• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inter-particle porosity

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ESTIMATION OF CAKE FORMATION ON MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SURFACE USING ZETA POTENTIAL

  • Alayemieka, Erewari;Lee, Seock-Heon;Oh, Jeong-Ik
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2006
  • A simple empirical model with good quantitative prediction of inter-particle and intra-particle distance in a cake layer with respect to ionic strength was developed. The model is an inverse length scale with functions of interaction energy and hydrodynamic factor and it explains that the inter-particle and intra-particle distance in a cake is directly related to the effective size of particles. Particle compressibility with respect to ionic strength was also predicted by the model. The model corroborated very well with experimental results of polystyrene microsphere latex particles microfiltation in a dead end operation. From the results of the model, specific cake resistance could be controlled by the same variables affecting the height of particle energy barrier described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory.

Impact of Biochar Particle Shape and Size on Saturated Hydraulic Properties of Soil

  • Lim, Tae-Jun;Spokas, Kurt
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Different physical and chemical properties of biochar, which is made out of a variety of biomass materials, can impact water movement through amended soil. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support tool evaluating the impact of the shape and the size distribution of biochar on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity ($K_{sat}$). METHODS AND RESULTS: Plastic beads of different size and morphology were compared with biochar to assess impacts on soil $K_{sat}$. Bead and biochar were added at the rate of 5% (v/w) to coarse sand. The particle size of bead and biochar had an effect on the $K_{sat}$, with larger and smaller particle sizes than the original sand grain (0.5 mm) decreasing the $K_{sat}$ value. The equivalent size bead or biochar to the sand grains had no impact on $K_{sat}$. The amendment shape also influenced soil hydraulic properties, but only when the particle size was between 3-6 mm. Intra-particle porosity had no significant influence on the $K_{sat}$ due to its small pore size and increased tortuosity compared to the inter-particle spaces (macro-porosity). CONCLUSION: The results supported the conclusion that both particle size and shape of the amended biochar impacted the $K_{sat}$ value.

LABORATORY SIMULATION OF LIGHT SCATTERING FROM REGOLITH ANALOGUES: EFFECT OF POROSITY

  • KAR, AMRITAKSHA;DEB, SANJIB;SEN, A.K.;GUPTA, RANJAN
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.65-67
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    • 2015
  • The surfaces of most atmosphereless solar system objects are referred to as regolith, layers of loosely connected fragmentary debris, produced by meteorite impacts. Measurements of light scattered from such surfaces provides information about the composition and structure of the surface. A suitable way to characterize the scattering properties is to consider how the intensity and polarization of scattered light depends on the particle size, composition, porosity, roughness, wavelength of incident light and the geometry of observation. In the present work, the effect of porosity on bidirectional reflectance as a function of phase angle is studied for alumina powder with grain size of $0.3{\mu}m$ and olivine powder with grain size of $49{\mu}m$ at 543.5 nm. The optical constants of the alumina sample for each porosity were calculated with Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory. On using each of the optical constants of alumina sample in Mie theory with the Hapke model the variation of bidirectional reflectance is obtained as a function of phase angle with porosity as a parameter. Experimental reflectance data are in good agreement the model. For the olivine sample the effect of porosity is studied using Hapke (2008).

The Critical Pigment Volume Concentration Concept for Paper Coatings: II. Later-Bound Clay; Ground Calcium Carbonate, and Clay- carbonate Pigment Coatings

  • Lee, Do-Ik
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.18-38
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    • 2002
  • A previous study on the model coatings based on latex-bound plastic pigment coatings (1) has been extended to latex-bound No. 1 clay, ultra-fine ground calcium carbonate (UFGCC), and clay-carbonate pigment mixture coatings, which are being widely used in the paper industry. The latex binder used was a good film-forming, monodisperse S/B latex or 0.15$\mu\textrm{m}$. No. 1 clay was representative of plate-like pigment particles, whereas UFGCC was of somewhat rounded rhombohedral pigment particlel. Both of them had negatively skewed triangular particle size distributions having the mean particle suet of 0.7${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and 0.6$\mu\textrm{m}$, respectively. Their packing volumes were found to be 62.5% and 657%, respectively. while their critical pigment volume concentrations (CPVC's) were determined to be 52.7% and 50.5% ( average of 45% caused by the incompatibility and 55.9% extrapolated) by coating porosity, respectively. Each pigment/latex coating system has shown its unique relationship between coating properties and pigment concentrations, especially above its CPVC. Notably, the clay/latex coating system hat shown higher coating porosity than the UFGCC/latex system at high pigment concentrations above their respective CPVC's. It was also found that their coating porosity and gloss were inter-related to each other above the CPVC's, as predicted by the theory. More interestingly, the blends of these two pigments have shown unique rheological and coating properties which may explain why such pigment blends are widely used in the industry. These findings have suggested that the unique structure of clay coatings and the unique high-shear rheology of ground calcium carbonate coatings can be judiciously combined to achieve superior coatings. Importantly, the low-shear viscosity of the blends was indicative of their unique packing and coating structure, whereas their high-shear rheology was represented by a common mixing rule, i.e., a viscosity-averaging. Transmission and scanning electron and atomic force microscopes were used to probe the state of pigment / latex dispersions, coating surfaces, freeze fractured coating cross-sections, and coating surface topography. These microscopic studies complemented the above observations. In addition, the ratio, R, of CPVC/(Pigment Packing Volume) has been proposed as a measure of the binder efficiency for a given pigment or pigment mixtures or as a measure of binder-pigment interactions. Also, a mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the packing volumes of clay and ground calcium carbonate pigments with their respective particle size distributions. As well known in the particle packing, the narrower the particle size distributions, the lower the packing volumes and the greater the coating porosity, regardless of particle shapes.

Sintering of porous ceramic of diatomite according to molding pressure and PEG content

  • Lee, Ye-Na;Ahn, Seok-Hwan;Nam, Hoseok;Nam, Ki-Woo
    • Journal of Ceramic Processing Research
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.467-471
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    • 2018
  • Diatomite powder, a naturally occurring porous raw material, was used to make ceramic materials with porosity and high strength. The sintering behavior of the diatomite powder at various sintering temperatures suggests that diatomite monoliths with a high porosity and strength can be prepared at $1100^{\circ}C$. The compressive strength of the sintered diatomite monoliths increased as the sintering temperature increased, and the molding pressure of 2 MPa and the binder of 18.6 wt.% were excellent. When the sintering temperature rises, the diatomite powder is melted, and its pores gradually disappear. SEM images show that strengthening begins with the formation of inter-particle bonds at a low sintering temperature.

Loading Effects on Thermal Conductivity of Soils: Particle-Scale Study (하중 조건이 지반의 열전도도에 미치는 영향: 입자 스케일에서의 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Hwoon;Choo, Jin-Hyun;Yun, Tae-Sup;Lee, Jang-Guen;Kim, Young-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2011
  • The stress condition mainly dominates the thermal conductivity of soils whereas governing factors such as unit weight and porosity suggested by empirical correlations are still valid. The 3D thermal network model enables evaluation of the stress-dependent thermal conductivity of particulate materials generated by discrete element method (DEM). The relationship among dominant factors is analyzed based on the coordination number and porosity determined by stress condition and thermal conductivity of pore fluid. Results show that the variation of thermal conductivity is strongly attributed to the enlargement of inter-particle contact area by loading history and pore fluid conductivity. This study highlights that the anisotropic evolution of thermal conductivity depends on the directional load and that the particle-scale mechanism mainly dictates the heat transfer in soils.

Microsotructure Designed Porous Apatite Ceramics Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

  • Ioku, Koji;Fukuhara, Michiko;Fujimori, Hirotaka;Goto, Seishi
    • The Korean Journal of Ceramics
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.162-164
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    • 1999
  • Microsotructure designed porous ceramics of calcium hydroxyapatite $(Ca_{10}(PO_4)_6(OH)_2)$ were prepared by hydrothermal method. The particle size, shape, and the micro-pore size of the porous hydroxyapatite ceramics could becontrolled. The hydroxyapatite was non-stoichiometric apatite with calcium deficient compositions (Ca/P ratio < 1.67). The composition of non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite ceramics could be controlled from 1.50 to 1.63 in Ca/P ratio. The hydroxyapatite ceramics preparedc at $105^{\circ}C$ under the saturated vapor pressure for 20h were composed of rod-shaped crystals with about 10$\mu\textrm{m}$ in length with the mean aspect ratio of 40. The porous ceramics of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite had about 45% porosity with the inter-connecting pore structure. Porous hydroxyapatite ceramics prepared hydrothermally had the compressive strength of about 10 to 30 MPa. In addition, porous ceramics of $\beta$-tricalcium phosphate ($\beta-Ca_3(PO_4)_2$) were prepared from the calcium deficient hydroxyapatite.

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Importance of Green Density of Nanoparticle Precursor Film in Microstructural Development and Photovoltaic Properties of CuInSe2 Thin Films

  • Hwang, Yoonjung;Lim, Ye Seul;Lee, Byung-Seok;Park, Young-Il;Lee, Doh-Kwon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.471.2-471.2
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    • 2014
  • We demonstrate here that an improvement in precursor film density (green density) leads to a great enhancement in the photovoltaic performance of CuInSe2 (CISe) thin film solar cells fabricated with Cu-In nanoparticle precursor films via chemical solution deposition. A cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) technique was applied to uniformly compress the precursor film over the entire surface (measuring 3~4 cm2) and was found to increase its relative density (particle packing density) by ca. 20%, which resulted in an appreciable improvement in the microstructural features of the sintered CISe film in terms of lower porosity, reduced grain boundaries, and a more uniform surface morphology. The low-bandgap (Eg=1.0 eV) CISe PV devices with the CIP-treated film exhibited greatly enhanced open-circuit voltage (VOC, from 0.265 V to 0.413 V) and fill factor (FF, from 0.34 to 0.55), as compared to the control devices. As a consequence, an almost 3-fold increase in the average power conversion efficiency, 3.0 to 8.2% (with the highest value of 9.02%), was realized without an anti-reflection coating. A diode analysis revealed that the enhanced VOC and FF were essentially attributed to the reduced reverse saturation current density (j0) and diode ideality factor (n). This is associated with the suppressed recombination, likely due to the reduction in recombination sites such as grain/air surfaces (pores), inter-granular interfaces, and defective CISe/CdS junctions in the CIP-treated device. From the temperature dependences of VOC, it was confirmed that the CIP-treated devices suffer less from interface recombination.

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