Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between interest in smoking cessation and factors that define this interest. The study subjects were 593 male civil servants who work at D metropolitan city and were smokers at the time of the survey. The research method was a survey using a self-administered questionnaire in October 2015. Interest in smoking cessation of study subjects showed that 28.3% had no interest in smoking cessation, 45.7% were interested in smoking cessation, but had no intention to quit within six months, and 26.0% were interested in smoking cessation and intended to quit within six months. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors influencing interest in smoking cessation with explanatory powers of 23.6% were employment type, age when first starting smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, time from when you wake up until you smoke your first cigarette, recognition of susceptibility to lung cancer, and benefits to smoking cessation. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of recognition of susceptibility for lung cancer, benefits to smoking cessation, and barriers to smoking cessation were significantly increased in the group with interest in smoking cessation and intention to quit within six months vs. the group with no interest in smoking cessation. Taken together, these results suggest that cancer prevention due to smoking and awareness of the seriousness of health problems caused by smoking were factors increasing interest in smoking cessation.
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
Objectives: The development of internet programs for smoking cessation was motivated to quit smoking in the large group of smokers. This personalized program consisted of tailored message to consider the smokers characteristics, and contain the informations on the outcomes of smoking cessation and the skills to be used in the quit attempts. The purpose of this study was to develop the internet management program and information push-delivery system for smoking cessation to encourage the personal intention to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted in 3 steps as developing push service to encourage intention of smoking cessation, analyzing problems of smoking cessation program through the pilot test and suggesting improvements by implication stages. Results: This program is delivered for 30 days. if the participants do not fail to quit smoking. The contents consisted of 13 stages which were divided on starting period. practical period, maintenance period and success period. And push service afforded the tailored message to participants using their e-mail. According to the evaluation of pilot test, the problems of internet information push-delivery service for smoking cessation were the over-tasks per visiting time, recording style of participants, difficulty of terms and sentences, lack of visual effects, absence of follow-up module and unsuitable link with main homepage. Improvements were divided on 3 stages by implication period. The first stage included the immediate improvements as improving link with homepage, modifying menu of smoking information and upload file of notice part. The second stage included the short term improvements as alleviating condition of withdrawal, coordinating start stage of retrial, modifying errors of information push-delivery service and addition of educational materials. The third stage included the long term improvements as development of follow-up module, cost-effectiveness evaluation, reducing contents quantity, introduction of checking style, compensation of graphics effect and review for SMS utilization. Conclusions: This program contribute to improving smoking cessation rate. Therefore this program should be tested in a community to evaluate the effectiveness. To promote the effectiveness, this program should be developed the contents and the strategies for various targets, and established the follow-up system for ex-smokers.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
This study was conducted to the middle and high school students in some Seoul and Kyunki areas to identify the smoking behavior characteristics among adolescences. A self-administered survey was conducted to the 2nd grad students in 4 middle schools and 6 high schools and the survey Questionnaire included general characteristics, smoking and drug use history, the close people's smoking and drug use, smoking and drug abuse prevention education, smoking intention, and smoking attitude. A total of 2,452 youths finished the survey (1,182 middle school students and 1,270 high school students). Current smoking students were 14.6%, the ex-smokers were 5.5%, and the never smokers were 85.4%. Majority of students smoked less than 5 bars of cigarettes and their first smoking experiences were related to their family members (siblings, parents, and relatives), friends, advertisement in order. Other GYTS countries reported the similar sources of the smoking start and friend was prior smoking start factor to the other sources. The students who wanted to Quit smoking were 6.7% and the students who ever had tried to Quit smoking were 9.1%. The major reasons of Quitting smoking were for their health and for their financial burden. Approximately 60% learned about smoking and drug abuse in their regular school classes, 8.4% were in the special school activities, and 7.9% were in the class closing time sometimes in order. The students who learned in any regular class were smaller in the high school students than in the middle school students. The learning experiences in school of other GYTS countries were similar to that of Korea. In conclusion, students' smoking was affected not only by the preventive activities in school but also by the close people's behaviors and care in this study; therefore, the active partnership between school and family must be a strong strategy for youth's smoking prevention.
Objectives： This study was performed to develop a smoking prevention program for Korean high school students, and to evaluate the effects of the program. Methods： A smoking prevention program, composed of five-session curriculum, was developed by modifying several smoking prevention and cessation programs based on the Social Influence Model. The program was applied to the freshmen of a technical high school. We surveyed with a questionnaire one week before education, one week after education, and two months after education. The number of participants for data analysis were 282(181 males, 101 females). Among those, 162(97 males, 65 females) students were allocated to the education group, and the other 120(84 males, 36 females) students were allocated to the control group. The effect of education was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by potential confounders. Results： Among smokers, those who had education were more likely to quit smoking (OR＝2.99, 95% confidence interval(CI) 0.84-10.64), and to decrease smoking frequency(OR＝2.29, 95% CI 0.95-5.53) in borderline significance one week after education. However, the effect of education disappeared two months after education. The effect of education was significant(OR＝9.11, 95% CI 3.22-25.76) for the increase of smoking cessation intention one week after education, and it persisted until two months after education(OR＝2.94, 95% CI 1.18-7.35). Education was also a significant predictor(OR＝1.97, 95% CI 0.89-4.37) for the increase of smoking cessation stage one week after education and it persisted(OR＝6.39, 95% CI 2.42-16.86) after two months. Among non-smokers, those who had education were more likely to decrease smoking intention one week after education(OR＝4.71, 95% CI 1.63-13.58). However, the statistical significance of education disappeared two months after education. Conclusions： The results showed that the smoking prevention program developed in this study changed smoking behaviors immdeiately after education even though the effect did not persist. However, this program was successful in increasing smoking cessation intention and stage of smoking cessation among smokers.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of anti-smoking advertising on attitude toward anti-smoking and behavioral intention to quit smoking in terms of audience's involvement with anti-smoking and knowledge on smoking. For this, a total of 10 hypothesis were established and statistically tested. According to the results, all but hypothesis 1-1(attitude toward anti-smoking is more favorable in the high involvement condition than in the low involvement condition) were unfortunately rejected. These results can be justified by theoretical explanations such as Hierarchy Effects Model or Elaboration Likelihood Model. In addition, some methodological reasons were provided as well.
Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Mithun, Pai B.H.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Smoking tobacco is considered as a leading cause of preventable death, mostly in developing countries like India. One of the primary goals of international tobacco control is to educate smokers about the risks associated with tobacco consumption. Tobacco warning labels (TWLs) on cigarette packages are one of the most common statutory means to communicate health risks of smoking to smokers, with the hope that once educated, they will be more likely to quit the habit. Materials and Methods: The present survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of TWLs in communicating health risks of tobacco usage among 263 adult smokers working as bus drivers in Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Mangalore, India. Information was collected on demographic details, exposure and response to health warnings on tobacco products, intention to quit and nicotine dependency. Results: The majority (79.5%) of the respondents revealed negative intentions towards quitting smoking. Nearly half of the participants had a 'low' nicotine dependency (47.5%) and 98.1% of the respondents had often noticed warning labels on tobacco packages. These health warnings made 71.5% of the respondents think about quitting smoking. Respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about dangers of smoking had better knowledge, with respect to lung cancer and impotence as a consequence of tobacco. A higher exposure to warning labels was significantly associated with lower nicotine dependency levels of smokers among the present study population. A significantly higher number of respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about the dangers of smoking thought about the risks of smoking and were more inclined to think about quitting smoking. As exposure increased, an increase in the knowledge and response of participants was also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco warning labels helps to educate smokers about health risks of tobacco smoking. It may be possible to promote oral health among bus drivers by developing strategies to educate them about these risk factors.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the raise of cigarette prices by KRW 2,000 at the beginning of 2015 on the change in smoking behavior among male office workers, and to analyze the correlation of various factors including their work behaviors and socio-economic factors with their smoking rate. Methods: In this research, a follow-up observation panel was constituted with 420 smokers as targets from among male office workers at a bank located in Daegu, South Korea. A cross-analysis and ANOVA analysis were carried out in order to examine whether changes in smoking status, amount of smoking, stop-smoking motivation, and reasons for smoking cessation failure after the passage of time since the cigarette price hike were statistically significant. The level of statistical significance was P < 0.05. Results: After the cigarette price hike, among the 420 smokers who were the target of the panel the rate of smoking cessation declined at the time-point of the survey to 15.5%, 12.4%, 8.5%, and 5.7% after one month, three months, six months, and 12 months, respectively. As a result of a follow-up observation of 65 smokers who stopped smoking immediately after the price hike, the actual non-smoking rate declined to 15.5%, 8.3%, 4.4%, and 3.1% after one month, three months, six months, and 12 months, respectively. One (1) year after the cigarette price hike, the non-smoking rate among the 420 smokers reached as low as 3.1% (13 persons). The most important reason for the failure of the attempts to quit smoking was stress for more than 60% of the smokers who attempted to stop. Conclusions: It seems that a powerful anti-smoking policy by the state targeting the nation's workers is necessary. For companies, mediation for workers' job stress can become a strategy for the success of non-smoking attempts. The government seems to require a practical policy to reduce the smoking rate by actively carrying out social, economic, and scientific research to come up with a reduction method for the cigarette hazard, an effective price hike policy, and other non-price policies.
Background: Brief physician counselling has been shown to be effective in improving smokers' behaviour. If the counselling sessions can be given at the workplace, this would benefit a larger number of smokers. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a ten-minute physician counseling session at the workplace in improving smoking behaviour. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomised control trial was conducted on smokers in a factory. A total of 163 participants were recruited and randomised into control and intervention groups using a table of random numbers. The intervention group received a ten-minute brief physician counselling session to quit smoking. Stages of smoking behaviour were measured in both groups using a translated and validated questionnaire at baseline, one month and three months post intervention. Results: There was a significant improvement in smoking behaviour at one-month post intervention (p=0.024, intention to treat analysis; OR=2.525; CI=1.109-5.747). This was not significant at three-month post intervention (p=0.946, intention to treat analysis; OR=1.026; 95% CI=0.486-2.168). Conclusions: A session of brief physician counselling was effective in improving smokers' behaviour at workplace, but the effect was not sustained.
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
Objectives: This study was performed to examined the effectiveness evaluation of peer education program on smoking prevention and cessation for elementary school students. Methods: Data were collected from 60 students in a rural area through self-administrated questionnaires. Child-leaders participated the peer education program to assist their friend, parent, and adult in community to quit the smoking for 4 weeks. Results and Conclusions: Major conclusions were as follows : 1. The peer education program on smoking prevention and cessation for elementary school students was reinforce to increasing the tobacco knowledge and the cessation skill, learning the communication skill, and improving the empowerment. 2. Image of tobacco, intention of smoking in future, recommendation for smoking cessation, pro of smoking. con of smoking, and level of assert in post-test were higher than those in pre-test. 3. There were significant differences in image of tobacco, con of smoking, and level of assert by grade between the pre-test and the post-test of peer education program. But intention of smoking in future, recommendation for smoking cessation, and pro of smoking were not related to effectiveness of peer education program. 4. Child-leaders for smoking prevention and cessation performed the their task to 1.4 persons per student. 5. Participating students were satisfied with the contents of program, the usefulness of educational materials, and preference of parents, but they were not satisfied with the usefulness of task note, learning time, and lecture room.
Background: Hookah smoking has been referred to as a global tobacco epidemic by public health officials. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics, behaviour and perceptions related to hookah smoking among the youth smokers in Pune. Methods: Two hundred and eighty established hookah smokers participated in this study. Data was collected using a 29-item questionnaire, constructed using three main domains: Characteristics (socio-demographic and personal), behaviour and perceptions (about harmful effects in comparison to cigarette smoking). Results: The results indicated that the mean age of starting hookah smoking was 17.3 years; 75% of participants did not have parental acceptance; light-headedness, dizziness and headache were most common reported nicotine effects, post hookah smoking. Hookah smoking on a daily basis was reported by 24.6% participants. The mean time of hookah session was 1 hour and 19 minutes. 68.2% participants were reported to smoke hookah in hookah-cafes and 35.7% participants were found to share the hookah. Some 66.7% participants had no intention to quit. Most of them (71-80%) had misperception about the safety of hookah smoking over cigarette smoking and 54-82% participants were unaware of health effects. Conclusions: Educational intervention is urgently needed to create awareness among the youth about the harmful effects of hookah smoking.
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