• Title, Summary, Keyword: Insecticide

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Fundamental Research for Establishing Job-Exposure Matrix (JEM) of Farmer Related to Insecticide of Pesticide (III) : Fruit (농약물질 중 살충제 관련 농업 종사자들의 직무-노출 매트릭스 구축을 위한 기초 자료 조사 연구 (III) : 과일류)

  • Choi, Jeong-Hak;Kim, Ki-Youn
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.317-323
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was performed to estimate domestic usage amount of insecticide for fruit cultivation to suggest job-exposure matrix(JEM) regarding farmers treating agricultural insecticide. Materials and Methods: The domestic usage amount of insecticide for fruit cultivation was investigated according to two research methods. The former method is to use agricultural pesticides published annually from Korea Crop Protection Association(KCPA) and the latter method is to apply cultivation area of fruit provided officially from Statistics Korea(SK). Results: It was found that its domestic usage amount has decreased gradually from the first sale to presence(2012). However, there is a significant difference of annual usage trend of insecticide for fruit cultivation between shipments and estimation. The annual usage trends of insecticide for fruit cultivation based on regional classification were different from those based on total aspect. Conclusions: The region which used insecticide for fruit cultivation the most in Korea was as follows: Gyeonsang-do, followed by Jeolla-do, Chungcheong-do, Jeju-do, Seoul/Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do. An averaged ratio of usage amounts of insecticide based on shipments and those based on estimation by cultivation area was $980{\pm}186%$, which means that usage amounts of insecticide estimated by shipments are ten times higher than those based on cultivation area.

Fundamental Research for Establishing Job-Exposure Matrix (JEM) of Farmer Related to Insecticide of Pesticide (II) : Vegetable (농약물질 중 살충제 관련 농업 종사자들의 직무 -노출 매트릭스 구축을 위한 기초 자료 조사 연구 (II) : 채소류)

  • Kim, Ki-Youn;Cho, Man-Su;Lim, Byung-Seo;Lee, Sang-Gil;Knag, Dong-Mug;Kim, Jong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The main objective of this study is to investigate domestic usage amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation to provide fundamental data for establishing job-exposure matrix(JEM) related to farmers treating agricultural insecticide. Materials and Methods: The survey on domestic usage amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation was conducted by two research methods. The first method is to utilize agricultural pesticides published annually from Korea Crop Protection Association(KCPA). The second method is to apply cultivation area of vegetable announced officially from Statistics Korea(SK). An estimation of domestic usage amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation through the second method was done by multiplying total cultivation area of vegetable($m^2$) with optimal spray amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation per unit cultivation area of vegetable ($kg/m^2$). Results: As a result of analysis of public data related to insecticide for vegetable cultivation, it was found that its domestic usage amount has decreased gradually from the first sale year(1969) to current year(2012). There is, however, a considerable difference of annual usage trend of insecticide for vegetable cultivation between shipments and estimation. The annual usage trends of insecticide for vegetable cultivation based on regional classification were different from those based on total aspect. Conclusions: The region which used insecticide for vegetable cultivation the most in Korea was Jeolla-do, followed by Gyeonsang-do, Chungcheong-do, Seoul/Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do and Jeju-do. Substantially, mean ratio of usage amounts of insecticide based on shipments and those based on estimation by cultivation area was $281{\pm}115%$, which indicates that usage amounts of insecticide estimated by cultivation area are three times lower than those based on shipments.

Insecticide Resistance in Increasing Interest

  • Lee, Sung-Eun;Kim, Jang-Eok;Lee, Hoi-Seon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2001
  • Insect pests can be controlled through direct application of insecticides. Insect control by residual protectants is relatively inexpensive and has an advantage of destroying all stages of infestations. The efficacy of control is largely determined by the concentration of insecticides to which the pest species is exposed. A reduction in the period of control in the field afforded by a specific level of a protectant indicates that resistance has developed. An increase in the level of protectant is required to maintain control, and the efficacy of currently used insecticides has been severely reduced by insecticide resistance in pest species. Development of resistance to particular insecticide varies with species because insecticide resistance is often correlated with increased levels of certain enzymes, which are cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and esterases. Some sections of insecticide molecules can be modified by one or more of these primary enzymes. A reduction in the sensitivity of the action site of a xenobiotic also constitutes a mechanism of resistance. Acetylcholinesterase is a major target site for insecticide action, as are axonal sodium ion channels and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid receptors. Development of reduced sensitivity of these target sites to insecticides usually occurs. This review not only may contribute to a better understanding of insecticide resistance, but also illustrates the gaps still present for a full biochemical understanding of the resistance.

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Distribution of Toxin Genes and Enterotoxins in Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Microbial Insecticide Products

  • Cho, Seung-Hak;Kang, Suk-Ho;Lee, Yea-Eun;Kim, Sung-Jo;Yoo, Young-Bin;Bak, Yeong-Seok;Kim, Jung-Beom
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.2043-2048
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    • 2015
  • Bacillus thuringiensis microbial insecticide products have been applied worldwide. Although a few cases of B. thuringiensis foodborne illness have been reported, little is known about the toxigenic properties of B. thuringiensis isolates. The aims of this study were to estimate the pathogenic potential of B. thuringiensis selected from microbial insecticide products, based on its possession of toxin genes and production of enterotoxins. Fifty-two B. thuringiensis strains selected from four kinds of microbial insecticide products were analyzed. PCR assay for detection of toxin genes and immunoassay for detection of enterotoxins were performed. The hemolysin BL complex as a major enterotoxin was produced by 17 (32.7%), whereas the non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex was detected in 1 (1.9%) of 52 B. thuringiensis strains. However, cytK, entFM, and ces genes were not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis strains. The potential risk of food poisoning by B. thuringiensis along with concerns over B. thuringiensis microbial insecticide products has gained attention recently. Thus, microbial insecticide products based on B. thuringiensis should be carefully controlled.

A Study on the Influence of Corrosion of Metals and Plants through Aerosol Type Spraying of Agricultural Pesticide Products Containing Insecticide Ingredients (살충제 성분이 함유된 농약제품의 에어로졸 분사에 따른 금속 및 식물의 부식 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2018
  • Recently, serious problems occurred such as insecticide eggs, sanitary pads with carcinogens, radon(Rn) emitting beds in domestic. It had not been establishing the inspection system to evaluate safety and human harmfulness before occurring real accidents. This research was conducted to test preliminary experimental inspection for consideration of safety insensibility. The influence of corrosion of metals and plants was studied through aerosol type spraying of agricultural pesticide products coming into the market. These products contain primary three insecticide ingredients(Flufenoxuron, Etoxazole, Fipronil) in recent accidents. Visual examination, SEM-EDS and optical microscope were used for the analysis for corrosion effect. Results show that a lot of ingredients contain in the crop protection products, and various type of corrosion exist in the surface of metals and plants. Therefore, it is necessary to provide health warning and accurate range of use for crop protection products containing insecticide ingredients.

Strategy for Insecticide Resistance Management Approach to IPM

  • Motoyama, Naoki;Dauterman, W.C.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.314-327
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    • 1992
  • Insecticide resistance is a serious is a serious threat to IPM, resulting in various adverse effects not to mention the loss of yield in agriculture. One approach to counter the problem is the disruption of resistance mechanisms. This can be achieved by (1) compounds which show a negative correlation with resistance at the site of action, (2) specific metabolic inhibitors which serve as synergists, or (3) a certain combination of two insecticides producing a joint action. This approach, however, requires certain precautions for the side effects may cause an increase in toxicity to mammals. Owing to the recent advances in theoretical studies on resistance management employing computer simulation and mathematical models, a few principles to reduce the risk of development of resistance have been clarified. They are helpful in designing operational strategies with regard to, for instance, insecticide doses to be applied, mode of application, and choice and nature of the insecticide(s) to be used. For restoration of insecticide susceptibility of a resistant population, reintroduction of susceptible individuals to the resistant population is feasible when certain conditions are met. Natural enemies which developed resistance to insecticides can be an important component of IPM as has been shown in the pest management in apple orchards. After all, the implementation of a successful resistance management program depends upon cooperation between different sigments of the agricutural community. Although resistance is a preadaptive phenomenon, in some cases spontaneous loss of resistance does occur without contamination by susceptible individuals. The instability of resistance in these insects implies the possible existence of a switch machanism controlling the expression of resistance gene(s). Elucidation of such a mechanism may eventually provide us with a new technical approach with which we can combat the problem of insecticide resistance.

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Control Effect of New Developed Insecticide on Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) Collected from Commercial Roses (장미에서 채집된 점박이 응애(Tetranychus urticae Koch)에 대한 신규 살충제의 방제 효과)

  • Park, Hyean-Cheal;Choi, In-Soo;Kang, Jeom-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.150-153
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    • 2003
  • To determine the effect of newly developed insecticide on two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus Urticae, populations, ten leaf discs were sprayed with three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) of the tested insecticide solution, and with a water-sprayed control. The tested insecticide solution was toxic to adult female and immature of two spotted spider mite, but was relatively non-toxic to eggs. For equivalent concentrations, more adult females were killed than immature stages. There was no marked difference between the hatch of treated and untreated eggs, although a weak trend between the numbers of unhatched eggs and the insecticide concentration after 7 days is shown.

Development, Validation, and Application of a Portable SPR Biosensor for the Direct Detection of Insecticide Residues

  • Yang, Gil-Mo;Cho, Nam-Hong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1038-1046
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to develop a small-sized biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for the rapid identification of insecticide residues for food safety. The SPR biosensor module consists of a single 770 nm-light emitting diodes (LED) light source, several optical lenses for transferring light, a hemisphere sensor chip, photo detector, A/D converter, power source, and software for signal processing using a computer. Except for the computer, the size and weight of the sensor module are 150 (L)$\times$70 (W)$\times$120 (H) mm and 828 g, respectively. Validation and application procedures were designed to assess refractive index analysis, affinity properties, sensitivity, linearity, limits of detection, and robustness which includes an analysis of baseline stability and reproducibility of ligand immobilization using carbamate (carbofuran and carbaryl) and organophosphate (cadusafos, ethoprofos, and chlorpyrifos) insecticide residues. With direct binding analysis, insecticide residues were detected at less than the minimum 0.01 ppm and analyzed in less than 100 sec with a good linear relationship. Based on these results, we find that the binding interaction with active target groups in enzymes using the miniaturized SPR biosensor could detect low concentrations which satisfy the maximum residue limits for pesticide tolerance in Korea, Japan, and the USA.

Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Cyanophos

  • Park, Jae-Hyun;Park, Won-Chul;Kim, Yoo-Jung;Lee, Yong-Tae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.605-609
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    • 2002
  • A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantitative detection of organophosphorus insecticide cyanophos. An analogue (hapten) of cyanophos was synthesized and was coupled to BSA to produce polyclonal antibodi es from rabbits. The antisera were screened against another hapten coupled to ovalbumin (OVA). Using the sera of highest specificity, an antigen-coated ELISA was developed, which showed an I50 of 310 ng/mL with the detection limit of 20 ng/mL. The antibodies showed negligible cross-reactivities with other organophosphorus pesticides except for parathion-methyl, which makes the assay suitable for the selective detection of cyanophos.

Enzyme Immunoassay for On-line Sensing of the Insecticide Imidaclopird Residues (살충제 이미다크로프리드 잔류물의 실시간 측정용 효소면역분석법)

  • 송석진;조한근
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.505-510
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    • 2003
  • In Korea, due to its broad efficacy as a systemic insecticide, imidacloprid has been widely used in rice paddies to control sucking insects, soil insects, and some chewing insects and in apple orchards to control various insects pests. To quantify the imidacloprid residue concentrations, samples are assayed in vitro using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays(ELISA). These assays generally require several hours to perform. As a biosensor, a competitive imidacloprid ELISA was modified to measure insecticide concentrations. It was found that a total assay time of 15 min(10-min antibody-antigen binding, and 5-min substrate development) is sufficient for monitoring imidacloprid concentrations. Further work is needed to improve the sensitivity of the measurement protocol.