• Title, Summary, Keyword: Installment capacity

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Determining Appropriate Capacity on Installing Photovoltaic System at Deteriorated Educational Facilities

  • Lhee, Sang Choon;Choi, Young Joon;Choi, Yool
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2014
  • With high acknowledgements of environmental conservation and energy saving, many architectural technologies using renewable energy have been recently applied at buildings which take about 20% of total energy consumption. Among renewable energy sources, the photovoltaic is considered as the most highly potential one due to advantages of infiniteness and cleanliness. Also, projects to install renewable energy systems have been continuously performed at deteriorated educational facilities as energy efficient remodeling projects or green school projects by the Korean government. This paper proposes appropriate capacities by school level on installing photovoltaic systems at deteriorated school buildings, based on the balance of annual electricity power demand and supply between buildings and systems. Using the Visual DOE program and Merit program, the appropriate installment capacity of photovoltaic system turned out be 40kWp at elementary school building and 60kWp at middle and high ones. In addition, annual energy use proved to be reduced by 20.2% at elementary school, 26.9% at middle school, and 21.0% at high school by installing photovoltaic systems with the appropriate capacities.

Numerical Analyses about Test Results of Discharge Capacity Apparatus Using Penetration Method (관입식 통수능 실험의 수치해석)

  • Yoo, Nam-Jae;Woo, Young-Min;Jun, Sang-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2009
  • This thesis is results of numerical analyses about test results of discharge capacity apparatus using penetration method. Applicability of numerical approach with FEM technique, using Cam-clay model, was confirmed by analyzing the results of standard consolidation test before analyzing test results of discharge capacity apparatus using penetration method. Thus, input parameters for the model was convinced to be appropriate. For numerical analyses about test results of discharge capacity apparatus using penetration method, identical initial and loading conditions during tests were applied to simulate test results correctly. Effects of ground disturbance resulted from installment of vertical drains on the behaviors of consolidation were also simulated. Applicability of numerical approach was investigated by comparing test results with numerical ones. As results of them, both of consolidation settlement were found to be in good agreements so that its applicability was confirmed. As results of numerical estimation, degree of consolidation with the condition of considering smear zone was found to be delayed, compared with results without smear zone. On the other hands, parametric numerical analyses of changing parameters related to smear zone such as permeability and size of smear zone and permeability of vertical drain were also carried out.

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An Evaluation for Progressive Collapse Resisting Capacity of a 80F RC Flat Plate for Sustainable Super Tall Building (지속가능한 초고층 건물을 위한 80층 RC 플랫 플레이트 건물의 연쇄붕괴 저항성능 평가)

  • Seo, Dae-Won;Kim, Hae-Jin;Shin, Sung Woo
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2010
  • This study is connected with evaluation of the progressive collapse resisting capacity for sustainable RC super tall building design. As the progressive collapse is not considered in current design codes in Korea, differences between linear static and dynamic analysis based on the GSA guidelines was analyzed for better evaluation, and the analysis model of flat plate system was determined. Finally, the progressive collapse resisting capacity was evaluated for structural system of super tall building. According to this study, the results by linear dynamic analysis were underestimated than the results by linear static analysis. Thus, the dynamic coefficient value of 2 provides conservative approach. The Effective Beam Width's model, currently used in field, is useful for the analysis about lateral force, but this model does not consider the effect of load redistribution by the slab. Hence, finite element analysis considering slab element will be needed for progressive collapse resisting capacity of the flat plate system. Finally, analysis model of 80-story building designed based on KBC(Korea Building Code) shows the weakness against progressive collapse because the DCR value is over 2. Thus, the countermeasure for alternative loading path such as installment of spandrel beam and reinforcements around slab is required to prevent the progressive collapse.

Structural performance evaluation of a steel-plate girder bridge using ambient acceleration measurements

  • Yi, Jin-Hak;Cho, Soojin;Koo, Ki-Young;Yun, Chung-Bang;Kim, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Chang-Geun;Lee, Won-Tae
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.281-298
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    • 2007
  • The load carrying capacity of a bridge needs to be properly assessed to operate the bridge safely and maintain it efficiently. For the evaluation of load carrying capacity considering the current state of a bridge, static and quasi-static loading tests with weight-controlled heavy trucks have been conventionally utilized. In these tests, the deflection (or strain) of the structural members loaded by the controlled vehicles are measured and analyzed. Using the measured data, deflection (or strain) correction factor and impact correction factor are calculated. These correction factors are used in the enhancement of the load carrying capacity of a bridge, reflecting the real state of a bridge. However, full or partial control of the traffic during the tests and difficulties during the installment of displacement transducers or strain gauges may cause not only inconvenience to the traffic but also the increase of the logistics cost and time. To overcome these difficulties, an alternative method is proposed using an excited response part of full measured ambient acceleration data by ordinary traffic on a bridge without traffic control. Based on the modal properties extracted from the ambient vibration data, the initial finite element (FE) model of a bridge can be updated to represent the current real state of a bridge. Using the updated FE model, the deflection of a bridge akin to the real value can be easily obtained without measuring the real deflection. Impact factors are obtained from pseudo-deflection, which is obtained by double-integration of the acceleration data with removal of the linear components on the acceleration data. For validation, a series of tests were carried out on a steel plategirder bridge of an expressway in Korea in four different seasons, and the evaluated load carrying capacities of the bridge by the proposed method are compared with the result obtained by the conventional load test method.

Performance Evaluation of Full Scale Reinforced Subgrade for Railroad with Rigid Wall Under Static Load (정하중 재하 시 실물 강성벽 일체형 철도보강노반의 성능평가)

  • Kim, Dae-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.31-42
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    • 2015
  • The Reinforced subgrade for railroad (RSR) was constructed for one way railway line with the dimension of 5 m high, 6 m wide and 20 m long to evaluate its performance under train design load. The RSR has characteristics of short length (0.3-0.4 H) of reinforcement and rigid wall, 30 and 40 cm vertical spacing of reinforcement installation. To enhance economics and constructability, three kinds of connections (welding, hinge & bolt, bold wire) were also designed to realize the integration between rigid wall and reinforced subgrade. Two times of static loading tests were done on the full size railroad subgrade. The maximum applied pressure was 0.98 MPa (the maximum test load 5.88 MN), which corresponds to 19.6 times of the design load for railroad subgrade, 50 kPa. The performance on the RSR was evaluated with the safety on the failure, subgrade bearing capacity and settlement, horizontal displacement of wall, and reinforcement strain. Based on the full scale test, we confirmed that the RSR with the conditions of 0.35 H (35% of height) short reinforcement length, hinge & bolt type connection for integration between rigid wall and reinforced subgrade, and 40cm vertical spacing of reinforcement installment shows good performance under train design load.

Effect of Perforated PVC Underdrainage Pipe on Desalting of Plastic Film House Soils (시설재배지 유공관 암거배수에 의한 염류집적 경감효과)

  • Kim, Dae-Su;Yang, Jae E.;Ok, Yong-Sik;Yoo, Kyung-Yoal
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2006
  • Objective of this research was to remove the accumulated salts in the plastic film house soils by installing the perforated PVC (${\phi}10cm$) underdrainage pipes at 50 cm depth of soils with cultivating vegetables. Efficiency of the underdrainage pipes was assessed based on the changes of soil chemical properties such as pH, EC, and cations, and growth and yield parameters of the vegetables between the two treatments; the control and the underdrainage pipe treatments. The EC of the underdrainage pipes installed soils after two growing seasons were in the ranges of $1.42-2.88dS\;m^{-1}$ but those of the control were in the ranges of $3.86-4.53dS\;m^{-1}$, indication the underdrainage pipes effectively removed the accumulated salts in soils. The pHs of the control soils and the underdrainage pipe installed soil were in the ranges of 7.2-7.5 and 6.9-7.3, respectively. There was a significant correlation between pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils ($CEC=17.107{\times}pH-106.2$, $r^2=0.759$, P < 0.05). The ECs of the soils at different depths were compared between the two treatments after cultivating vegetables with lettuce-lettuce-garland chrysanthemum rotation systems. The ECs of the control soils at depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm were 3.45, 3.47, 3.03, 2.03, and $2.28dS\;m^{-1}$, respectively, with decreasing with soil depths. On the other hand, the respective ECs of the underdrainage pipes installed soils were 2.43, 2.52, 2.28, 4.00, and $4.23dS\;m^{-1}$ with increasing with soil depths. This might be derived from the salts moved downward with the draining water into the subsoil. The order of cations moved downward was Mg > Ca > K, based on the ratios of cations at specific depth over those at the surface soil. The survival rates of lettuce after 15 days of transplanting in the underdrainage pipe installed soils were 98.2% as compared to 86.6% of the control. The underdrainage pipe treatment also increased the diameter of the lettuce stalk from 12.9mm of the control to 13.7mm. Overall results demonstrated that the installment of the underdrainage pipes in the subsoils of the salt accumulated plastic film house soil effectively removed the salts by leaching downward,resulting in lowering soil EC and enhancing the growth and yield of vegetables.