the elements of the Computational Thinking-Scientific Inquiry (CT-SI) model. We asked scientists to explain their research process based on the elements. Based on these explanations from the scientists, we developed 'Problem-finding' CT-SI model and 'Problem solving' CT-SI model. These two models were reviewed by scientists. 'Problem-finding' model is relevant for selecting information and analyzing problems in the theoretical research. 'Problem solving' is suitable for engineering problem solving process using a general research process and engineering design. In addition, two teachers evaluated whether these models could be used in the secondary school curriculum. The models we developed in this study linked with the scientific inquiry and this will help enhance the practices of 'collecting, analyzing and interpreting data,' 'use of mathematical thinking and computer' suggested in the 2015 revised curriculum.

Development of the Three-tier Test Items for the Thinking Skills of the Scientific Inquiry (과학적 탐구 사고력의 3단계 선다형 평가 연구)

  • Lee, Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.643-650
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    • 1998
  • In order to assess students' higher mental abilities, such as scientific inquiry thinking skills, the essay type items would be more adequate than the multiple choice itmes. However, due to the present condition in which a huge number of students take the examination at the same time, it is inevitable to use the multiple choice type. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a new type of multiple choice items which can reduce the disadvantages of the traditional multiple choice type and can achieve a similar level of validity as subjective type assessment. The three-tier multiple choice test items which can be used for a large sample of students and especially for scientific inquiry thinking abilities, are proposed and examined. The three-tier multiple choice test items asked firstly conclusion or the results of calculation or experimental apparatus, secondly the processes of calculation or of developing conclusion, thirdly asking relevant scientific concepts. For the item analysis, 1 point was given to the correct answer, while 0 point was given to the wrong one. The data were processed through the computer program developed in Turbo C 2.0 language with an IBM compatable personal computer. The average score in the sub-items asking for scientific concepts was lower than that in the sub-items asking for results or processes. The score of guessing by chance in the three-tier multiple choice items was only 0.13%, so that the probability of making correct answers by just guessing would be extremely low. The three-tier multiple choice items, even if they are objective items, are thought to assess thinking skills of the scientific inquiry meaningfully excluding the possibility of guessing by chance.

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Development of Teaching Strategy Using Inter-Disciplinary Analogy to Enhance Students' Creative Problem Solving Skills and Examination of Its Effectiveness (II) (학문 통합적 비유를 활용한 창의적 문제 해결력 지향 대학교 화학 실험 수업 전략의 개발 및 효과 (제II보))

  • Bang, Dam-I;Kang, Soon-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.857-874
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    • 2011
  • The purposes of this study were to develop teaching strategy enhancing creative problem solving skills and to examine the instructional influences on studints' creative thinking skills, critical thinking skills, creative personality and academic self-regulation. In this study, a model using inter-disciplinary analogies(PDCA model) was designed and applied to the existing 'Teaching model for the enhancement of the creative problem solving skills'. And it was implemented to preservice science teachers for the one semester. Results indicated that the experimental group presented statistically meaningful improvement in creative thinking skills, especially in the originality of identifying a problem, making hypothesis, and controlling variables (p<.05). In addition, the strategy contributed to improving critical thinking skills, especially in inquiry process of recognizing problems, making hypothesis, interpreting and transforming of data (p<.05). This strategy also helped students' academic self-regulation (p<.05). But there was no significant improvement in creative personality(p<.05).

The Effect of Inquiry Instruction Strategy Enhancing the Activity of Making Variables to Improve on Students' Creative Problem Solving Skills (변인 탐색 활동을 강화한 탐구 수업 전략이 창의적 문제 해결력 신장에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Jieun;Kang, Soonhee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.58 no.5
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    • pp.478-489
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    • 2014
  • The purposes of this study were to develop teaching strategy enhancing the activity to explore variables and to examine the instructional influences on students' creative thinking skills and critical thinking skills. In this study, a model using listing-excluding-controlling variables (DPAS model) was designed and applied to the existing 'Teaching model for the enhancement of the creative problem solving skills'. And it was implemented to preservice science teachers for the one semester. Results indicated that the experimental group presented statistically meaningful improvement in creative thinking skills, especially in recognizing problems, making hypothesis, controlling of variables and interpreting & transforming of data (p<.05). In addition, the strategy contributed to improve critical thinking skills, especially in making hypothesis and making conclusion & generalization (p<.05).

Investigating Science-contents Problems through Correlation with Tests of Creative Thinking and Integrated Process Skills (과학 탐구력 검사와 창의성 검사와의 관계를 통한 과학영재 선발문항 유형 분석)

  • Park, Min-Jung;Chun, Mi-Ran;Jeon, Dong-Ryul
    • Journal of Gifted/Talented Education
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.565-583
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    • 2009
  • We studied what kind of science-contents problems can also give information on one's creativity for use in the selection of scientifically gifted. 383 7th and 8th graders as subjects, we first analyzed the corelation between the results of creative thinking, scientific attitude, science inquiry, logical thinking and the scientific creativity problem solving skill test. The corelation analysis indicated that science inquiry test could represent other tests except TTCT. We then tested 532 6th graders with TTCT and science inquiry tests concomitantly with the contents- related problems made in such types as naming 20 scientists, writing about a scientist, imagination to overcome a problem, understanding of theory and application and understanding of science laws and application. The results indicated that writing and imagination were most efficient in assessing both the contents and the creativity.

Application Effects of Biology Modules for Improving Science High School Students' Creativity and Scientific Thinking (과학고 학생들의 창의력과 과학적 사고력 향상을 위한 생물 실험 모듈의 적용 효과)

  • Yoon, Deog-Geun;Kim, Sung-Ha;Cha, Hee-Young;Lee, Kil-Jae;Chung, Wan-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.556-564
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    • 2004
  • Two biology modules were developed previously for the purpose of improving creativity and scientific thinking of secondary school students. A hypothetical-deductive experimental procedure was reflected in the module when students themselves can perform a series of activities of making hypothesis and designing an experiment to solve the questions. They followed a series of scientific processes to determine some characteristics regarding plant pigments and the transport process of materials in living organisms. Four classes of 9th graders in'S' Science High School were divided into the experimental and the control group. The same contents of the modules were taught to the control group by the traditional experimental way. The students' creativity, scientific thinking, scientific inquiry skill and knowledge achievement were examined before and after the interventions. As results, the experimental groups showed more significant improvement on the areas of the students' creativity, scientific thinking, scientific inquiry skill and achievement than the control groups. Results indicated that the specially designed modules in terms of hypothetical-deductive experimental procedure were effective to improve science high school students' creativity and scientific thinking abilities.

The Analysis of the Educational Objectives, Scientific Models and Cognitive Processes in Scientific Inquiry of the SNU Scientifically Gifted Student Program (서울대학교 과학 영재 프로그램의 학습 목표, 과학적 모형, 과학탐구의 인지 과정 분석)

  • Shin My-Young;Chun Miran;Choe Seung-Urn
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2005
  • We have analyzed the science-gifted educational program (year 2002) at the Seoul National University in terms of its educational objectives, scientific models, and cognitive processes in scientific inquiry in order to provide insights into developing and improving science-gifted educational program. We assumed the following items as important factors for teaching scientifically gifted students: higher-order thinking skills involving synthesis domain in the educational objectives, highly abstract nature and complexity in the scientific models, cognitive processes of planning experiments in the cognitive processes in scientific inquiry. According to the analyzed results, the program has the following characteristics: (1) the rates of both higher and lower-order thinking skill domain in the educational objectives are similarly high, but the rate of synthesis domain is relatively low; (2) in the case of the scientific models, the rate of the multiple concepts and/or processes model is relatively low, while the level of the abstractness is relatively on average (3) cognitive processes of authentic scientific inquiry is not thoroughly reflected in the scientific inquiry activities, and very few cognitive processes of planning experiments factor is reflected. Therefore, we conclude in the synthesis domain in the educational objectives, multiple concepts and/or processes model, and cognitive processes of planning experiments should be especially reflected more on the science-gifted educational program in order to serve the needs of scientifically gifted students.

Creation and Elaboration of Problem Space Depending on Students' Attitudes toward the Task and Thinking Skills (학생의 과제에 대한 태도와 사고력에 따른 문제공간의 형성과 정교화)

  • Kim, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2009
  • Inquiry has been emphasized in science classrooms, but the problems shown in the inquiry are somewhat different with ones that students usually meet and experience in everyday life. The purpose of this study is to investigate how attitudes toward the task and thinking skills affect students' problem solving process, especially, the way of creating a problem space and elaborating problem solving strategies when they have little schema. The difference in students' problem solving strategies of Lego Robotics class, one of the summer programs for $4^{th}-6^{th}$ grade gifted students, which is new to them, was investigated. The results are as follows: (1) The difference in attitudes toward the task, or selection and identification of the missions, and the perception of operators, affected creating a different problem space. (2) Different level of thinking skills, or analytical and flexible thinking, efficient elaborative skill, and application of schema affected a different level of elaboration of the problem space and resulted in asuccess rate of problem solving. (3) Different initial problem space resulted in different problem solving strategies. But without thinking skills, students could not elaborate problem solving strategies efficiently. Several instructional recommendations to promote scientific inquiry were suggested based on the results.

The Development of Performance Scoring Rubrics for the Inquiry-Based General Chemistry Experiments (탐구적 일반화학실험 수행 평가 준거 개발)

  • Kang, Soon-Hee;Kim, Yang-Hyun;Park, Jong-Yoon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.507-515
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    • 1999
  • This study is to develope the performance scoring rubrics for the inquiry-based experiments of general chemistry course in the college of education. Two types of analytic scoring rubrics have been developed for nine different experiments. The first one is to assess scientific process skills from the written experimental reports. These analytic scoring rubrics include seven process skills selected from the Lawson's 'creative and critical thinking skills' and other known process skills. The second one is to assess the individual manipulative skills and experimental attitudes through direct observations by the teacher. The content validity of all scoring rubrics was testified by six science educators. Also the inter-scorer reliability of analytic scoring rubrics administered on the students' experimental reports was examined. The correlation coefficient between the scores obtained from the experiments and those of the written test for theoretical knowledges was found to be r=.663(p <.01). From the variance($r^2$=.440), we would say indirectly that the 56% of this experimental assessment does not overlap with the theoretical knowledges test and assesses students' science process skills, manipulative skills, and attitudes.

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Exploring Reasoning Patterns of Students' Scientific Thinking, Inquiry Activities in Textbook, and Examination Items

  • Kim, Young-Shin;Kwon, Yong-Ju;Yang, Il-Ho;Chung, Wan-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2003
  • Scientific reasoning is one of the main concerns in current science education. This study have tried to answer on the question whether Korean science education has the potential to help improve of students' ability to think scientifically. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between reasoning patterns evident in science textbook and science examination items, and students' scientific reasoning skills across grades in Korea. 1975 subjects (1022 females and 953 males) were administered in the Lawson's Test of Scientific Reasoning skills. Forty seven science textbooks and 240 assessment instrument were analyzed by several scientific reasoning keys. Scientific reasoning patterns were adopted from Lawson's classification which characterized the patterns as the empirical-inductive and the hypothetical-deductive. This study found that reasoning patterns evident in textbook analyses and assessment instrumental items do not evidentce the potential to stimulate the development of students' reasoning skill. In order to improve the students' abilities to think and achieve, higher levels of reasoning must be included in the science textbook and examination. Further, some of scientific reasoning processes, such as generating hypotheses, designing experiments, and logical prediction, were not found in science textbooks and test items in Korean secondary schools. This study also discussed the educational implication of these results and further studies about to develop student's reasoning ability.