• Title, Summary, Keyword: Intention to quit smoking

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A Study on the Actual Condition of the Adult-smoking in a Region (일 지역 성인의 흡연실태)

  • Chong Young-sook
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.97-113
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    • 1999
  • To investigate the actual condition of the adult-smoking in Chinan County. I used self-reporting questionnaires among 923 residents living in nine districts selected at random among the sites of eleven eup-myons from December 28. 1998 to January 6. 1999. collected data and analyized using SPSS. The smoking rate of adults in Chinan County was $36.9\%$. There was a significant difference in smoking rate according to the age. gender, education and job among general characteristics. The smoking rate in group of above 40s was about $40\%$ and that of the male took $55.5\%$ which was higher than that of female and the smoking rate of the people having high-school education was the highest$(46.2\%)$. With regard to the career. the smoking rate of the farmers ranked first$(46.1\%)$. Therefore anti-smoking business for smokers should be focused on above 40 years old, males. people having high school education and farmers. As the result of the survey of smoking habits of 340 people who smoke currently, the average smoking begining age was 21.8 and $81.5\%$ among them was between 16-25 years old. $4.4\%$ was under 15. during around the elementary school. Most motives to smoke were as followed; curiosity or taste$(33.6\%)$, relief of stress $(31.2\%)$, peer presure$(26.5\%)$ And considering the amount of the cigarette which is smoked per day, the case which is less than a pack of cigarettes was highest as $75.5\%$ and the people who smoke over one pack of cigarettes took $24.5\%$. As for the kind of tobacco which is smoked, how to smoke and the desire for the smoking, most case was toxin was moderate$(47.8\%)$ or mild$(46.9\%)$. shallowly$(49.0\%)$ or deeply$(46.3\%)$ and under stress$(33.4\%)$. after meals$(27.8\%)$, during drink$(15.7\%)$ and so on. The highest point marked among the factors of smoking motives was 'the reduce of negative emotion' $(3.27\pm1.00)$. followed by 'uncomfortable habits' $(2.87\pm1.02)$, 'addiction' $(2.84\pm1.06)$. 'habit' $(2.74\pm1.12)$. 'pleasure' $(2.70\pm1.04)$. 'stimulus' $(2.59\pm.90)$, 'sensation-exercise satisfaction' $(2.42\pm.97)$. Smokers smoke to reduce the negative emotions when angry in most common case. depressed. anxious. uncomfortable. lone. ashamed or embarrased. and intend to solve the certain problem. etc. Other motives are uncomfortable habit. addiction. habit. pleasure and the pursuit of stimulus. The level of nicotine dependence of adults m Chinan County was 10.57 which amount to 'high' wholly. As the resulf of the level of nicotine dependence score. the people who are low in the level of nicotine was $33.5\%$. the people who are high was $48.2\%$. very high was $18.4\%$. The approach for anti-smoking for smokers should be conducted differently according to the level of the nicotine. For the people who are in low level of nicotin dependence the prohibition of the smoking should be guided through the approach to foster strong will. for those who are in 'high' by acquiring proper method for the prohibition of smoking. and for those who are 'very high' the anti-smoking should be induced by providing proper program because of the possibility of the suffer from abstinence syndrome. The difference of the level of nicotine with the general characteristics of the objects had not statistically significant difference. The difference of the level of nicotine dependence accompanied by smoking habit had statistically significant difference according to the amount of smoke, the kind of tobacos. smoke inhale habit. In other words, the group of heavy smokers had higher level of the nicotine dependence than that of the light smokers relatively and the group which smoke strong taboaco has higher level of nicotine than that of which smoke mild or moderate. And the group of smokers who smoke deeply has higher level of nicotine than that who smoke shallowly or nonswallow. Aa a result of the analysis of the correlation between smoking motive factors and the level of nicotine, there was the indication that people who smoke for the decrease of the negative emotion. habit, pleasure. stimulus. sensation-exercise satisfaction had high level of the nicotine dependence. As the result of the anti-smoking will of smokers. $65.0\%$ of them had prohibition of smoking will. $29.3\%$ had no will to quit smoke. The most important reason for anti-smoking was health. $67.9\%$ had experience to try to quit smoke and the biggest reason to fail to quit smoking was the lack of the will power to keep anti-smoking. $52.8\%$ of them were advised to stop smoking from their spouses or children. only $2.8\%$ were by medical. The people who have the opinion to need anti-smoking education were $69.6\%$. Therefore when the business for the hygine of the mouth for adult is set. it should be centered on the people who have intention of prohibition of the smoking and help to quit smoking by way of other affirmative counter-program not smoking under stress.

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The Realities of Smoking among Some College Students and Their Relevant Knowledge (일부 대학생들의 흡연실태 및 지식도)

  • Kim, Jin;Lim, Sun-A
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.283-294
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the state of smoking among some college students, the smoking motivation of smoker students, what made them quit smoking and how they got ready for giving up smoking, as smoking had a huge impact on national health and there was a desperate necessity for preventive antismoking education programs to let students keep away from smoking. After a survey was conducted with self-administered questionnaires from October 1 through November 1, 2006, the responses from 400 students were gathered, and 384 answer sheets were analyzed except 16 incomplete ones. The findings of the study were as follows: 1. By gender, 62.4% of the male students and 28.6% of the female students were smokers, and the state of smoking was statistically significantly different according to their gender(p<0.05). 2. The largest number of the male students, which accounted 44.1%, started smoking in their high school days, and 39.5% of the females did that in middle school. As for a daily mean amount of smoking, 41.8% of the male students, the greatest percentage, smoked 10 to 19 cigarettes a day, and one to nine cigarettes were most common among the females, which represented 57.9 %. But the gap between the two was insignificant(p>0.05). As many as 83.6% of the males and 86.8% of the females had ever attempted to quit it. 3. Concerning awareness of antismoking policies, they felt that a raise in cigarette price would lead to less smoking, and that antismoking advertisement or posters through television or newspaper would deliver the same results as well. There was a statistically significant difference among their awareness(p<0.05). 4. Regarding preparation stage for quitting smoking, 31.3% of the male smokers had no intention to give it up, and 23.2% considered it. 36.7%, the largest percentage, got ready to refrain from it. Among the female smokers, 34.2% had no plans to abstain from smoking, and 36.8% took it into consideration. 23.7% got ready to do that. The females who got ready for that were outnumbered the males who did. 5. As to connections between the state of smoking and relevant knowledge, the students didn't have a good knowledge on that, and a statistically significant difference existed between the smokers and nonsmokers in smoking knowledge. 6. As for knowledge about oral diseases, they were highly cognizant of the relationship of smoking to tooth discoloration, nicotine stomatitis and bad breath, but they didn't know well about its relationship to delayed recovery from dental treatment, implant failure and ozena. Their smoking condition made a statistically significant difference to their knowledge(p<0.05). In the future, sustained research efforts should be channeled into determining how much smoking affects health and concerns oral diseases, and antismoking counseling programs should be prepared to bolster people's awareness of oral health.

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Influence of Stress, Self-efficacy for Smoking Cessation, Smoking Temptation and Nicotine Dependency in Male College Students who Smoke (흡연 남자대학생의 스트레스, 금연에 대한 자기효능감 및 흡연유혹이 니코틴 의존도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Nam-Jo;Hong, Hae-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress, self-efficacy for smoking cessation, smoking temptation, and nicotine dependency, and to identify factors influencing nicotine dependency among male college students who smoke. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey design was adopted for 283 male college students who smoke in D city, Korea. Data was analyzed for descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression using the SPSS 20.0 program. Results: The mean score of stress was $27.00{\pm}6.28$, self-efficacy for smoking cessation was $25.61{\pm}6.71$, smoking temptation was $53.87{\pm}11.02$, and nicotine dependency was $3.63{\pm}1.96$. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and nicotine dependency (r=.58, p<.001) and between smoking temptation and nicotine dependency (r=.59, p<.001). There was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy for smoking cessation and nicotine dependency (r=-.59, p<.001). The significant factors influencing nicotine dependency were stress (${\beta}=.357$, p<.001), self-efficacy for smoking cessation (${\beta}=.359$, p<.001), and smoking temptation (${\beta}=.297$, p<.001). This model explained 60.3% of variance in nicotine dependency (F=105.59, p<.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that an intervention program is needed to reduce the perception of stress and smoking temptation, and to increase the ability of self-efficacy for smoking cessation among male college students who smoke with the intention to quit smoking.

Extending Application of the 'Hardcore' Definition to Smokeless Tobacco Use: Estimates from a Nationally Representative Population in India and its Implications

  • Jena, Pratap Kumar;Bandyopadhyay, Chandan;Mathur, Manu Raj;Das, Sagarika
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.5959-5963
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    • 2012
  • Background: The term 'hardcore' has been applied to use of smoking tobacco and generally referred to as the inability or unwillingness of regular smokers to quit. The component constructs of hardcore except nicotine dependence are product neutral. With the use of 'time to first chew' as a measure of nicotine dependence, hardcore definition can be extended to characterize smokeless tobacco users. Hardcore users respond less to tobacco cessation interventions, and are prone to tobacco induced diseases including cancer. Thus identifying hardcore users would help in estimate the burden of high risk population for tobacco induced diseases. Smokeless tobacco use is predominant and accounts for more than 50% of oral cancer in India. Hence, hardcore chewing information could be used for planning of tobacco and cancer control interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)-India 2010 data were analyzed to quantify hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India with following five criteria: (1) current daily smokeless tobacco use; (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration; (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting; (4) time to first use of smokeless tobacco product within 30 minutes of waking up; and (5) knowledge of smokeless tobacco hazards. Results: The number of hardcore smokeless tobacco users among adult Indians is estimated to be 5% (39.5 million). This group comprises 23.2% of daily smokeless tobacco users. The population prevalence varied from 1.4-9.1% across different national regions of India. Logistic regression modeling indicated age, education and employment status to be the major predictors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Conclusions: The presence of a huge number (39.5 million) of hardcore smokeless tobacco users is a challenge to tobacco control and cancer prevention in India. There is an unmet need for a universal tobacco cessation programme and intensification of anti-tobacco education in communities.

Analysis on online marketing of tobacco product in Korea: current issues and future directions for tobacco control (온라인 담배 마케팅 분석을 통한 담배규제정책의 향후 과제 : 온라인 담배 판매 및 광고를 중심으로)

  • Yang, Yu Seon;Cha, Jung Lim;Kong, Jae Hyung;Hwang, Ji Eun;Choi, Jung Mi;Lee, Joung Eun;Oh, Yu Mi
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Tobacco marketing encourages smoking initiation of non-smokers, especially adolescents, and it hinders quit intention of those who smoke or who attempt to quit smoking. Article 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control(WHO FCTC) requests a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship(TAPS). Ratified the Convention in 2005, Korea has partially implemented the provisions. However, online marketing regulations are still insufficient. Methods: Based on relevant national and international regulations, this research designed monitoring mechanism for online tobacco marketing and studied 1,404 websites to identify current situation of online sales and advertisement of tobacco in Korea. Results: This study found that online trade of tobacco products are overtly conducted, while tobacco advertising with flavoring and misleading descriptors are also prevalent. Also, online tobacco marketing facilitate adolescents' access to tobacco product and that advertising and promotion activities lead to tobacco purchase without difficulties. Conclusions: Fundamental solution to prevent online tobacco advertisement and promotion is banning online sales of tobacco and conducting a regular monitoring for compliance. Korean government should consider establishing an official surveillance system for online tobacco advertisement, followed by a comprehensive ban on TAPS to fulfill its obligation as a Party to the FCTC.

Impact of Smoking Cessation Training for Community Pharmacists in Indonesia

  • Kristina, Susi Ari;Thavorncharoensap, Montarat;Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat;Prabandari, Yayi Suryo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3319-3323
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    • 2015
  • Background: Community pharmacists play an important role in tobacco control and adequate training on smoking cessation is essential. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used. A one-day workshop on smoking cessation organized by Indonesian Pharmacists Association as part of PCE program was offered to 133 community pharmacists. The workshop consisted of a 3-hour lecture and a 3-hour role-play session. Pre-training and post-training surveys assessed the impact of training on parameters including knowledge, perceived role and self-efficacy with respect to smoking cessation counseling practices. Intention and ability to perform counseling using the 5A framework was assessed after training only. Results: After PCE, knowledge score significantly increased from $24.9{\pm}2.58$ to $35.7{\pm}3.54$ (p<0.001). Perceived role and self-efficacy in smoking cessation counseling also significantly increased from $25.8{\pm}2.73$ to $28.7{\pm}2.24$, and $27.6{\pm}4.44$ to $32.6{\pm}3.63$, respectively (p<0.001). After the workshop, most participants were willing to ask, advise, and assess patients who ready to quit, but were still less likely to assist in quitting plans and arranging follow up counseling. More than 75% pharmacists were able to perform cessation counseling and 65% of them can completely perform a 5A brief intervention. Conclusions: PCE can enhance pharmacists' knowledge, perceived role, self-efficacy in cessation counseling practices, and create willingness and ability to perform cessation counseling. Future training is recommended to improve skills in assisting quitting plans and arranging follow up.

Effect of Smoking and Drinking Habits on the Nutrient Intakes and Health of Middle and High School Boy Students (남자 중.고생의 흡연과 음주습관이 영양소 섭취 및 건강상태에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Kyung-Ok;An, Chang-Hun;Hwang, Hyo-Jeong;Choi, Kyung-Soon;Chung, Keun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.694-708
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of smoking & drinking on the diet, nutrient intake, and overall health. A sample of 262 youths, aged 16 to 18 year-old, was randomly selected from Seoul and its vicinity. The subjects participated by answering survey questions including general questions, questions regarding health, smoking & drinking habits, dietary habits, nutrient intake, physical characteristics, and smoking cessation plans. The average height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were $173.5{\pm}6.8\;cm$, $64.8{\pm}11.8\;kg$, and $21.4{\pm}3.7\;kg/m^2$, respectively. Among the subjects, 88% appeared to be interested in health and 43.5% of youth asserted that the best way to keep healthy was to engage in regular exercise. Among 63 smokers, 52 students (82.5%) used alcoholic beverages while 11 students (17.5%) did not use alcoholic beverages, meaning that smoking was a causative factor in drinking. 55.6% of youth reported beginning to smoke in middle school, and 38.1% of them asserted that curiosity was the motive for smoking. The youth reported that the craving for smoking was highest when hungry, and the best place to smoke was the restroom. 20 students (69.0%) answered that the only way to quit smoking was just to stop. 12 students (44.4%) reported that the main reason for failures in smoking cessation attempts was a lack of intention or willpower. 87.1% of all subjects answered that they were inclined to quit smoking, and 56.7% of them would be interested in attending a smoking cessation program if they had the opportunity. Among the smoking and drinking group, 50% of drinkers began to drink in high school, and the reason for drinking given was peer pressure-40% of drinkers answered that they wished to quit drinking. 34.4% of students appeared to have breakfast everyday, but 16.4% of students answered that they had quit eating breakfast. 52.5% of all students reported that the principal reason for overeating was the presence of one's favorite food, and the smoking and drinking group reported overeating more frequently than other groups (p<0.05). 72.6% of all subjects reported eating interim meals $1{\sim}2$ times daily, 36.4% of smokers ate carbonated beverages, 38.5% ate ice cream as a interim meal, and 38.5% of the drinking and smoking groups ate fruits, 26.9% of them ate fried foods, and some of them ate fast foods as a interim meal. Among smokers, the ratio of eating fat-rich foods, and meats such as kalbi and samgyupsal more than two times per week was higher, and 54.3% of smokers ate ice cream, cookies, and carbonated beverages more than two times per week (p<0.05). The total nutrient intake of the $15{\sim}19$-year youth group was much higher than the standard value. The energy intake of the smoking group and the drinking and smoking group was significantly higher than that of the normal group (p<0.05). Intakes of phosphorus (p<0.05), cholesterol (p<0.05), and sodium (p<0.05) were the highest among all groups. Accordingly, it is recommended that practical education programs be implemented to teach young students to resist peer pressures to smoke and drink. Additionally, education that acknowledges the importance of nutrition is necessary to avoid preferential eating and overeating due to smoking and drinking.such education can also teach students to eat a balanced diet and improve their physical development.

Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Changes in Smoking Behaviors among Korean Adult Smokers: Applying the Transtheoretical Model of Change (범이론적 모델에 기반을 둔 흡연자의 금연행동 변화단계에 대한 탐색적 연구)

  • Park, Hyunyong;Jun, Jina;Sohn, Sunju
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.5-28
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    • 2018
  • Smoking is one of the important public health concerns because it is preventable causes regarding individuals' negative health consequences and increased social and economic cost. However, few studies have examined longitudinal patterns of stages of changes(SOC) in smoking behaviors among the general population. The purpose of the study is to explore the latent patterns of SOC over time among Korean adult smokers using the 2008-2016 Korea Welfare Panel Study. A repeated measure latent class analysis is employed in the present study. The finding of the present study are as follows: First, four latent groups were identified: (1) action/maintenance stage(33.6%), (2) contemplation/preparation to action/maintenance stage(14.8%), (3) continuously contemplation/preparation stage(29.6%), and (4) continuously pre-contemplation stage(22.1%). Second, the results of a multinomial logistic regression found that socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with the identified longitudinal patterns of smoking behaviors. Compared to a continuously pre-contemplation stage, higher levels of depressive symptoms and drinking behavior were associated with increased odds of being in action/maintenance stage. The findings of the present study highlight that a tailored intervention is needed for individuals with continuously pre-contemplation stage and contemplation stage.