• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ischemia

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Effect of Preconditioning Ischemia on Endothelial Dysfunction Produced by Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rabbit Coronary Artery

  • Suh, Suk-Hyo;Park, Yee-Tae;Kim, Woong-Heum;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1995
  • This study was designed to test whether or not 1) ischemia-reperfusion attenuates endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries and 2) preconditioning protects the arterial endothelium from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In anesthetized open chest rabbits, branches of the left circumflex artery were exposed to different combinations of the experimental conditions; ischemia (15 minutes), ischemia (15 minutes)-reperfusion (10 minutes), preconditioning ischemia, and pre-conditioning fellowed by ischemia-reperfusion. Preconditioning consisted of 3 occlusions of 2-min duration, each followed by n 5-min reperfusion. Rings of the artery exposed to the experimental condition and of normal left anterior descending coronary artery were prepared and suspended for isometric force measurement in organ chambers containing Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution. The rings were contracted with 29.6 mM KCI. Ischemia alone did not attenuate endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine. However, ischemia-reperfusion significantly impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. Endothelium-independent relaxation by sodium nitroprusside was not impaired by ischemia-reperfusion and the constrictive response to acetylcholine was not altered in reperfused rings without endothelium, compared with control rings. Arterial rings exposed to preconditioning followed by ischemia-reperfusion exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetyl-choline. However, although preconditioning not fellowed by ischemia-reperfusion, attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation at low concentrations of acetylcholine, the magnitude of the impairment by preconditioning followed by ischemia-reperfusion was significantly less than that of the impairment by ischemia-reperfusion alone. These data demonstrate that ischemia-reperfusion significantly attenuates endothelium-dependent relaxation by producing endothelial dysfunction and preconditioning Protects the endothelium of coronary arteries from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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Expression and Activity of the Na-K ATPase in Ischemic Injury of Primary Cultured Astrocytes

  • Kim, Mi Jung;Hur, Jinyoung;Ham, In-Hye;Yang, Hye Jin;Kim, Younghoon;Park, Seungjoon;Cho, Young-Wuk
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2013
  • Astrocytes are reported to have critical functions in ischemic brain injury including protective effects against ischemia-induced neuronal dysfunction. Na-K ATPase maintains ionic gradients in astrocytes and is suggested as an indicator of ischemic injury in glial cells. Here, we examined the role of the Na-K ATPase in the pathologic process of ischemic injury of primary cultured astrocytes. Chemical ischemia was induced by sodium azide and glucose deprivation. Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the cytotoxic effect of chemical ischemia on astrocytes began to appear at 2 h of ischemia. The expression of Na-K ATPase ${\alpha}1$ subunit protein was increased at 2 h of chemical ischemia and was decreased at 6 h of ischemia, whereas the expression of ${\alpha}1$ subunit mRNA was not changed by chemical ischemia. Na-K ATPase activity was time-dependently decreased at 1, 3, and 6 h of chemical ischemia, whereas the enzyme activity was temporarily recovered to the control value at 2 h of chemical ischemia. Cytotoxicity at 2 h of chemical ischemia was significantly blocked by reoxygenation for 24 h following ischemia. Reoxygenation following chemical ischemia for 1 h significantly increased the activity of the Na-K ATPase, while reoxygenation following ischemia for 2 h slightly decreased the enzyme activity. These results suggest that the critical time for ischemia-induced cytotoxicity of astrocytes might be 2 h after the initiation of ischemic insult and that the increase in the expression and activity of the Na-K ATPase might play a protective role during ischemic injury of astrocytes.

Effects of NEES on PARP Expression in the Corpus Striatum in Rats Induced with Transient Global Ischemia

  • Lee, Jung Sook;Song, Young Wha;Kim, Sung Won
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 2012
  • Ischemia, the leading cause of strokes, is known to be deeply related to synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in tissue damage due to ischemic conditions or trauma. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of NEES(needle electrode electrical stimulation) in brain cells of ischemia-induced rat, more specifically the effects of Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase(PARP) on the corpus striatum. Ischemia was induced in SD mice by occluding the common carotid artery for 5 minutes, after which blood was re-perfused. NEES was applied to acupuncture points, at 12, 24, and 48 hours post-ischemia on the joksamri, and at 24 hours post-ischemia on the hapgok. Protein expression was investigated through PARP antibody immuno-reactive cells in the cerebral nerve cells and western blotting. The number of PARP reactive cells in the corpus striatum 24 hours post-ischemia was significantly(p<.05) smaller in the NEES group compared to the global ischemia(GI) group. PARP expression 24 hours post-ischemia was very significantly smaller in the NEES group compared to the GI group. Results show that ischemia increases PARP expression and stimulates necrosis, making it a leading cause of death of nerve cells. NEES can decrease protein expression related to cell death, protecting neurons and preventing neuronal apoptosis.

The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

  • Guven, Mustafa;Akman, Tarik;Yener, Ali Umit;Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal;Yuksel, Yasemin;Cosar, Murat
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2015
  • Objective : The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuro-protective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods : Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results : The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-$1{\alpha}$ and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion : Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

Effect of renal ischemia on renal function and excretion of lysine, alanine in the rabbit (신장 허혈이 토끼 신기능과 lysine 및 alanine 배설에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Yun-jeong;Kim, Yong-keun;Kim, Joo-heon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.729-733
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to determine the effect of renal ischemia on renal function and excretion of amino acid in rabbit. The animal models of renal ischemia induced experimentally by clamping the renal artery for different lengths of time. These results were summarized as follows: 1. Ischemia for 30 or 60 min produced a polyuria which is accompanied by an increase in $Na^+$ excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and p-aminohippurate plasma($C_{PAH}$) were not altered by 30 min of ischemia, indicating that transient ischemia results in a marked tubular dysfuction before a reduction in GFR or renal blood flow. 2. Reabsorption of glucose and amino acids such as alanine and lysine was markedly reduced after 30 min of ischemia, and the effect was more pronounced after 60 min of ischemia.

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The Effect of Melatonin on Biochemical Changes after Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Rat Skeletal Muscle (흰쥐 골격근의 허혈-재관류 손상후 생화학적 변화에 미치는 Melatonin의 효과)

  • Park, Hye June;Burm, Jin Sik
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.683-688
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    • 2005
  • The ischemia-reperfusion injury of the skeletal muscles is caused by generation of reactive oxygen during ischemia and reperfusion. Melatonin or N-Acetyl-5-methoxy- tryptamine is suggested to have antioxidant effects in several tissues. In present study, we examined the protective effect of melatonin in a rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dimethyl-sulfoxide(DMSO) was also tested for comparison. Ischemia was induced for 4 hours by vascular clamping and followed by 1 hour or 24 hours of reperfusion. Muscle injury was evaluated in 4 groups such as single laparotomy group(control), ischemia-reperfusion group, DMSO group, melatonin group. Eedema ratio and malondialdehyde(MDA) of muscle tissue and serum level of creatine kinase(CK), were measeured at the end of reperfusion. DMSO and melatonin group showed significant amelioration of edema and serum CK compared with ischemia-reperfusion group. The decreasing effect was more prominent in melatonin group. The muscle tissue MDA concentration is significantly lower in melatonin group than in ischemia-reperfusion group. The results show that melatonin prevents and improves ischemia-reperfusion injury more effectively in a rat hind limb than DMSO dose. Thus, clinically the melatonin may be used for a beneficial treatment of such injuries

Hesperidin improves warm ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative renal injury in rats

  • Gandhi, Chintan;Zalawadia, Rishit;Balaraman, R.
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.292-302
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    • 2009
  • Ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is commonly seen in the field of renal surgery or transplantation, is a major cause of acute renal failure. Previous studies showed that antioxidant treatments attenuated renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to examine the role of hesperidin in modulating reactive oxygen species induced inflammation and apoptosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rats were subjected to right nephrectomy, 15 days later 45 min of renal ischemia and 24 h reperfusion with or without treatment with hesperidin. Renal function, inflammation and apoptosis were compared at 24 h after reperfusion injury. Hesperidin improved the renal dysfunction and reduced inflammation and apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury. In conclusion, hesperidin shows potent anti-apoptotic and antiinflammatory properties due to antioxidant property. These findings may have major implications in the treatment of human ischemic acute renal failure.

Effects of DMTU, SOD and Ischemic Preconditioning on the Ultrastructural Changes of the Rectus Femoris Muscles in Rats after Ischemia and Reperfusion (SOD, DMTU및 허혈양상화 처치가 허혈 및 재관류에 의한 흰쥐 넙다리곧은근의 미세구조 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Paik, Doo-Jin;Lim, Jae-Hyun;Chung, Ho-Sam
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.333-346
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    • 1997
  • The ischemia and reperfusion injury of the skeletal muscles is caused by generation of reactive oxygen during ischemia and reperfusion. It is well known that over 4 hours of ischemia injures the skeletal muscles irreversibly. The author has demonstrated the effects of SOD (superoxide dismutase), DMTU (dimethyl thiourea) and ischemic preconditioning on ultrastructural changes of the muscle fibers in the rectus femoris muscles after 4 hours of ischemia and 1 day and 3 days of reperfusion. A total of 72 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats weighing from 200 gm to 250 gm were used as experimental animals. Under urethane(1.15 g/kg, IP, 2 times) anesthesia, lower abdominal incision was done and the left common iliac artery was occluded by using vascular clamp for 4 hours. The left rectus femoris muscles were obtained at 1 and 3 days after the removal of vascular clamp. The SOD (15,000 unit/kg) or DMTU (500 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally at 1 hour before induction of ischemia. The ischemic preconditioned group underwent three episodes of 5 minutes occlusion and 5 minutes reperfusion followed by 4 hours of ischemia and 1 day and 3 days of reperfusion. The specimens were sliced into $1mm^3$ and prepared by routine methods for electron microscopic observation. All specimens were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and then observed with Hitachi-600 transmission electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. SOD or DMTU alone did not affect the ultrastructure of muscle fibers in the rectus femoris muscles. The electron density of mitochondrial matrix was decreased by ischemic preconditioning. 2. Dilated cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum, triad, mitochondria and the loss of myofilament in the sarcomere were observed in the 4 hours ischemia and 1 day reperfused rectus femoris muscles. Markedly changed sarcoplasmic reticulum, triad, disordered or loss of myofilament, indistinct A-band and I-band, and irregular electron lucent M -line and Z-line are seen in the 4 hours ischemia and 3 days reperfused rectus femoris muscles. 3. SOD reduced the changes of organelles in the muscle fibers of the 4 hours ischemia and 1 day reperfused rectus femoris muscles of the rats, but SOD did not affect the changes of muscle fibers in the 4 hours ischemia and 3 days reperfused muscles. On the other hand, DMTU markedly attenuated considerably the ultrastructural change of the 4 hours ischemia and 1 day or 3 days reperfused rectus femoris muscles. 4. By the ischemic preconditioning, the change was attenuated remarkably in the 4 hours ischemia and 1 day reperfused rectus femoris muscles. As the ischemic reperfused changes of muscle fibers were regenerated or recovered by ischemic preconditioning, the ultrastructures of them were similar to those of normal control in the 4 hours ischemia and 3 days reperfused rectus formoris muscles. Consequently, it is suggested that DMTU is stronger inhibitor to ischemic reperfused change than SOD. The ischemia and reperfusion-induced muscular damage is remarkably inhibited by ischemic preconditioning.

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The Effect of Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion on Energy Metabolism in Rats

  • Jeong Cheol;Cho, Tai-Soon;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.97-97
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    • 1997
  • It was reported that ATP depletion occurs and accelerates cell damage during ischemia and reperfusion. To determine the mechanism of cell damage, the change of energy metabolism in liver was studied during ischemia/reperfusion. The groups were divided into four categories : sham-operated group, ischemia/reperfusion group, and two types of ATP-MgCl$_2$ treatment groups(one was treated during ischemia and the another during reperfusion). Rats were administered intravenously saline or ATP-MgCl$_2$. Rats were anesthetized and blood vessels in the left and median lobes of the liver were occluded. After 60min of ischemia, the clamp at those vessels were removed. After ischemia, one and five hours after reflow, energy metabolites(ATP, ADP, AMP, inosine, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) in liver were measured with HPLC. To observe mitochondrial function, aterial keton body ratio in blood and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase activity in liver were measured. And lipid peroxidation was measured to evalutate the involvement of free radicals. In this study, ATP and ADP were catabolized to their metabolites(AMP, inosine, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) during ischemia and they resynthesized ATP and ADP during reperfusion. But total purine base were not restored to level of normal rat. The main source of resynthesizing ATP and ADP was AMP. In both ATP-MgCl$_2$ treated groups, mitochondrial function was protected and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. Our findings suggest that ischemia/reperfusion impairs hepatic energy metabolism.

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Involvement of Cortical Damage in the Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Memory Impairment of Wistar Rats

  • Hong, Jin-Tae;Ryu, Seung-Rel;Kim, Hye-Jin;Lee, Sun-Hee;Lee, Byung-Moo;Kim, Pu-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.413-417
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    • 2000
  • The effect of ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal damage on the memory impairment were investigated using active avoidance and Morris water maze tasks in Wistar rats. Focal ischemia was induced by 1 h occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of Wistar male rats. Reperfusion was induced by releasing the occlusion and restoring the blood circulation for 24 h. The acquisition and preservation memory tested by active avoidance showed a significant difference between the sham and ischemia/reperfusion group. The water maze acquisition performance was also significant difference between sham and ischemia/repefusion groups in both latency and moving distance. The infarction volume was increased by the ischemia/reperfusion. Furthermore, the cresyl violet staining of the ischemia/reperfusion brain showed severe neuronal damage (pyramidal cell loss) in the cortex in addition to the striatum lesion of brain. This study shows that pyramidal cell damage in the cortex lesion may be partially related to memorial disturbance in the ischemia/reperfusion brain injury.

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