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A METHOD OF CAPABILITY EVALUATION FOR KOREAN PADDY SOILS -Part 2. The rice yield prediction by soil fertility constituents and other characters (한국(韓國) 답토양(畓土壤)의 생산력(生産力) 평가방법에 관한 연구 -2 보(報)·비옥도(肥沃度) 구성인자(構成因子) 및 기타(其他) 특성(特性)에 의(依)한 쌀수확량(收穫量)의 추정(推定))

  • Hong, Ki-Chang;Maeng, Do-Won;Kazutake, Kyuma;Hisao, Furukawa;Suh, Yoon-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 1979
  • In the first paper of the series the five soil fertility factors were evaluated by means of principal component analysis and varimax method. They are interpreted as representing, 1) skeletal available phosporus status, 2) organnic matter status, 3) salt status 4) base status, and 5) free oxide status. In order to resynthesize such fragmented information for the overall soil fertility evaluation, the method of multiple regression analysis was adopted, using the five factor scores and yield data for Korean paddy soils as independent and dependent variables respectively. As test of linear models with different combinations of independent variables the results of t-test of regression coefficient were revealed that the organic matter status (FII) has no relevance to the yield of paddy and that the free oxides and salt supply has by it self only an insignificant contribution to the yield. The multiple correlation coefficient (R) revealed its multiple regression analysis was as low as 0.43. Introduction of quadratic terms to the linear model bettered the result. Thus multiple correlation coefficient (R) was increased as 0.59. Therefore, a coefficient of determination 0.35 was obtained by a quadratic model with interaction terms among the five fertility constituents. Generally we think that the fertility factor has more contribution to raise the rice yield in paddy and that the failure of yield prediction by fertility factor scores was caused by one of follows; 1) the roughness of the yield inspection, and 2) missextraction of fertility constituents. The second step in this study, assuming that the residuals by multiple regression analysis were due to factors other than soil fertility, we can now proceed to predicting the yield from the field characters with the classified fertility groups by means of Hayashi's theory of quantification No. 1. Such variables as fertility groups (FTYG), water availability (WATER), soil drainage (DRNG), climatic zone (CLIZ), surface soil's stickiness (STCKT), surface soil's dry consistence (DCNST), and surface soil's texture (FTEXT) are taken up as the explanatory variables. The quantification appears reasonable; the well to extremely well in soil drainage, very sticky of surface soil, inefficiency in water availability, coarse texture, and very hard to extremely hard dry consistence in soil are detrimental to the rice yield. The R was as high as 0.90 for the set of variables. But the given explanatory variables in this study were not quite effective in explaining rice yield. The method developed seems to be promising only if properly collected data are available. Conditions that should be satisfied in the yield inspection obtained from common cultivator for the purpose of deriving a prediction equation were put forward.

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Effect of the Dietary Composition (quantitative ratio between carbohydrate and protein) and the Rearing Temperature during the 4th Moulting Period on Proteinase Activity of Digestive Juice and Sucrase Activity of Midgut Tissue in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (가잠유충의 소화액 Proteinase 및 중장조직 Sucrase의 활성에 미치는 사료조성(당과 단백질과의 량비) 및 4 면기보호온도의 영향)

  • 문재유
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 1973
  • This study has been carried out to investigate proteinase activity of digestive juice and sucrase activity of midgust tissue in the 5th day of the 5th instar influenced by the dietary composition (quantitative ratio between carbohydrate and protein) and tile rearing temperature during the 4th moulting period. The larvae grew on three kinds of semi-synthetic diet. The A-diet has more carbohydrate than the others, the B-diet has carbohydrate in 1 : 2 with protein, and the C-diet has more protein than the others. All the diets were kept at 16$^{\circ}C$, 25$^{\circ}C$ and 33$^{\circ}C$ during the 4th moulting period. Proteinase activity of digestive juice at the 5th day of the 5th instar was analyzed by Anson's hemoglobin method. Sucrase activity of midgut tissue at the 5th day of 5th instar was analyzed by Somogyi-Nelson's method. The results were as follows. 1. The dietary composition influencing contents of blood sugar was not related to the rearing temperature during the 4th moulting period. The contents of blood sugar appeared to increase in A-diet, B-diet and C-diet order, while proteinase and sucrase activity were stronger in C-diet, B-diet and A-diet order. 2. All kinds of diets showed almost the same fact that proteinase activity at 16$^{\circ}C$ was stronger than that at 32$^{\circ}C$. 3. It was found that sucrase activity became gradualy stronger at 32$^{\circ}C$, 25$^{\circ}C$ and 16$^{\circ}C$ in order in all kinds of diets. 4. There was an interaction in proteinase activity between the dietary composition and the rearing temperature in male larval digestive juice during the 4th mouiting period. On the other hand, there was an inter-acion in sucrase activity between the dietary composition and the rearing temperature in both female and male larval midgut tissue during the 4th moulting period.

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Determination of Practical Dosing of Warfarin in Korean Outpatients with Mechanical Heart Valves (인공심장판막 치환환자의 Warfarin 용량결정)

  • Lee Ju Yeun;Jeong Young Mi;Lee Myung Koo;Kim Ki-bong;Ahn Hyuk;Lee Byung Koo
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.761-772
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    • 2005
  • Background: Following the implantation of heart valve prostheses, it is important to maintain therapeutic INR to reduce the risk of thromboembolism. The objective of this study was to suggest a practical dosing guideline for Korean outpatients with prosthetic heart valves managed by a pharmacist-run anticoagulation service (ACS). Material and Method: A retrospective chart review was completed for all patients enrolled in the ACS at Seoul National University Hospital from March, 1997 to September, 2000. Patients who were at least 6 months post-valve replacement and had nontherapeutic INR value (less than 2.0 or greater than 3.0) were included. The data on 688 patients (1,782 visits) requiring dosing adjustment without any known drug or food interaction with warfarin were analyzed. The amount of adjusted dose and INR changes based on the INR at the time of the event were calculated. Aortic valve replacements (AVR) patients and mitral or double valve replacement (MVR/DVR) patients were evaluated separately. Result: Two methods for the warfarin dosage adjustment were suggested: Guideline I (mg-based total weekly dose (TWD) adjustment), Guideline II (percentage-based TWD adjustment). The effectiveness of Guideline 1 was superior to Guideline II overall in patients with both AVR and MVR/DVR. Conclusion: The guideline suggested in this study could be useful when the dosage adjustment of wafarin is necessary in outpatients with mechanical heart valves.

PDZ Domain-containing Proteins at Autotypic Junctions in Myelinating Schwann Cells (수초화 슈반세포 autotypic 세포연접의 PDZ 도메인 보유 단백질)

  • Han, Seongjohn;Park, Hyeongbin;Hong, Soomin;Lee, Donghyun;Choi, Maro;Cho, Jeongmok;Urm, Sang-Hwa;Jang, Won Hee;Seog, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2015
  • A type of cell junction that is formed between different parts within the same cell is called autotypic cell junction. Autotypic junction proteins form tight junctions found between membrane lamellae of a cell, especially in myelinating glial cells. Some of them have postsynaptic density-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domains, which interact with the carboxyl (C)-terminal PDZ-binding motif of other proteins. PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules that play a role in protein complex assembly. The PDZ domain, which is widespread in bacteria, plants, yeast, metazoans, and Drosophila, allows the assembly of large multi-protein complexes. The multi-protein complexes act in intracellular signal transduction, protein targeting, and membrane polarization. The identified PDZ domain-containing proteins located at autotypic junctions include zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), ZO-2, pals-1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), multi-PDZ domain proteins (MUPPs), membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 (MAGI2), and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-3. PAR-3 interacts with atypical protein kinase C and PAR-6, forming a ternary complex, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell polarity. MAGI2 interacts with ${\alpha}$-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor at excitatory synapses. PATJ is detected in paranodal loops associated with claudin-1. On the other hand, MUPP1 is found in mesaxons and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures with claudin-5. ZO-1, ZO-2, and PAR-3 are found at all three sites. Different distributions of PDZ domain-containing proteins affect the development of autotypic junctions. In this review, we will describe PDZ domain-containing proteins at autotypic tight junctions in myelinating Schwann cells and their roles.

The Cross-talk Mechanisms of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in the Regulation of its Activity, Energy Metabolism, Cellular Proliferation and Apoptosis (Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR)의 활성, 에너지 대사 및 세포의 증식과 사멸의 조절에 대한 CAR의 cross-talk 기전)

  • Min, Gyesik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2020
  • The activity of CAR can be regulated not only by ligand binding but also by phosphorylation of regulatory factors involved in extracellular signaling pathways, cross-talk interactions with transcription factors, and the recruitment, degradation, and expression of coactivators and corepressors. This regulation of CAR activity can in turn have effects on the control of diverse physiological homeostasis, including xenobiotic and energy metabolism, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. CAR is phosphorylated by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which causes formation of a complex with Hsp-90 and CCRP, leading to its cytoplasmic retention, whereas phenobarbital inhibits ERK1/2, which causes dephosphorylation of the downstream signaling molecules, leading to the recruitment to CAR of the activated RACK-1/PP2A components for the dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and the transcriptional activation of CAR. Activated CAR cross-talks with FoxO1 to induce inhibition of its transcriptional activity and with PGC-1α to induce protein degradation by ubiquitination, resulting in the transcriptional suppression of PEPCK and G6Pase involved in gluconeogenesis. Regulation by CAR of lipid synthesis and oxidation is achieved by its functional cross-talks, respectively, with PPARγ through the degradation of PGC-1α to inhibit expression of the lipogenic genes and with PPARα through either the suppression of CPT-1 expression or the interaction with PGC-1α each to induce tissue-specific inhibition or stimulation of β-oxidation. Whereas CAR stimulates cellular proliferation by suppressing p21 expression through the inhibition of FoxO1 transcriptional activity and inducing cyclin D1 expression, it suppresses apoptosis by inhibiting the activities of MKK7 and JNK-1 through the expression of GADD45B. In conclusion, CAR is involved in the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating not only xenobiotic metabolism but also energy metabolism, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis through diverse cross-talk interactions with extracellular signaling pathways and intracellular regulatory factors.

용용과 모델 구성을 중시하는 수학과 교육 과정 개발 방안 탐색

  • Jeong Eun Sil
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 1991
  • This study intends to provide some desirable suggestions for the development of application oriented mathematics curriculum. More specific objects of this study is: 1. To identify the meaning of application and modelling in mathematics curriculm. 2. To illuminate the historical background of and trends in application and modelling in the mathematics curricula. 3. To consider the reasons for including application and modelling in the mathematics curriculum. 4. To find out some implication for developing application oriented mathematics curriculum. The meaning of application and modelling is clarified as follows: If an arbitrary area of extra-mathematical reality is submitted to any kind of treatment which invovles mathematical concepts, methods, results, topics, we shall speak of the process of applying mathemtaics to that area. For the result of the process we shall use the term an application of mathematics. Certain objects, relations between them, and structures belonging to the area under consideration are selected and translated into mathemtaical objects, relation and structures, which are said to represent the original ones. Now, the concept of mathematical model is defined as the collection of mathematical objcets, . relations, structures, and so on, irrespective of what area is being represented by the model and how. And the full process of constructing a mathematical model of a given area is called as modelling, or model-building. During the last few decades an enormous extension of the use of mathemtaics in other disciplines has occurred. Nowadays the concept of a mathematical model is often used and interest has turned to the dynamic interaction between the real world and mathematics, to the process translating a real situation into a mathematical model and vice versa. The continued growing importance of mathematics in everyday practice has not been reflected to the same extent in the teaching and learning of mathematics in school. In particular the world-wide 'New Maths Movement' of the 19608 actually caused a reduction of the importance of application and modelling in mathematics teaching. Eventually, in the 1970s, there was a reaction to the excessive formallism of 'New Maths', and a return in many countries to the importance of application and connections to the reality in mathematics teaching. However, the main emphasis was put on mathematical models. Applicaton and modelling should be part of the mathematics curriculum in order to: 1. Convince students, who lacks visible relevance to their present and future lives, that mathematical activities are worthwhile, and motivate their studies. 2. Assist the acqusition and understanding of mathematical ideas, concepts, methods, theories and provide illustrations and interpretations of them. 3. Prepare students for being able to practice application and modelling as private individuals or as citizens, at present or in the future. 4. Foster in students the ability to utilise mathematics in complex situations. Of these four reasons the first is rather defensive, serving to protect or strengthen the position of mathematics, whereas the last three imply a positive interest in application and modelling for their own sake or for their capacity to improve mathematics teaching. Suggestions, recomendations and implications for developing application oriented mathematics curriculum were made as follows: 1. Many applications and modelling case studies suitable for various levels should be investigated and published for the teacher. 2. Mathematics education both for general and vocational students should encompass application and modelling activities, of a constructive as well as analytical and critical nature. 3. Application and modelling activities should. be introduced in mathematics curriculum through the interdisciplinary integrated approach. 4. What are the central ideas of, and what are less-important topics of application-oriented curriculum should be studied and selected. 5. For any mathematics teacher, application and modelling should form part of pre- and in-service education.

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Prediction Model of Pine Forests' Distribution Change according to Climate Change (기후변화에 따른 소나무림 분포변화 예측모델)

  • Kim, Tae-Geun;Cho, Youngho;Oh, Jang-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 2015
  • This study aims to offer basic data to effectively preserve and manage pine forests using more precise pine forests' distribution status. In this regard, this study predicts the geographical distribution change of pine forests growing in South Korea, due to climate change, and evaluates the spatial distribution characteristics of pine forests by age. To this end, this study predicts the potential distribution change of pine forests by applying the MaxEnt model useful for species distribution change to the present and future climate change scenarios, and analyzes the effects of bioclimatic variables on the distribution area and change by age. Concerning the potential distribution regions of pine forests, the pine forests, aged 10 to 30 years in South Korea, relatively decreased more. As the area of the region suitable for pine forest by age was bigger, the decreased regions tend to become bigger, and the expanded regions tend to become smaller. Such phenomena is conjectured to be derived from changing of the interaction of pine forests by age from mutual promotional relations to competitive relations in the similar climate environment, while the regions suitable for pine forests' growth are mostly overlap regions. This study has found that precipitation affects more on the distribution of pine forests, compared to temperature change, and that pine trees' geographical distribution change is more affected by climate's extremities including precipitation of driest season and temperature of the coldest season than average climate characteristics. Especially, the effects of precipitation during the driest season on the distribution change of pine forests are irrelevant of pine forest's age class. Such results are expected to result in a reduction of the pine forest as the regions with the increase of moisture deficiency, where climate environment influencing growth and physiological responses related with drought is shaped, gradually increase according to future temperature rise. The findings in this study can be applied as a useful method for the prediction of geographical change according to climate change by using various biological resources information already accumulated. In addition, those findings are expected to be utilized as basic data for the establishment of climate change adaptation policies related to forest vegetation preservation in the natural ecosystem field.

Zooplankton Community Distribution and Food Web Structure in Small Reservoirs: Influence of Land Uses around Reservoirs and Kittoral Aquatic Plant on Zooplankton (소형저수지에서 동물플랑크톤 군집 분포와 먹이망 구조: 주변 토지 이용과 수변식생이 동물플랑크톤 군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jong-Yun;Kim, Seong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Won;Jeong, Kwang-Seuk;La, Geung-Hwan;Joo, Gea-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.332-342
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    • 2013
  • We collected zooplankton from May to October, 2011, with the aim of understanding the zooplankton community distribution and food web interaction between the open water and littoral (aquatic plants) zones in two small reservoirs with different land covers (Sobudang, Myeongdong). Small-sized reservoirs are more abundant in South Korea, and a total of 51 and 65 species of zooplankton were identified at the two small reservoir (Sobudang and Myeongdong), where zooplankton densities were more abundant in the littoral zone than in the open water zone. Cladocerans and copepods densities were also higher in the littoral zone, in contrast, rotifers showed higher densities in the open water zone (t-test, P/0.05). Epiphytic zooplankton dominated at the littoral zone (Lecane, Monostyla, Alona and Chydorus) because aquatic plants provided refuge spaces for attachment. Some rotifers (e.g. Brachionus, Keratella and Polyarthra) were more abundant in the open water zone because of their small size, which might help them to go unnoticed by predators. In two-way ANOVA, rotifers related to two reservoirs or habitat space (littoral zone and open water zone), but cladocerans and copepods showed a statistically significant relationship on only two reservoirs. The results of stable isotope analysis showed that zooplankton in the littoral zone tended to depend on organic matter attached to aquatic plants as a food source, which indicates the avoidance of competition of zooplankton with other macro-invertebrates (e.g. Damselfly larva, Cybister brevis and Neocardina denticulate). As a result, zooplankton community distribution is determined by not only habitat space (aquatic plant zone and open water zone) but also by food source (phytoplankton).

Experiences and Meaning of AP (Advanced Placement) at the Specialized Schools for the Highly Gifted: Through the In-depth Interview with the AP Participants (과학영재학교에서의 AP(Advanced Placement)의 경험과 의미: 대학생이 된 영재학교 졸업생들과의 심층인터뷰를 중심으로)

  • Han, Ki-Soon;Choe, Ho Seong
    • Journal of Gifted/Talented Education
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.1001-1024
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences and meaning of the AP (Advanced Placement) at the specialized school for the highly gifted through the in-depth interview with 39 college students who had graduated from the specialized schools with the AP experiences. It is expected that the AP will be expanded to the students at the Science High Schools from the year of 2015, however, there has been no study to examine the realities of the AP in-depth especially through the voices of the AP participants. Students have taken 8 required and/or selective courses as AP in average. Students usually start to take AP from the second year of the specialized school for the highly gifted, but some start from the first year through the placement test. Numbers of available AP courses vary by subjects, but relatively more courses open in the areas of math and physics. Students' opinions regarding the AP were quite positive. Specifically, the high quality of the AP class and energetic interaction between student and teacher compared to the college classes were preferred by the students. However, it was controversial whether C+ is enough for the pass condition of the AP. Students were using the shortened time by AP in diverse ways, such as early graduation, double majors, exchange students, individual researches, and so on. Most of all, they tried to search for their career interests through the AP experiences. In closing, the present study provides some advices and future directions for the better AP management, including the improvement of administrative system between schools for the gifted and the universities, and the expansion of the number of university which approves the AP system.

A Survey on the Effect of Crate Type and Harvest Season on Preslaughter Condition and Mortality of Broiler (어리장 형태와 계절이 육계 출하환경 및 폐사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Dong-Hun;Park Beom-Young;Hwang In-Ho;Cho Soo-Hyun;Kim Jin-Hyung;Lee Jong-Moon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2006
  • The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of types of crate and season on transport condition and mortality, and ultimately to identify the best practice for reducing economic lose. Total loading weight stocking density, transport and lairage times and mortality were surveyed from the management data sheet of two companies for each first week of January, April, August and October, An average loading weight, length of transport and lairage times and mortality were 3.9 ton, 96 min, 478 min and 0.6%, respectively. Mortality after lairage was not significant between two types of crate. In addition, container type crate showed higher loading weight and stocking density than box type one. Spring and winter had significantly higher mortality with 0.7 and 0.8%, respectively, then summer and fell of 0.5%. An interaction between crate type and season on mortality showed that mortality for box type on was higher in spring and winter with 0.8 and 0.7%, respectively, compared to summer and fall of 0,3 and 0.4% respectively. In the case of container type crate, spring, fall and winter had greatly different death into with 0.7, 0.5 and 0.8%, respectively, while there was no difference between spring and summer, and between summer and winter, Mortality after transportation was similar between both crate type, with higher rate for spring and winder than other seasons. The result was likely related to death of exposure due to extended waiting time without heating facility.