• Title, Summary, Keyword: JNR(Japanese National Railway)

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Development and Philosophy in Local Railway Policy: The Experience of Japanese National Railway (지방철도정책의 전개와 이념 -일본국철의 경험을 중심으로-)

  • Hwang, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 2014
  • Recently, the Korean government is considering a policy of adopting competition in railway transportation, such as the establishment of a subsidiary company to Korail as a company to operate a part of the KTX line, the separation of deficit-running lines of local railways and the opening of railway transportation to private operators. The termination of local railway service, which is a major provider of public transportation, will not only deprive the public of a means of transportation but also lead to a decline in the quality of public transit in general. The termination of local railway service is being decisively affected by the national railway policy. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify local railway policy in Japan by studying the development and philosophy of the local railway policy of the Japanese National Railway (JNR).

The Analysis of Efficiency and Productivity in the Korean and Japanese Railways: A Stochastic Cost Frontier Approach (확률적 비용변경 접근법을 이용한 한국과 일본 철도산업의 효율성과 생산성 분석)

  • Park, Jin-Gyeong;Kim, Seong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.141-157
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    • 2007
  • This paper evaluates the effects of privatization and deregulation on the firm-specific efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean and Japanese railways. Using a stochastic frontier approach and a generalized translog functional form, the paper specifies the equation system consisting of a multiproduct variable cost function and input share equations which is estimated with Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression and the corrected least squares method. The Korean and Japanese railway firms are assumed to produce three outputs (Shinkansen passenger-kilometers, incumbent railway passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers of freight) using three input factors (labor, fuel, maintenance and rolling stock). A monetary value of the ways and fixed installations held by the railroad firm is also included as a quasi-fixed input. The empirical results indicate that the average estimate of cost inefficiency is 2.57% for the total sample and on the average, JNR and JR Kyushu are found to be worst efficient while the most efficient railway firm in the sample is JR West. Also the cost efficiency levels of seven JRs have been improved after the reform and privatization of JNR. The findings also indicate that TFP growth of the privately-owned JRs are higher than those of the government-owned KNR and JNR. Three-island JRs and JR Freight have slightly higher TFP growth than Honshu JRs as well. Thus, the results suggest that managerial autonomy and increased competition via deregulation have improved efficiency and TFP growth.

The Analysis of Cost Structure and Productivity in the Korea and Japan Railroad Industry (한국과 일본 철도산업의 비용구조와 생산성 분석)

  • Park, Jin-Gyeong;Kim, Seong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 2006
  • This paper investigates the cost structure ot the Korea and Japan railroad industry with respect to density, scale and scope economies as well as productivity growth rate using a generalized trans)og multiproduct cost function model. The paper then assumes that the Korea and Japan railway companies pi·educe three outputs (incumbent railway passenger-kilometers. Shinkansen passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers of freight) using four input factors (labor, fuel, maintenance, rolling stock and capital). The specified cost function includes foul other independent variables: track lengths to reflect network effects, two dummies to reflect nation and ownership effects, and time trend as a proxy for technical change. The simultaneous equation system consisting of a cost function and three input share equations is estimated with the Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression. The unbalanced panel data used in the paper, a total of 154 observations. are collected from the annual records of the Korea National Railroad (KNR) for the yews $1977{\sim}2003$, Japan National Railways (JNR) for the years $1977{\sim}1984$. seven Japan Railways (JR's) for the years $1987{\sim}2003$. The findings show that the Korean and Japanese railways exhibit product-specific and overall economies of density but product-specific diseconomies of scale with respect to incumbent railway passenger-kilometers, Shinkansen-kilometers and ton-kilometers. However, the railways experience mild overall economies of scale which result from economies of scope associated with the joint production of incumbent railway/Shinkansen and feight, freight/incumbent railway and Shinkansen except Shinkansen/incumbent railway and freight. In addition, the economies of density and scale in the KNR, JR east, JR central, and JR west companies at the point of the years $1990{\sim}2003$ average is generally analogous to the above results at the point of sample average. There also appear to be economies of ssope associated with the joint Production of the incumbent railway and Shinkansen in JR central but diseconomies of scope in JR East and JR West. The findings also indicate that the productivity growth rate of the privately-owned JR's is larger than that of the government-owned KNR.