• Title, Summary, Keyword: Isoleucine

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Effects of Isoleucine Supplementation of a Low Protein, Corn-Soybean Meal Diet on the Performance and Immune Function of Weanling Pigs

  • Zheng, C.T.;Li, D.F.;Qiao, S.Y.;Gong, L.M.;Zhang, D.F.;Thacker, P.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.70-76
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crystalline isoleucine supplementation of a low protein, corn-soybean meal diet on the performance and immune function of weanling pigs. Forty-five crossbred ($Duroc{\times}Landrace{\times}Large\;White$) piglets, weighing an average of $11.00{\pm}0.07kg$, were assigned to either a control diet containing 20% crude protein (0.64% isoleucine), a 16% crude protein diet without isoleucine supplementation (0.41% isoleucine) or a 16% crude protein diet supplemented with isoleucine (0.64% isoleucine). Reducing the crude protein content of the diet from 20 to 16% significantly (p<0.05) reduced both average daily gain and feed intake. Feed conversion also tended (p=0.07) to be poorer for a low protein diet without isoleucine supplementation. Isoleucine supplementation of the 16% crude protein diet increased both gain and feed intake to a level similar to that obtained by pigs fed the 20% crude protein diet (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and serum globulin were significantly (p<0.05) higher for pigs fed the unsupplemented 16% crude protein diet than for pigs fed the isoleucine-supplemented diet or the control. Egg albumin antibody titre decreased significantly (p<0.05) in pigs fed the diet with isoleucine supplementation, whereas the antibody titre of pigs fed the low protein and low isoleucine diet was similar to that of pigs fed the diet containing 20% crude protein and 0.64% isoleucine. It was suggested that crystalline isoleucine supplementation of a low protein and low isoleucine diet improved pig performance but suppressed humoral immune function.

Partition of Amino Acid Requirements of Broilers between Maintenance and Growth. V. Isoleucine and Valine

  • Bae, S.H.;Kim, J.H.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 1999
  • Two experiments were conducted to subdivide isoleucine (exp. 1) and valine (exp. 2) requirements for maintenance from the requirements for growth of broilers aged 1 to 3 weeks. Purified diets were used, containing five graded levels of isoleucine and valine. Based on weight gain response, the isoleucine requirement for growth was 7.50 mg/g weight gain and the daily isoleucine need for maintenance (mg) was 0.044 per unit metabolic body size ($(Wg^{0.75})$). Based on the N gain response, the isoleucine requirement for growth was 0.317 mg/mg N gain and the daily isoleucine need for maintenance (mg) was 0.040 per unit metabolic body size $(Wg^{0.75})$. Based on weight gain and N gain response, the total isoleucine requirement was calculated 244 mg/day or 0.59% of the diet, 274 mg/day or 0.66% of the diet, respectively. From the relationship of weight gain and N gain, 5.07% of the retained protein was comprised of isoleucine; the reported isoleucine content of chick muscle was 4.42%. The valine requirement for growth was 9.84 mg/g weight gain and 0.36 mg/mg N gain whereas the maintenance requirement was 0.046 or 0.052 mg per unit of metabolic body size (Wgo.11. According to the model developed to estimate valine requirement, the total requirement was 319 mg/day or 0.77% of the diet, 315 mg/day or 0.76% of the diet, respectively. Previous reported valine requirements for growing chicks of 7~24 days old were in close agreement with these estimates. As a percentage of retained protein, valine was calculated to be 5.81% ; the reported valine concentration of crude protein of chicks' body including feathers was 6.72%.

Study on the Identification and Contents of New Amino Acid in Edible Mushrooms (식용(食用)버섯중(中)의 새로운 아미노산(酸)의 구명(究明))

  • Ro, Ihl-Hyeob
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 1979
  • Free amino acid in ethanol extracts and total amino acids in hydrolysates of eleven species of edible mushrooms were analyzed and determinated the contents five kind of new amino acid by means of amino acid autoanalyzer and gas liquid chromatography. The result obtained from this study are as follows. 1) Five kind of new amino acid turned out to be ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid, allo-isoleucine, ethanolamine, $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid and ornithine. 2) By means of amino acid autoanalyzer, the monoethanolamine was identified on the chromatogram ahead of alanine, ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid between peak of threonine and glycine, allo-isoeleucine between peak of valine and leucine, isoleucine, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid followed by proline between peak of leucine, isoleucine and methionine and ornithine between peak of phenylalanine and tyrosine 3) By means of Gas liquid chromatography, the ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid was identified on the chromatogram between peaks of alanine and valine, allo-isoleucine between peaks of methionine and isoleucine, monoethanolamine followed by ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid between peaks of phenylalanine and ammonia, ornithine between the peaks of ammonia and lysine. 4) Of five amino acids which were identified, ornithine was the highest of its content in the mushroom extracts, and allo-isoleucine, ethanolamine, and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid came next in decreasing order. 5) Also which were identified, ornithine was the highest of its content in the hydrolysates, and ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid, allo-isoleucine came next in decreasing order, ethanol extracts and hydrolysates of Auriculariaauricula-Judae(Fr.) $Qu\acute{e}l$ species didn't contain any of five kind of new amino acid. Ornithine also was the highest in the hydrolysates of ll mushrooms.

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Development of Method for Determining 4-Hydroxy-L-isoleucine in Health Functional Foods by HPLC (건강기능식품에서 HPLC를 이용한 4-Hydroxy-L-isoleucine 분석법 연구)

  • Lee, Se-Yun;Jeong, Hee-Sun;Hu, Soo-Jung;Lee, Hye-Young;Oh, Jae-Myoung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to develop a method of analysis for 4-hydroxy-L-isoleucine in the seed extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), a health functional food that contains dietary fiber. The analytical method for 4-hydroxy-L-isoleucine was derived with O-phthaldialdehyde reagent (OPA) and determined by HPLC-PDA. The method was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 UG 120 column (4.6×250 mm, 5 ㎛) in isocratic elution mode using disodium phosphate and acetonitrile. The validation of the developed analytical method was conducted by evaluating several parameters; selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and repeatability. Excellent linearity (R2=0.999) was observed for 4-hydroxy-L-isoleucine in the concentration range (5-100 ㎍/mL). Observed recoveries of these compounds were found to be between 91.7 and 96.4%. Precision was between 0.2 and 2.4% relative standard deviation (%RSD).

Nutritional Conditions of Xylanase Production from Xylose Fermenting Yeast (Xylose 발효효모의 Xylanase 생성)

  • 배명애;김남순;방병호;서정훈
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.85-87
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    • 1989
  • Cultural conditions for the formation of extracellular xylanase by Candida sp. X-6-41 were investigated. The xylanase was not produced in culture medium containing polypeptone or yeast extract as a nitrogen source, respectively, whereas the enzyme w8s produced in chemically defined medium containing (NH$_4$)$_2$SO$_4$as a sole nitrogen source. The xylanase production was affected by the amino acids such as isoleucine and tryptophan. The enzyme production of the strain was completely inhibited by the addition of isoleucine in the culture medium, but enhanced by tryptophan below the concentration of 25$\mu$g/$m\ell$.

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Study of Synthesis and Biological Function on Aminophosphonic Acids (Aminophosphonic Acids 화합물의 생물학적 기능연구)

  • Kim, Sook-He
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1971
  • Since ${\beta}-aminoethylphosphonic$ acid was discovered in the living organism, the biosynthesis and biological function of aminophosphonic acids have been extensively studied. The purpose of this project consists in the two parts: 1)the preparation of DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid (Phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid) and DL-1-amino-3-methylbutyl-phosphonic acid (Isoleucine aminophosphonic acid) by the method of Chamber and Isbell. 2) the study of metabolism and biological functions of those synthetic materials by the animal experiment (white rats) The importance of this project proved to be the first experience fed by animals for the elucidation of biochemical and metabolic functions in the animal body. The following organic synthesis of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid and DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid are studied. 1)Synthesis of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid a) Synthesis of Iso-butylbromide b) Synthesis of Ethyl iso-butylmalonate c) Synthesis of Iso-caproic acid d) Synthesis of $Ethyl-{\alpha}-bromo$ iso-caproate e) Synthesis of $Triethyl-{\alpha}-phosphono$ iso-caproate f) Synthesis of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid 2)Synthesis of DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid a) Synthesis of Diethyl phosphite b) Synthesis of Ethylchloro acetate c) Synthesis of Triethyl phospho acetate d) Synthesis of Triethyl benzyl phospho acetate e) Synthesis of DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid The synthetic compounds; DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid and DL-1-amino-2-phenyl ethylphosphonic acid which are essential amino acid (isoleucine, phenylalanine)analogue are supplemented to the animal diet at the level of 0.2% and 0.4% for isoleucine analogue and 0.35% and 0.7% for phenylalanine analogue. The plain isoleucine and phenylalanine at the same level in the diet are fercilitated as comparable groups in this study. Two sets of experience including 100 male rats were carried out for seven weeks each total 14 weeks. During this period, urine samples, and each big organs were collected for the analysis of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and glycogen contents in the individual samples by Micro Kjeldahl Fisk & Subbarow and Nelson Somogye, method. 1) The result of the project a) The yield of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid and DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid showed low tendency at the level of 12.5% and 20% Melting point of those two compounds were very high and the ${\alpha}-amino$ group in the synthetic compounds showed positive reaction with ninhydrin in the violet color. b) Ail the experimental groups included in this study revealed statistically no significant difference in the organ weight, total body nitrogen retention and urinary phosphorus excretion This means isoleucine aminophosphonic acid and Phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid were utilized in the body as much as the plain amino acids, isoleucine and phenylalanine did. c) The glycogen contents in the liver of the phenylalaine aminophosphonic acid gruop showed higher statistically significant(p<0.05) in the comparision with the group of the Phenylalanine and the Standard-2. It was noteworthy that the higher glycogen content in the liver might indicate the significance in the incorporation of phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid into the intermediate of tricarboxylic acid cycle as activated state.

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Studies on the Mucilage for the Manufacture of Korean Hand-Made Paper -Part II. Detection of Amino acids in the Mucilage of Ulmus coreana, Nakai Root- (한지(韓紙) 초조용(抄造用) 점액(粘液)에 관한 연구(硏究) -제2보(第二報). 느릅나무근(根) 점액(粘液)의 아미노산류(酸類)의 검색(檢索)-)

  • Sohn, Joo-Hwan;Im, Jai-Bin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.173-176
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    • 1982
  • The amino acids in the mucilage and its hydrolyzed products from Ulmus coreana, Nakai root were detected by thin layer chromatography. The mucilage contained 10 kinds of amino acids; alanine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine. In the hydrolyzed mucilage 14 kinds of amino acids were detected; alanine, aspargine, arpartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, proline, phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine and valine.

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Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

  • Zhang, Hui Ling;Chen, Yong;Xu, Xiao Li;Yang, Yu Xia
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2013
  • This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields ($p{\leq}0.001$). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L.

Serratia marcescens Biodegradative, Biosynthetic Threonine Dehydratase와 Acetolactate Synthase의 생합성에 대한 조절

  • 최병범;방선권
    • Proceedings of the Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.121-121
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    • 2001
  • 최소 배지에 여러 아미노산과 대사 산물을 첨가하여 배양시킨 Serratia marcescens ATCC 25419 세포추출물에서여 biodegradative threonine dehydratase (BDTD), biosynthetic threonine dehydratase (BSTD)와 acetolactate syntase (ALS)의 비활성도를 조사하였다. S. marcescens BDTD와 ALS는 낮은 농도 (0.5-2 mM)의 cAMP에 의해 촉진적 조절을 받으며, 비교적 낮은 농도의 isoleucine (1-4 mM)에 의해서는 S. marcescens BSTD의 생합성이 증가되고 높은 농도의 isoleucine (10-30 mM)에서는 감소되고 비교적 낮은 농도의 valine (2-4 mM)에 의해서 S. marcescens ALS의 생합성이 증가되는 것으로 보아 S. marcescens ATCC 25419에서 branched chain 아미노산 생합성 과정의 조절 양상은 Escherichia coli K-12와는 달리, isoleucine의 생합성 과정은 BSTD에 의해 조절되고, valine의 생합성 과정은 ALS에 의해 조절되는 것으로 사료된다.

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Studies on Volatile Compounds Formed in Heating Reaction between Leucine or Isoleucine and Glucose (Leucine 또는 Isoleucine과 Glucose간의 가열 반응에서 생성된 휘발성화합물에 관한 연구)

  • Kwag, Jae-Jin;Kim, Young-Hoi;Yang, Kwang-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.203-210
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    • 1989
  • Leucine and isoleucine were reacted with glucose in a propylene glycol solution and volatile compounds produced from these reaction were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 24 compounds were identified in the leucine reaction volatiles and the major components were 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-2-hexenal, methylbutyraldehyde PGA, butyraldehyde PGA, 5-methylfur-fural, isopropylmethylhexenal PGA and 2-acetylpyrrole. From the isoleucing reaction volatiles, 20 compounds were identified and the major components were methylbutyraldehyde PGA, butyraldehyde PGA and 2-acetylpyrrole. The amino acids chosen for this study were considered as giving fruity and cocoa aroma when heated with glucose.

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