Korean wave which started from Korean drama is continuing its popularity with K-pop in China. This positive effect has lead to increases in Korean product export to China, increase in number of Chinese visitors to Korea and increase in number of Chinese population learning Hangul. In this research, empirical study was conducted to analyze the influence of Korean wave contents (drama, movie, K-pop, games) on Chinese population (their intention to purchase Korean product, visit Korea and learn Hangul.) As the result, it is understood that the most influential Korean wave content on Chinese population's intention to purchase Korean cosmetic and clothing products is drama; it is analyzed that K-pop has noticeable influence as well. Korean drama has the greatest influence on Chinese population's intention to visit Korea, purchase cosmetic or plastic surgery tour package and purchase Korean food. K-pop is analyzed as the second most influential factor among Korean wave contents in this category. Korean wave contents which have the most influence on intention to learn Hangul are Korean drama and K-pop, and it is analyzed that K-pop has greater influence than Hangul in this field.
Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
As the number of tourists visiting Seoul are continuously increasing, the demand of an integrative tour pass is also increasing. However, only a few tour passes are available for the tourists in Seoul. In this paper, we propose a new tour pass called "Seoul Landmark Pass" targeting foreign individual travelers and investigate the marketability of the proposed tour pass. For the configuration of the Seoul Landmark Pass we listed 17 candidate attractions charging entrance fee in Seoul, referring to e-guidebook on Visit Seoul web site. Among them we selected 6 attractions using the checklist with the attributes that foreign tourists would prefer. We also performed SWOT analyzes on existing tour passes to determine the benefits to be included in the proposed tour pass. To investigate the marketability of the proposed tour pass we have surveyed the foreign individual tourists in Seoul. Using the survey data, we have analyzed the intent of purchase by age, visiting period, visiting purpose, frequency of visit, and nationality to identify target customers. The results show that the intent of purchase is high among the Chinese tourists at the age of twenties who visited Seoul for the first time or second times. Also, the individual tourists prefer to bundle T-money card with the proposed tour pass. Finally, we have provided a brief review of the Price Sensitivity Measurement (PSM) method and applied PSM to determine the acceptable price range and the optimal price of the proposed tour pass. The optimal price of the proposed tour pass is determined at 53,000 won including T-money card.
Purpose: This study specifically discusses why coffee shop customers want to revisit coffee shops. In addition, we would like to verify the mediated effect of the emotional reaction in relation to the influence of the experience values of the Chinese coffee shop on the re-visit of the coffee shop. Research design, data and methodology: Regression and reliability analyses were conducted. Simple regression was used for stock price verification, and the bootstrap method of model4 of Hayes was performed for the intermediate hypothesis verification. Results: This study confirmed that the experience values of coffee shops (entertainment, aesthetic, economic efficiency, and service excellence) have a significant influence on customers' intention to revisit coffee shops. Conclusions: Managers can check that the level of revisit by customers is increased by increasing the elements of experience value. In addition, studies have shown that the customer's emotional reactions play a significant mediating role in the relationship between the value of the experience and the customer's intention to revisit the coffee shop. This suggests that the coffee shop operator should focus on the emotional response of its customers and devise strategies to ensure that the value of the experience is connected to the intent of revisiting.
Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
The makeup experience service in a theme park was analyzed for the study on the makeup service using experiential marketing based on recent consumer experience. The results of the study showed that the utilization, marketing effect, and lifestyle in makeup service at the Experiential marketing are analyzed. In other words, according to the variables, the purpose of this study is to the effect on the satisfaction, loyalty, and Intent to revisit. In this study, in order to achieve this, literature research and Empirical study on the same time. In literature review, Theories and previous studies were considered which are about experience marketing, lifestyle, makeup service, loyalty, satisfaction, and the intent to revisit. Then, a research model and a hypothesis were established. In empirical study, Based on this, it was applied to the makeup service in a theme park and verified through analysis methods such as frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. The results showed that experience marketing and lifestyle had a significant influence on satisfaction, loyalty, and return visit intention. Based on this research, the makeup service using experience marketing would be hopefully more practical as a typical culture content marketing.
The author in this study carried out survey by questionnaires on the spectators who participated in the Andong International Mask Dance Festival being held from Sept. 26, 2008 to Oct. 5, 2008. Survey was designed to find out what was influence of sense of satisfaction from experience program upon spectators' intent for re-visit for such program in future. Result of analysis showed that experience program of Andong International Mask Dance festival was constituted of diverse aspects accordingly level of satisfaction by spectators for the program was very high. Also spectators' sense of anticipation for experiencing feeling of uniqueness and creativity appeared to be very high. In terms of level of satisfaction spectators showed high level satisfaction with sense of convenience and creativity aspect thus it was revealed that spectators' sense of satisfaction with festival experience program had significant impact on their intention for re-visit in future. In consideration of such fact there seemed to be need for versatile approach to experience program of Andong International Mask Dance Program and continuous research and development of experience program in order to meet changing desire of tourists thus there is urgent need for developing creative and more active experience program In future.
Purpose - Inducing consumers' behavioral intent to use an outlet shopping center is a critical issue for managers since it can be used as a guide for developing marketing strategies. Low prices could lead to a growth in retail purchases, but there might also be a positive relationship between prices and customer perceptions of product quality. The extent to which consumers use price as a predictor of quality may differ according to the availability of important alternative cues such as brand, store name, and identity salience triggered by the store. Consumers can obtain non-economic benefits from marketing exchanges that go beyond basic economic achievement. We argue that identity salience can play a crucial mediating role when consumers, acting as exchange partners, seek to obtain social benefits. This study shows that identity salience could mediate the relationship between identity salience-inducing factors such as multi-finality, prestige and role performance, and consumers' behavioral intent to use an outlet shopping center. Research design, data and methodology - The survey was conducted on college students enrolled in marketing classes. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed, of which only 194 were returned. After five incomplete questionnaires were excluded, a final sample of 189 was used for empirical analysis. Using a covariance structural analysis in Amos17, we confirmed the fit of the research model and estimated its parameters by using the maximum likelihood method. Results - The results of the hypotheses testing are as follows. First, both identity salience and economic benefits have positive effects on the behavioral intent to use an outlet shopping center. Second, role performance, prestige, and multi-finality have positive effects on identity salience. Finally, the additive analysis of the direct effects of identity salience-inducing factors shows that the role performance, prestige, and multi-finality factors have no direct effects on the behavioral intent to use an outlet shopping center, suggesting that identity salience plays a positive mediating role. Conclusions - This study informs marketers that not only price but shoppers' identity salience directly affects their intent to visit an outlet shopping center. To strengthen shoppers' identity salience, marketers should find ways to help shoppers fulfill their multiple social roles, realize their multiple goals, and achieve prestige. In other words, outlet shopping centers must improve their personal service environment in order to enhance their employees' service quality and assist the execution of multi-finality by minimizing the perceived costs (e.g., travel time, effort) associated with shopping trips, thus making it easier for consumers to combine visits to multiple stores in outlet shopping centers and buy the items required for their consumption goals. Outlet shopping centers must also offer assortments with both breadth and depth in order to help consumers play the social roles their social networks have given them.
Purpose - Based on preceding studies, this thesis focuses on the finding of the definition and category of mobile tourism application and deriving out its characteristics. And after looking for how they make influences on continuous intention to use, we make empirical study with TAM model. Research design, data, and methodology - There are many Chinese tourist who visit Korea with user's constant intention to use of tourism application. This study is to find out the definition and category of mobile tourism application through research of preceding study and to fomulate the research model and hypothesis that how tourism application attributes (convenience, interaction, accessibility, local basis, security) affect constant intention to use of mobile tourism application. In order to verify a hypothesis, we conducted a survey for Chinese users of tourism application. In empirical study, we analyzed a structure model for frequency analysis, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis through IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 and IBM SPSS AMOS 21.0 Results - Among tourism applications, convenience, interaction, accessibility and local basis have positive effects on both perceived usefulness and perceived easiness respectively. But security does not. Also perceived easiness has a positive effect on perceived usefulness. Finally, perceived usefulness and perceived easiness have positive effect on constant intent to use. Conclusions - Tourism application enterprises should put emphasis on design such as menu or function in order to simplify the operation of new services for new customers. Therefore, comfortable user interface and development of useful function can improve tourism application. Consequently, it leads to the promotion of tourism application. Also, when users perceive tourism application as a useful media which is easy, comfortable and useful content, the degree of constant intention to use becomes increased. It is important to provide plentiful and useful contents for customers and to develop user interface such as easy operation because these factors have positive effects on constant demand and use of tourism application.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and the psychosocial factors associated to the referral to psychiatric care in the suicide attempters visiting emergency center. Methods: We conducted a systematic chart review of 377 suicidal attempters visiting emergency center of the Korea University Ansan Hospital between January 2008 and December 2011. We gathered a data contain 20 items including psychosocial characteristics and factors related to suicide and factors related to psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to data to estimate the unique effects of sex, drunken status, companion, suicidal methods, place of suicide and current use of psychiatric medication on the referral to psychiatric care. Results: The female gender(OR=1.63, 95% CI=0.99-2.69), suicidal attempts at home(OR=3.40, 95% I= 1.21-9.56) and drunken state at visit(OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.10-5.01) are the factors that predict the risk of the non-referral of the patients to psychiatric intervention. Place of suicidal attempt was the most important factor do play a role in determining whether referral to psychiatric care will take place or not. Current use of psychiatric medication showed a trend toward significance(p=0.08, OR=1.67, 95% CI=0.95-2.95). Conclusions: These results suggest that when deciding whether to adapt or to refuse the referral to psychiatric care, the factors such as suicidal intent, lethality of suicide methods, familiar factors and alcohol may contribute onto the referral to psychiatric care. Additional research is required to investigate an association of these factors with referral to psychiatric care.
Recently, SNS has become an important channel for marketing as well as personal communication. However, cybercrime has also evolved with the development of information and communication technology, and illegal advertising is distributed to SNS in large quantity. As a result, personal information is lost and even monetary damages occur more frequently. In this study, we propose a method to analyze which sentences and documents, which have been sent to the SNS, are related to financial fraud. First of all, as a conceptual framework, we developed a matrix of conceptual characteristics of cybercriminality on SNS and emergency management. We also suggested emergency management process which consists of Pre-Cybercriminality (e.g. risk identification) and Post-Cybercriminality steps. Among those we focused on risk identification in this paper. The main process consists of data collection, preprocessing and analysis. First, we selected two words 'daechul(loan)' and 'sachae(private loan)' as seed words and collected data with this word from SNS such as twitter. The collected data are given to the two researchers to decide whether they are related to the cybercriminality, particularly financial fraud, or not. Then we selected some of them as keywords if the vocabularies are related to the nominals and symbols. With the selected keywords, we searched and collected data from web materials such as twitter, news, blog, and more than 820,000 articles collected. The collected articles were refined through preprocessing and made into learning data. The preprocessing process is divided into performing morphological analysis step, removing stop words step, and selecting valid part-of-speech step. In the morphological analysis step, a complex sentence is transformed into some morpheme units to enable mechanical analysis. In the removing stop words step, non-lexical elements such as numbers, punctuation marks, and double spaces are removed from the text. In the step of selecting valid part-of-speech, only two kinds of nouns and symbols are considered. Since nouns could refer to things, the intent of message is expressed better than the other part-of-speech. Moreover, the more illegal the text is, the more frequently symbols are used. The selected data is given 'legal' or 'illegal'. To make the selected data as learning data through the preprocessing process, it is necessary to classify whether each data is legitimate or not. The processed data is then converted into Corpus type and Document-Term Matrix. Finally, the two types of 'legal' and 'illegal' files were mixed and randomly divided into learning data set and test data set. In this study, we set the learning data as 70% and the test data as 30%. SVM was used as the discrimination algorithm. Since SVM requires gamma and cost values as the main parameters, we set gamma as 0.5 and cost as 10, based on the optimal value function. The cost is set higher than general cases. To show the feasibility of the idea proposed in this paper, we compared the proposed method with MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation), Term Frequency, and Collective Intelligence method. Overall accuracy and was used as the metric. As a result, the overall accuracy of the proposed method was 92.41% of illegal loan advertisement and 77.75% of illegal visit sales, which is apparently superior to that of the Term Frequency, MLE, etc. Hence, the result suggests that the proposed method is valid and usable practically. In this paper, we propose a framework for crisis management caused by abnormalities of unstructured data sources such as SNS. We hope this study will contribute to the academia by identifying what to consider when applying the SVM-like discrimination algorithm to text analysis. Moreover, the study will also contribute to the practitioners in the field of brand management and opinion mining.
The basic purpose of this study is to investigate perceived quality and service personal value affecting the result of long-term relationship between service buyers and suppliers. This research presented a constructive model(perceived quality affecting the service personal value and the moderate effect of NFC) in the on off line and then propose the research model base on prior researches and studies about relationships among components of service. Data were gathered from respondents who visit at the education service market. For this study, Data were analyzed by AMOS 7.0. We integrate the literature on services marketing with researches on personal values and perceived quality. The SERPVAL scale presented here allows for the creation of a common ground for assessing service personal values, giving a clear understanding of the key value dimensions behind service choice and usage. It will lead to a focus of future research in services marketing, extending knowledge in the field and stimulating further empirical research on service personal values. At the managerial level, as a tool the SERPVAL scale should allow practitioners to evaluate and improve the value of a service, and consequently, to define strategies and actions to address services for customers based on their fundamental personal values. Through qualitative and empirical research, we find that the service quality construct conforms to the structure of a second-order factor model that ties service quality perceptions to distinct and actionable dimensions: outcome, interaction, and environmental quality. In turn, each has two subdimensions that define the basis of service quality perceptions. The authors further suggest that for each of these subdimensions to contribute to improved service quality perceptions, the quality received by consumers must be perceived to be reliable, responsive, and empathetic. Although the service personal value may be found in researches that explore individual values and their consequences for consumer behavior, there is no established operationalization of a SERPVAL scale. The inexistence of an established scale, duly adapted in order to understand and analyze personal values behind services usage, exposes the need of a measurement scale with such a purpose. This need has to be rooted, however, in a conceptualization of the construct being scaled. Service personal values can be defined as a customer's overall assessment of the use of a service based on the perception of what is achieved in terms of his own personal values. As consumer behaviors serve to show an individual's values, the use of a service can also be a way to fulfill and demonstrate consumers'personal values. In this sense, a service can provide more to the customer than its concrete and abstract attributes at both the attribute and the quality levels, and more than its functional consequences at the value level. Both values and services literatures agree, that personal value is the highest-level concept, followed by instrumental values, attitudes and finally by product attributes. Purchasing behaviors are agreed to be the end result of these concepts' interaction, with personal values taking a major role in the final decision process. From both consumers' and practitioners' perspectives, values are extremely relevant, as they are desirable goals that serve as guiding principles in people's lives. While building on previous research, we propose to assess service personal values through three broad groups of individual dimensions; at the self-oriented level, we use (1) service value to peaceful life (SVPL) and, at the social-oriented level, we use (2) service value to social recognition (SVSR), and (3) service value to social integration (SVSI). Service value to peaceful life is our first dimension. This dimension emerged as a combination of values coming from the RVS scale, a scale built specifically to assess general individual values. If a service promotes a pleasurable life, brings or improves tranquility, safety and harmony, then its user recognizes the value of this service. Generally, this service can improve the user's pleasure of life, since it protects or defends the consumer from threats to life or pressures on it. While building upon both the LOV scale, a scale built specifically to assess consumer values, and the RVS scale for individual values, we develop the other two dimensions: SVSR and SVSI. The roles of social recognition and social integration to improve service personal value have been seriously neglected. Social recognition derives its outcome utility from its predictive utility. When applying this underlying belief to our second dimension, SVSR, we assume that people use a service while taking into consideration the content of what is delivered. Individuals consider whether the service aids in gaining respect from others, social recognition and status, as well as whether it allows achieving a more fulfilled and stimulating life, which might then be revealed to others. People also tend to engage in behavior that receives social recognition and to avoid behavior that leads to social disapproval, and this contributes to an individual's social integration. This leads us to the third dimension, SVSI, which is based on the fact that if the consumer perceives that a service strengthens friendships, provides the possibility of becoming more integrated in the group, or promotes better relationships at the social, professional or family levels, then the service will contribute to social integration, and naturally the individual will recognize personal value in the service. Most of the research in business values deals with individual values. However, to our knowledge, no study has dealt with assessing overall personal values as well as their dimensions in a service context. Our final results show that the scales adapted from the Schwartz list were excluded. A possible explanation is that although Schwartz builds on Rokeach work in order to explore individual values, its dimensions might be especially focused on analyzing societal values. As we are looking for individual dimensions, this might explain why the values inspired by the Schwartz list were excluded from the model. The hierarchical structure of the final scale presented in this paper also presents theoretical implications. Although we cannot claim to definitively capture the dimensions of service personal values, we believe that we come close to capturing these overall evaluations because the second-order factor extracts the underlying commonality among dimensions. In addition to obtaining respondents' evaluations of the dimensions, the second-order factor model captures the common variance among these dimensions, reflecting the respondents' overall assessment of service personal values. Towards this fact, we expect that the service personal values conceptualization and measurement scale presented here contributes to both business values literature and the service marketing field, allowing for the delineation of strategies for adding value to services. This new scale also presents managerial implications. The SERPVAL dimensions give some guidance on how to better pursue a highly service-oriented business strategy. Indeed, the SERPVAL scale can be used for benchmarking purposes, as this scale can be used to identify whether or not a firms' marketing strategies are consistent with consumers' expectations. Managerial assessment of the personal values of a service might be extremely important because it allows managers to better understand what customers want or value. Thus, this scale allows us to identify what services are really valuable to the final consumer; providing knowledge for making choices regarding which services to include. Traditional approaches have focused their attention on service attributes (as quality) and service consequences(as service value), but personal values may be an important set of variables to be considered in understanding what attracts consumers to a certain service. By using the SERPVAL scale to assess the personal values associated with a services usage, managers may better understand the reasons behind services' usage, so that they may handle them more efficiently. While testing nomological validity, our empirical findings demonstrate that the three SERPVAL dimensions are positively and significantly associated with satisfaction. Additionally, while service value to social integration is related only with loyalty, service value to peaceful life is associated with both loyalty and repurchase intent. It is also interesting and surprising that service value to social recognition appears not to be significantly linked with loyalty and repurchase intent. A possible explanation is that no mobile service provider has yet emerged in the market as a luxury provider. All of the Portuguese providers are still trying to capture market share by means of low-end pricing. This research has implications for consumers as well. As more companies seek to build relationships with their customers, consumers are easily able to examine whether these relationships provide real value or not to their own lives. The selection of a strategy for a particular service depends on its customers' personal values. Being highly customer-oriented means having a strong commitment to customers, trying to create customer value and understanding customer needs. Enhancing service distinctiveness in order to provide a peaceful life, increase social recognition and gain a better social integration are all possible strategies that companies may pursue, but the one to pursue depends on the outstanding personal values held by the service customers. Data were gathered from 284 respondents in the korean discount store and online shopping mall market. This research proposed 3 hypotheses on 6 latent variables and tested through structural equation modeling. 6 alternative measurements were compared through statistical significance test of the 6 paths of research model and the overall fitting level of structural equation model. and the result was successful. and Perceived quality more positively influences service personal value when NFC is high than when no NFC is low in the off-line market. The results of the study indicate that service quality is properly modeled as an antecedent of service personal value. We consider the research and managerial implications of the study and its limitations. In sum, by knowing the dimensions a consumer takes into account when choosing a service, a better understanding of purchasing behaviors may be realized, guiding managers toward customers expectations. By defining strategies and actions that address potential problems with the service personal values, managers might ultimately influence their firm's performance. we expect to contribute to both business values and service marketing literatures through the development of the service personal value. At a time when marketing researchers are challenged to provide research with practical implications, it is also believed that this framework may be used by managers to pursue service-oriented business strategies while taking into consideration what customers value.
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