Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
Developments in aircraft require safety verification through flight testing for many hours with prototype design and production. The test evaluation step of performing flight tests was an important process that determines the success in the development of the system. In particular, safety development through flight tests in the armed flight test is important for the development of attack helicopters. In the development of attack helicopters, the evaluation period and cost related to the armed flight test are closely related to the required ammunition requirement. Therefore, this paper presents the amount of ammunition required for the military flight test between attack helicopter developments through an analysis of the AH-1 helicopter in a similar case and ADS-44-HDBK of military specification. The AH-1 can be used to calculate the ammunition demand by considering the exclusion of redundant firing tests and configuration differences. In the case of the machine gun-equipped configuration, approximately 10,500R was required, and approximately 324R was required in the case of a rocket-mounted configuration. In addition, if the armed integrated bench is used properly, it is expected to promote efficiently the flight test in the armed flight by identifying the possible risk factors with armed flight tests and excluding them.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Landscape Architecture is a minority manpower field that requires wide knowledge and experience. Therefore, the service market is narrower than other fields, and education service for practitioners is lacking. The purpose of this study is to propose e-learning content development methodology that can provide customized landscaping practical education according to the level of education and increase the economic efficiency of the development process. First, in theoretical review, the ADDIE model was modified to select the curriculum development model that pursues efficiency and introduced the concept of reusing learning objects in the SCORM-based model. In particular, to overcome the problems presented in the precious studies, the analysis and design stages have been strengthened and faculty designers with integrated knowledge of Landscape Architecture and ICT have led the overall phase. The actual development process is based on a step by step procedure--analysis of landscaping practitioners needs and environments, etc., teaching and learning procedures and the design of activities considering contents reuse, the first development such as actual shooting and editing, and the second development reusing the first development content--and was done in the order of evaluation and revision of professionalism and satisfaction. As a result of the study, the space-based courses composed of modular learning objects were first developed as 216 courses in 8 subjects, as 208 courses in 3 subjects in total, in which the modularized learning object are crossed and combined in units and difficulty-based courses were second developed in 216 courses with 3 subjects in total. As a result of the evaluation the satisfaction assessment of the overall satisfaction was 4.20 and the average value of the eight measures was 3.97, both being close to 4.0. For the professional assessment, the scores of 8 subjects were very high at 84.8 to 96.4 points. in context, the scores of 5 subjects were equal to from 89.9 to 96.4 points. In conclusion, as the study was conducted based on a clear understanding of the digital characteristics of e-learning contents and general characteristic of the landscaping industry, it was possible to develop a curriculum by developing a course composed of modular learning objects and reusing learning objects by unit. In particular, it has been proven to be effective in conveying professional knowledge and experiences via general procedures and provided an opportunity to overcome some analog problems that may occur in offline education. In the future, further studies need to be done by expanding the content and by focusing on segmented subjects.
There is a rapid increase in the use of digital video information in recent years, it becomes more important to manage video databases efficiently. The development of high speed data network and digital techniques has emerged new multimedia applications such as internet broadcasting, Video On Demand(VOD) combined with video data processing and computer. Video database should be construct for searching fast, efficient video be extract the accurate feature information of video with more massive and more complex characteristics. Video database are essential differences between video databases and traditional databases. These differences lead to interesting new issues in searching of video, data modeling. So, cause us to consider new generation method of database, efficient retrieval method of video. In this paper, We propose the construction and generation method of the video database based on contents which is able to accumulate the meaningful structure of video and the prior production information. And by the proposed the construction and generation method of the video database implemented the video database which can produce the new contents for the internet broadcasting centralized on the video database. For this production, We proposed the video indexing method which integrates the annotation-based retrieval and the content-based retrieval in order to extract and retrieval the feature information of the video data using the relationship between the meaningful structure and the prior production information on the process of the video parsing and extracting the representative key frame. We can improve the performance of the video contents retrieval, because the integrated video indexing method is using the content-based metadata type represented in the low level of video and the annotation-based metadata type impressed in the high level which is difficult to extract the feature information of the video at he same time.
The objective of this paper is to think about what structural reforms of the Korean government S&T development management system might be. Korean society is currently experiencing a drastic socio-economic transformation. The results of this transformation should be reflected on the determining process of the directions and breadths of structural reforms of government S&T development management system. Because the government system design will be based on the premises of socio-economic conditions under which administrative activities perform and also this socio-economic changes can influence on changes of the premises of government management system design. Moreover, S&T development management system is a subsystem of government system so that the directions of structural reform of those subsystems should be considered in the broad framework changes in the development management system of the government. For the last forty years, the Korean government S&T development management system has been based on the premises including transformation from an agrarian society to an industrial society, authoritarianism and centrally controlled institutions, and exteremely small portions of private investments for science and thechonology R & D of the total. Recently, however, the premises of Korean government S&T development management system have rapidly changed. the characteristics of these changes are including tranformation from an industrial society to a knowledge and information intensive society, globalization, localization, and relatively large portion of private investments for science and technology R & C of the total. The basis of government reforms in Korea was the realization of the performances and values through the enhancement of national competitive capacity, attainment of lean government, decentralization and autonomy. However, the Korean government has attached a symbolic value of strategic organizations representing strong policy intentions of government for the science and technology based development. Most problems associated with the Korean government S&T development management system have grown worse during 1990s. Many people perceive that considerable part of this problem was generated because the government could not properly adapt itself to new administrative environment and the paradigm shift in its role. First of all, the Korean government S&T development management system as a whole failed to develop an integrated vision under which processes in formulating science and thechology development goals and developing consistent government plans concerning science and technology development are guided. Second, most of the local governments have little organizational capacity and manpowers to handle localized activities to promote science and technology in their regions. Third, the measure to coordinate and set priorities to invest resources for the development of science and technology was not effective. Fourth, the Most has been losing its reputation as the symbol of ideological commitment of the top policy maker to promote science and technology. Various ideas to reform government S&T development management system have been suggested recently. Most frequently cited ideas are as follow : (ⅰ)strengthen the functions of MoST by supplementing the strong incentive and regulatory measures; (ⅱ)create a new Ministry of Education, Science & Technology and Research by merging the Ministry of Education and the MoST; (ⅲ)create a new Ministry of Science & Technology and Industry ; and(ⅳ)create a National Science and Technology Policy Council under the chairmanship of the President. Four alternatives suggested have been widely discussed among the interested parties and they each have merits as well as weaknesses. The first alternative could be seen as an alternative which cannot resolve current conflicts among various ministries concerning priority setting and resource allocation. However, this alternatives can be seen as a way of showing the top policymaker's strong intention to emphasize science and technology based development. Second alternative is giving a strategic to emphasize on the training and supplying qualified manpower to meet knowledge and information intensive future society. This alternative is considered to be consistent with the new administrative paradigm emphasizing lean government and decentralization. However, opponents are worrying about the linkages and cooperative research between university and industry could be weakening. The third alternative has been adopted mostly in nations which have strong basic science research but weak industrial innovation traditions. Main weakness of this alternative for Korea is that Korean science and technology development system has no strong basic science and technology research traditions. The fourth alternative is consistent with new administrative paradigms and government reform bases. However, opponents to this alternative are worried that the intensive development of science and technology because of Korea's low potential research capabilities in science and technology development. Considerning the present Korean socio-economic situation which demands highly qualified human resources and development strategies which emphasizes the accumulations of knowledge-based stocks, I would like to suggest the route of creating a new Ministry of Education, Science & Technology and Research by intergrating education administration functions and science & technology development function into one ministry.
Product Service System(PSS), which is an integrated combination of product and service, provides new value to customer and makes companies sustainable as well. The objective of this paper draws Critical Successful Factors(CSF) of PSS through multiple case study. First, we review various concepts and types in PSS and Platform business literature currently available on this topic. Second, after investigating various cases with the characteristics of PSS and platform business, we select four cases of 'iPod of Apple', 'Kindle of Amazon', 'Zune of Microsoft', and 'e-book reader of Sony'. Then, the four cases are categorized as successful and failed cases according to criteria of case selection and PSS classification. We consider two methodologies for the case selection, i.e., 'Strategies for the Selection of Samples and Cases' proposed by Bent(2006) and the seven case selection procedures proposed by Jason and John(2008). For case selection, 'Stratified sample and Paradigmatic cases' is adopted as one of several options for sampling. Then, we use the seven case selection procedures such as 'typical', 'diverse', 'extreme', 'deviant', 'influential', 'most-similar', and 'mostdifferent' and among them only three procedures of 'diverse', 'most?similar', and 'most-different' are applied for the case selection. For PSS classification, the eight PSS types, suggested by Tukker(2004), of 'product related', 'advice and consulancy', 'product lease', 'product renting/sharing', 'product pooling', 'activity management', 'pay per service unit', 'functional result' are utilized. We categorize the four selected cases as a product oriented group because the cases not only sell a product, but also offer service needed during the use phase of the product. Then, we analyze the four cases by using cross-case pattern that Eisenhardt(1991) suggested. Eisenhardt(1991) argued that three processes are required for avoiding reaching premature or even false conclusion. The fist step includes selecting categories of dimensions and finding within-group similarities coupled with intergroup difference. In the second process, pairs of cases are selected and listed. The second step forces researchers to find the subtle similarities and differences between cases. The third process is to divide the data by data source. The result of cross-case pattern indicates that the similarities of iPod and Kindle as successful cases are convenient user interface, successful plarform strategy, and rich contents. The differences between the successful cases are that, wheares iPod has been recognized as the culture code, Kindle has implemented a low price as its main strategy. Meanwhile, the similarities of Zune and PRS series as failed cases are lack of sufficient applications and contents. The differences between the failed cases are that, wheares Zune adopted an undifferentiated strategy, PRS series conducted high-price strategy. From the analysis of the cases, we generate three hypotheses. The first hypothesis assumes that a successful PSS system requires convenient user interface. The second hypothesis assumes that a successful PSS system requires a reciprocal(win/win) business model. The third hypothesis assumes that a successful PSS system requires sufficient quantities of applications and contents. To verify the hypotheses, we uses the cross-matching (or pattern matching) methodology. The methodology matches three key words (user interface, reciprocal business model, contents) of the hypotheses to the previous papers related to PSS, digital contents, and Information System (IS). Finally, this paper suggests the three implications from analyzed results. A successful PSS system needs to provide differentiated value for customers such as convenient user interface, e.g., the simple design of iTunes (iPod) and the provision of connection to Kindle Store without any charge. A successful PSS system also requires a mutually benefitable business model as Apple and Amazon implement a policy that provides a reasonable proft sharing for third party. A successful PSS system requires sufficient quantities of applications and contents.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
The purpose of this study was to analyze elementary school students' interpretation of data characteristics by cognitive style. Participants were elementary students in sixth grade who can use integrated inquiry process skills. The students were divided into two groups, analytic cognitive style and wholistic cognitive style according to their response to Cognitive Style Analysis. They performed scientific interpretation of data activity. To collect data for this study, participants recorded the result on scientific interpretation of data activity paper and researcher recorded the situation on videotape and interviewed with participants after the end of interpretation of data to get additional data. And the findings of this study were as follows: First, the study analyzed interpretation of data characteristics by the operator regarding different situations of interpreting data according to cognitive style. For example, in the intermediate state, analytic-cognitive style students showed high achievement in identifying variables, and wholistic-cognitive style students were active in using prior knowledge to interpret data. Second, the result of analysis on the direction of interpreting data and preference for data types in interpreting data activities according to cognitive style are as follows: Wholistic-cognitive style students showed relatively high perception of information through the top-down approach. On the other hand, analytic-cognitive style students usually used the bottom-up approach gradually expanding detailed information to the scientific question-related answer and showed a preference data of the table type. Through the result, this study aimed to help establish a data interpretation strategy for learners to solve problems based on understanding of interpretation of data characteristics according to learners' cognitive style, and purposed the instruction design suggesting the data requiring various data interpretation strategies to develop learners' data interpretation ability.
Facing a complex environment driven by a decade, many companies are adopting new strategic frameworks such as Customer Relationship Management system to achieve sustainable profitability as well as overcome serious competition for survival. In many business areas, CRM system advanced a great deal in a matter of continuous compensating the defect and overall integration. However, pharmaceutical companies in Korea were slow to accept them for usesince they still have a tendency of holding fast to traditional way of sales and marketing based on individual networks of sales representatives. In the circumstance, this article tried to empirically address current status of CRM system as well as the effects of the system on the performance of pharmaceutical companies by applying BSC method's four perspectives, from financial, customer, learning and growth and internal process. Survey by e-mail and post to employers and employees who were working in pharma firms were undergone for the purpose. Total 113 cases among collected 140 ones were used for the statistical analysis by SPSS ver. 15 package. Reliability, Factor analysis, regression were done. This study revealed that CRM system had a significant effect on improving financial and non-financial performance of pharmaceutical companies as expected. Proposed regression model fits well and among them, CRM marketing information system shed the light on substantial impact on companies' outcome given profitability, growth and investment. Useful analytical information by CRM marketing information system appears to enable pharmaceutical firms to set up effective marketing and sales strategies, these result in favorable financial performance by enhancing values for stakeholderseventually, not to mention short-term profit and/or mid-term potential to growth. CRM system depicted its influence on not only financial performance, but also non-financial fruit of pharmaceutical companies. Further analysis for each component showed that CRM marketing information system were able to demonstrate statistically significant effect on the performance like the result of financial outcome. CRM system is believed to provide the companies with efficient way of customers managing by valuable standardized business process prompt coping with specific customers' needs. It consequently induces customer satisfaction and retentionto improve performance for long period. That is, there is a virtuous circle for creating value as the cornerstone for sustainable growth. However, the research failed to put forward to evidence to support hypothesis regarding favorable influence of CRM sales representative's records assessment system and CRM customer analysis system on the management performance. The analysis is regarded to reflect the lack of understanding of sales people and respondents between actual work duties and far-sighted goal in strategic analysis framework. Ordinary salesmen seem to dedicate short-term goal for the purpose of meeting sales target, receiving incentive bonus in a manner-of-fact style, as such, they tend to avail themselves of personal network and sales and promotional expense rather than CRM system. The study finding proposed a link between CRM information system and performance. It empirically indicated that pharmaceutical companies had been implementing CRM system as an effective strategic business framework in order for more balanced achievements based on the grounded understanding of both CRM system and integrated performance. It suggests a positive impact of supportive CRM system on firm performance, especially for pharmaceutical industry through the initial empirical evidence. Also, it brings out unmet needs for more practical system design, improvement of employees' awareness, increase of system utilization in the field. On the basis of the insight from this exploratory study, confirmatory research by more appropriate measurement tool and increased sample size should be further examined.
Recently, Korea became the 7th country in the world which has got into the 20-50 clubs that means the population is 50 million and per capital income is $20,000. From the view point of the retail industry, it suggests that Korea should have its own self-sufficient market by itself. With abundant labor and increased disposable income, it made the consumer's needs change. Responding to the change, retail and F&B oriented retail malls are now starting to add culture, art and entertainment facilities in the configurations. Such complexity and variety of the shopping malls became trendy and many shopping complexes are scheduled to open in the near future across the country. Due to above reasons, it became the common trend to develop shopping complex all over the cities now. However, the history of the shopping mall in Korea is much shorter than developed countries such as America and Japan. Thereby, a lot of problems, trial and error have occurred in the process of developing and operating them. If development of shopping complex failed, it would return lots of damages to the stakeholder. Therefore, the corporations should develop the mall properly and government might support positively. In this study, we would like to propose on how all the mall should be developed and well managed and what are the ways for the vitalizing factors of the shopping complex after benchmarking other shopping mall cases. Through the case study, we realized that the most crucial factors for vitalizing shopping complex were interior design, merchandising and how well they operate the mall. In case of the failed shopping mall, developers sell each store to individual proprietors and never take care of them after they get the profit, which make it hard to have integrated marketing strategies. That causes the overall slump of the mall. Corporations developing the mall should operate it as well, so that it could be possible to make the mall consistently well managed and promoted. There is a certificate for the shopping mall expert in The States and Japan. However, we do not have this kind of certificate. In fact, if we judge the capability of a person who is involved in the shopping mall industry, we usually measure how many years they stick to the same industries and that is not equally the same as their competence. Therefore it is necessary to organize "Shopping Mall Associate" and introduce shopping mall license for the mall expert. Due to retail trends, we can easily see a lot of shopping facilities all over the cities but not every mall is able to be successful. We think it's essential that the government should certify the malls which are qualified for the design, merchandising and proficiency of the operation. For the qualified mall, the government could confer a benefit on the company such as reducing corporation taxes. In multi-complex shopping mall it is possible to make convenient for customers. However, if a mall failed to succeed, it would be disaster. To build a shopping complex, developers should invest huge money even take out loan so that many people would be connected to the project, which may affect their whole financial conditions. In addition, only qualified corporation should develop and operate shopping complex and the government must support and aid the developers in order to make a better shopping environment in which customers might be happy during their shopping experience.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
Sontag and Lee (2004) recently developed an objectively measurable instrument, the Proximity of Clothing to Self(PCS) Scale, which measured the psychological closeness of clothing to self. They validated a 4-factor, 24-item PCS Scale for use with adolescents and identified the need for confirmation of the factor structure with other age groups. This paper extends the work of Sontag and Lee by employing the PCS Scale with older persons, age 65 and over, and reports the validation of a 3-factor, 19-item PCS Scale for older persons. A mail survey was sent to a national random sample of 1,700 older Persons by means of a list purchased from a U.S. survey sampling company in late November 2004. Total usuable number of respondents was 250 with an adjusted response rate of 15.6 percent. Three analytical rounds of confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) to test the construct validity of the PCS Scale were conducted by using AMOS 5.0(Analysis of Moment Structures), one of several structural equation modeling(SEM) programs. Completion of three rounds of the CFA resulted in a 3-factor, 19-item PCS Scale with demonstrated construct validity and reliability for older persons. The three PCS dimensions are clothing in relation to 1) self as structure-process(PCS Dimension 1-2-3 combined), 2) self-esteem-evaluative and affective processes(PCS Dimension 4-5 combined), and 3) body image and body cathexis(PCS Dimension 6). The initially hypothesized 6-factor scale(Sontag & Lee, 2004) was not confirmed for adolescents in their study nor with older persons in this study. In addition, the 4-factor solution for the adolescent group did not hold for older persons. It appears that the self-system of older persons is more integrated than may be true for younger individuals. Recommendations for future testing of construct validity of the PCS Scale are made.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
This research was performed of high school science classes. These science classes progressed by using Scratch, and surveyed students' perception after finishing each class. This research was conducted of male students who want to choose department of natural science in the next grade. Those classes are consisted of four classes. This study produced a journal, and contained expressions of their thinking and feeling based on experiences during attending classes and projects. Consequently, that journal was analyzed in view of understanding and perception of Scratch using science classes, and it was also included of utilizing Scratch program. Research shows following three conclusions. First, students preferred Scratch using class to general one. They attend more active with high interest, and they felt senses of accomplishment while they make output by themselves. Second, their studies passed through three stages. These are problem perception, problem solving, and producing. Problem solving stage is especially complicated and difficult stage to students. This stage is consisted of Scratch side and Science side. Scratch side has Design and applying process, and Science side has data gathering and analyzing. Students' comprehension of scientific knowledge is increased and is preserved long time through this stage. Last, students had a hard time using Scratch. Because, it is the first time to them to use that program. Therefore, we deemed that they needed to start this kind of experience at lower grade than they are now, such as middle school stage. It is expected that this type of classes are getting more expanded and more populated as a part of students' core ability.
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