• Title, Summary, Keyword: Irritation and Toxicity

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Toxicity and Hemolytic Activitiy of Saponin Isolated from Sapindus mukorossi (연명피 사포닌의 독성 및 용혈작용)

  • 박은희
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.137-140
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    • 1995
  • Saponin isolated from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn has been shown to contain a strong anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, several pharmacological properties such as acute toxicity, local irritation and hemolytic activity of Sapindus saponin and its genin component, hederagenirl, were examined. The acute toxicity of Sapindus saponin was very low. Estimated from the LD$_{50}$ values, it showed much weaker toxicity in oral administration than in intraperitoneal injection. Hederagenin gave a very high LD$_{50}$ value even in intraperitoneal injection. Sapindus saponin showed a potent local irritation after topical application, whereas hederagenin did a very weak local irritation. Sapindus saponin also gave a high hemolytic activity.

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Acute toxicity, Dermal and Ocular Irritation Studies of Taglisodog-eum ointment (탁리소독음 피부외용제형의 급성경피독성시험, 피부자극시험 및 안점막자극시험)

  • Lee, Jung Bok;Choi, Jae Hwan;Kim, Hee Taek;Kim, Yun Kyung;Yu, Young Beob
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.289-300
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : Taglisodog-eum(TSE), a poly herbal formula, has been widely used to improve carbuncles by removing inflammation of the lymphatic channels in Traditional Korean Medicine. We previousely reported the action mechanism of TSE on experimental atopic dermatitis and the establishment of formulation for TSE ointment. In this study, we examined the toxicity test on skin and eye irritation by TSE ointment to prove the safety of Taglisodog-eum ointment in clinical use. Methods : Acute skin toxicity of the TSE ointment was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats. After dermal administration of TSE ointment(2,000mg/kg), body weight, mortality, and clinical signs of the rats were observed for 14days. Primary skin irritation and ocular irritation tests for TSE ointment were performed in male New Zealand White Rabbits. In dermal and ocular irritation test, body weight, mortality, clinical signs, Primary Irritation Index(P.I.I.), and The Index of Acute Ocular Irritaion(I.A.O.I.) of rabbit were observed after applying at abraded skin and eye balls with Taglisodog-eum ointment. Results : In the results of acute skin toxicity, no significant differences were found in body weight, the clinical sign and the mortality between control and TSE ointment treated group. In primary dermal irritation test, body weight, the clinical sign and the mortality were not significantly changed and Primary Irritation Index(P.I.I.) was 0.8, indicating TSE ointment as weak irritant material. In ocular irritation test, The Index of Acute Ocular Irritaion was 0.0, indicating TSE ointment as non-irritating to the eye of the rabbits. To evaluate toxicity of the TSE ointment in animal test, body weight, the clinical signs, the skin and eye irritation check were conducted; TSE ointment was considered to be weak dermal irritant in test animals. The no response of eye irritation test was observed in this experimental condition. Conclusions : According to the above toxicity test, We consider that this results is helpful for saying about the safety of TSE ointment in clinical use.

The oral dose toxicity test and skin irritation test of eco-friendly plasticizer using crude glycerol derived (폐글리세롤을 이용한 친환경 가소제의 경구투여독성 및 피부자극성 시험)

  • Kang, Soo-Jung;Kim, Heeyoung;Park, Sangwon;Sim, Eunyoung;Kim, Jinhwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.322-327
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The major objective of this study is the oral dose toxicity test and skin irritation test of eco-friendly plasticizer using crude glycerol derived from the biodiesel process. Methods: Glyceroldiacetate laurate(GDL) was synthesized from glycerol monolaurat(GML) and acetic acid. The synthesis of the GDL plasticizer was measured with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscop(NMR) and FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer). To provide information on the safety of GDL, we carried out an oral dose toxicity test for GDL in Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, we carried out a skin irritation test for GDL in New Zealand White rabbits. Results: The oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats showed that GDL is a non-toxic material. The result of the skin irritation test on New Zealand White rabbits showed that GDL is non-irritating. Conclusions: From the results of oral dose toxicity test and skin irritation test, we concluded that the developed plasticizer showed excellent eco-friendly property. Based on our results, we confirmed the development of an eco-friendly non-phthalate plasticizer. Applicability for PVC toys and food and drug packaging materials was found.

Mixture Toxicity of Methylisothiazolinone and Propylene Glycol at a Maximum Concentration for Personal Care Products

  • Park, Juyoung;Lee, Handule;Park, Kwangsik
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.355-361
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    • 2018
  • Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) has been used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (CMIT) for cosmetic products such as shampoo, body lotion, and skin care products. The mixture of CMIT/MIT has been found to cause allergic contact dermatitis and is thus no longer permitted for use as a preservative in leave-on cosmetics. However, MIT itself was approved as a stand-alone preservative at a maximum concentration of 100 ppm as the toxicity was derived from CMIT rather than MIT. However, in many countries, allergic skin irritation caused by MIT remains a social concern. In this study, skin irritation was assessed for the presence of MIT, propylene glycol, and their mixture using a 3D human skin model $EpiDerm^{TM}$. Although non-diluted MIT causes serious skin toxicity, skin irritation was not observed at a concentration of 100 ppm, the maximum permissible level for cosmetics and personal care products according to European regulations. Propylene glycol, the most widely used vehicle for MIT, did not cause skin irritation in the 3D skin model. The results are expected to provide information for regulatory policies and guidelines on the use of biocides in consumer products.

Safety Evaluation of Recombinant Human Factor VIII(GC-γ AHF) (유전자 재조합 Human Factor VIII(GC-γ AHF)의 안전성에 관한 연구)

  • 김민영;손장원;신민기;배미옥;김현우;최진혁;김준성;문서현;김정현
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of a recombinant human Factor VIII(GC-$\gamma$ AHF) manufactured by Korea Green Cross Company with different technology according to the Regulation of Korean Food and Drug Administration (l 998. 12. 3). In acute toxicity test, both genders of Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs were administered intravenously with GC-$\gamma$ AHF of three doses (3,125, 625 and 125 IU/kg), and single dose of 3,125 IU/kg, respectively. No dead animal and abnormal autopsy findings were found in Control and GC-$\gamma$ AHF treated group. Therefore, the 50% lethal dose ($LD_{50}$) of GC-$\gamma$ AHF was conidered to be higher than 3,125 IU/kg in rats and dogs. In the four weeks repeated intravenous toxicity study, GC-$\gamma$ AHF was administrated intravenosly to both genders of rats and dogs with 3 doses (500, 150, 50 IU/kg). There were neither dead animals nor significant changes of body weights during the experimental Period. In addition, no significant GC-$\gamma$ AHF related changes were found in clinical sign, urinalysis and other finding. Statistically changes were observed in hematological, biochemical and organ weight parameters of treated groups: however these changes were not dose dependent. No histopathological lesion were observed in both control and treated animals. Above data suggest that no observed adverse effect level of test materials in rats and dogs might be over 500 IU/kg/day in this study. In ocular irritation test, any injury on iris, conjunctiva and cornea in rabbits were not observed. The acute ocular irritation index (A.O.I.), mean ocular irritation index (M.O.I.) and Day-7 individual ocular irritation Index (I.O.I.) of GC-$\gamma$ AHF were 0. In the primary skin Irritation test, the primary irritation index (P.I.I.) oj GC-$\gamma$ AHF were 0. Therefore, the GC-$\gamma$ AHF is considered not to have the primary skin and eye toxicity in rabbits. In active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) test, GC-$\gamma$ AHF and GC-$\gamma$ AHF emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) did not induce any symptom of anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs. In passive cutaneous anaphylxis (PCA) test, after sensitization with antisera of GC-$\gamma$ AHF sensitized mice, blue spots were observed on the hypodermis of back of rats, but diameter of each spot was smaller than 5 mm in each test groups except the positive control group. Based on the results of this study, GC-$\gamma$ AHF is not conidered to have any antigenic potential. In conclusion, at levels of up to 500 IU/kg, GC-$\gamma$ AHF did not produce treatment-related toxicity under the conditions of these acute-, four week repeated-toxicity, primary skin and eye toxicity, and antigenicity test.

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Plant Extracts, Lavender, Lemon Eucalyptus and Cassia Essential Oil (식물 추출물 라벤더, 레몬 유칼립투스 및 계피 오일의 급성독성평가)

  • Jeong, Mi-Hye;Kwon, Mi-Jeong;Park, Soo-Jin;Hong, Soon-Sung;Park, Kyung-Hun;Park, Jae-Eup;Yeon, Sung-Hum
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.339-346
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    • 2010
  • The acute toxicity test of high bio-active plant essential oils was conducted with Lavender, Lemon eucalyptus and Cassia oils selected to develop environment-friendly insecticides. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed that $LD_{50}$ of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for Lavender, Lemon eucalyptus and Cassia oils. The calculated acute dermal $LD_{50}$ value of all testing materials was over 4,000 mg/kg bw. The Skin irritation test indicated that Lavender and Lemon eucalyptus oil have no irritation while Cassia oil has a moderate irritation. For the Eye Irritation test, the result showed no irritation for Lavender and Lemon Eucalyptus oil and irritation for Cassia oils. However, the irritation was not showed for Eye Irritationwashing test of Cassia oil. Consequently, the Lavender and Lemon eucalyptus oils were showed to be low in toxicity whereas Cassia oil indicated to cause a moderate irritation on the skin and eyes.

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Herbicide Methiozolin (제초제 Methiozolin의 급성독성평가)

  • Koo, Suk-Jin;Kwon, Min;Park, Cheol-Beom
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2011
  • We investigated methiozolin acute toxicity using with Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed $LD_{50}$ value of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for methiozolin. The calculate acute dermal $LD_{50}$ value of methiozolin was over 4,000 mg/kg. The skin irritation test showed moderately irritation and weak response of eye irritation test was observed in this experimental condition. According to these results, We concluded that methiozolin was Category IV in GHS chemical classification for acute toxicity. Future, we need more chronic toxicity test for safety.

The study of irritation and toxicity of Carthami oil aquapuncture solution applied topically to the skin and the eye mucous membrane (홍화자약침(紅花子藥鍼)의 피부자극시험 및 안점막자극시험)

  • Lim, Sa-Bi-Na;Kang, Dong-Chul
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.53-63
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    • 2000
  • Carthami tinctorii Fructus is known for its good effect on diseases such as fracture, menorrhalgia, menoschesis, puerperium aneilema and so on. The study of irritation and toxicity of Carthami oil aquapuncture solution applied topically to the skin and the eye mucous membrane were carried out to prove the safety of Carthami oil aquapuncture solution in clinical use. Animal for the research was the rabbit and the solution for the test was made from Carthami semen. 6 animals were used for the skin test and 9 animals were used for the eye mucous membrane test. In results, both tests proved that Carthami oil aquapuncture solution makes no irritable reaction on skin and eye mucous membrane of rabbit. We consider that this result is helpful for saying about the safety of Carthami oil aquapuncture solution in clinical use.

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Black Pepper extracts, Clove bud, Rosemary and Origanum Essential oils (식물추출물 후추, 클로브버드, 로즈마리 및 오리가늄오일의 급성독성평가)

  • Jeong, Mi-Hye;Park, Soo-Jin;Kwon, Mi-Jeong;You, Are-Sun;Park, Kyung-Hun;Park, Jae-Yup
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2011
  • Highly bio-active plant essential extracts and oils from pepper, clove bud, rosemary and origanum which are selected to develop environment-friendly insecticides was studied for their acute toxicity. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed $LD_{50}$ value of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for pepper, clove bud, rosemary and origanum oils. The calculated acute dermal $LD_{50}$ value of pepper was over 4,000 mg/kg bw and anther testing materials was over 4,000 mg/kg bw. The skin irritation test showed that pepper, clove bud and rosemary oils had no irritation while origanum oil had a moderate irritation. According to the eye irritation test, it showed that there was no irritation for pepper and rosemary oils, while there were irritation for clove bud and origanum oils. Consequently, pepper and rosemary oils were shown to be low in toxicity whereas clove bud oil was indicated to cause a mild eye irritability and origanum oil, causing a moderate skin and eye irritability.

Acute Oral Toxicity and Skin Irritation Studies on Natural Dyes Extracted from Chrysanthemum (국화로부터 추출한 천연염료에 대한 급성경구독성 및 피부자극성 시험에 대한 연구)

  • Kwon, Jung-Ki;An, In-Jung;Lee, Jin-Seok;Kim, Hae-Ri;Park, Ha-Seung;Kim, Dong-Chan;Choi, Byung-Jun;Lee, Kyu-Min;Park, Yong-Jin;Jung, Ji-Youn
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to evaluate to acute oral toxicity and skin irritation of Chrysanthemum dye in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were orally treated with Chrysanthemum dye at a dose of 0, 1 and 2 ml/kg body weight. After oral administration, the rats were observed for 14days. In primary skin irritation test, SD rats were dermally treated with Chrysanthemum dye and observed for 3 days. To ensure the safety of Chrysanthemum dye such as the following were observed and tested. We examined the body weight, the feed intake, the clinical signs, the ophthalmological test, the histopathological test, the mortality and skin irritation. As a result, no significant differences were found in body weight, feed intake and histopathological test between control and Chrysanthemum dye treated group. In the result of skin irritation test, Chrysanthemum dye did not induce erythema and edema after topical application. Primary irritation index was "0" in the test. Therefore, it is suggested that Chrysanthemum dye has no effect on acute toxicity and side effect in SD rats and is non-irritant material based on the score "0" of primary irritation index.