• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese Black Calf

Search Result 14, Processing Time 0.04 seconds

Genetic Analysis of Direct and Maternal Effects for Calf Market and Carcass Weights in Japanese Black Cattle

  • Kitamura, C.;Yasuda, Y.;Kobayashi, T.;Nomura, T.;Shimada, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.6
    • /
    • pp.843-845
    • /
    • 1999
  • To evaluate direct and maternal effects on calf market weight (CMW) and carcass weight (CW) in Japanese Black cattle under an animal model, genetic parameters were estimated using 51,320 records of CMW and 11,944 records of CW, respectively. Direct and maternal heritabilities, and direct-maternal genetic correlation were estimated to be 0.22, 0.06 and 0.27 for CMW, and 0.23, 0.12 and -0.40 for CW, respectively. Correlation coefficient between maternal breeding values for CMW and CW was 0.521 for 157 sires appeared in both CMW and CW data sets. These results suggest that the maternal genetic effect on pre-weaning growth carries over to carcass weight. Maternal breeding values for both calf market weight and carcass weight could be used as the indicator traits of maternal ability in Japanese Black cattle.

Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System

  • Yamaguchi, Manabu;Ikeda, Kentaro;Takenouchi, Naoki;Higashiyama, Masakazu;Watanabe, Akira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.26 no.7
    • /
    • pp.930-934
    • /
    • 2013
  • The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.

MILK YIELD AND ITS REPEATABILITY IN JAPANESE BLACK COWS

  • Shimada, K.;Izaike, Y.;Suzuki, O.;Oishi, T.;Kosugiyama, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.47-53
    • /
    • 1988
  • Daily milk yield estimates were obtained on 74 lactations of 35 Japanese Black cows on weeks 1 to 9, 11, 13, 17, 21 and 26 postpartum using the weigh-suckle-weigh method. The data obtained were analyzed by least-squares procedures according to the models including the following effects; dam, lactation number, season of calving, week of experiment and partial regressions on the lactation number. The overall mean and standard error for daily milk yield was $4.55{\pm}0.04\;kg$. The milk yield declined essentially linearly throughout the experimental period. The main effects of lactation number, season of calving and week of experiment were highly significant. Differences in daily milk yield among cows were significant, and the repeatability was estimated as $0.60{\pm}0.06$. The overall means(kg) and repeat-abilities of cumulative milk yield for 1, 4, 9, 13, 17, 21 and 26 weeks postpartum were 41, 0.08; 166, 0.40; 361, 0.61; 503, 0.66; 632, 0.67; 749, 0.65 and 884, 0.58; respectively. The means of calf weight at birth and 26 weeks weight for different lactations ranged from 25.5 to 33.6 kg and 145.6 to 185.4 kg, respectively. Calf daily gains between experiment weeks were low in earlier stages of lactation.

EFFECT OF MILK YIELD ON GROWTH OF MULTIPLE CALVES IN JAPANESE BLACK CATTLE (WAGYU)

  • Shimada, K.;Izaike, Y.;Suzuki, O.;Kosugiyama, M.;Takenouchi, N.;Ohshima, K.;Takahashi, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.4
    • /
    • pp.717-722
    • /
    • 1992
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of producing multiple calves using embryo transfer in Japanese Black cattle. Milk yield of cows and forage intake of calves were measured for 11 cows with single calves, 14 cows with twins and one cow with triplets. The means of 26 weeks cumulative milk yield were 854, 1028 and 1271 kg for cows having singles, twins and triplets, respectively. Male birth weights for single calves, twins and triplet were 34.9, 26.6 and 19.9 kg, and female ones were 31.7, 24.1 and 22.1 kg, respectively. Weight and daily gain of calves were affected by weeks (W), sex (S), the number of calves (N), parity, birth season, $W{\times}N$, $S{\times}N$ and regression on milk yield. Growth rate was higher for single calves than for twins until about 9 weeks of age, then weights increased at a similar rate. Male calf weaning weights for singles, twins and triplets were 207.0, 177.1 and 162.2 kg, and those for females were 185.4, 151.6 and 180.4 kg, respectively. Average regression coefficients of calf growth on milk yield were significant, and single calf was affected more than twin calves by increment of milk yield. As the number of calves per cow increased, hay intake of calves decreased and concentrate intake tended to increase between 6 and 13 weeks of age.

Breeding Values for Carcass Traits at Calf Markets as Determinant of Feeding Length in Japanese Black Cattle: an Exploratory Study

  • Ogino, A.;Kaku, K.;Fujita, T.;Kitamura, C.;Shimada, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.635-638
    • /
    • 2003
  • Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) are fed for a long period to produce high quality beef, however, extended feeding often causes inefficiency and greater environmental load mainly derived from their manure. The objectives of this study were to analyze changes in feeding length by listing breeding values (BVs) at calf markets and the relationships between BVs and carcass characteristics of 4,052 Japanese Black cattle, and to examine the feasibility of optimizing feeding length by referring to listed BVs. BV classes A, B, and C were defined based on BVs of cows in Shimane Prefecture as follows: an upper quarter of BVs was classified as A, a second quarter as B, and under the average as C. For cattle sold at calf markets in the first term of 1996, just before the start of BV listing, the feeding length of cattle with class B BVs for the beef marbling standard (BMS) was longer (p>0.05) than that of class A cattle. However, in the second term of 1996, just after the start of BV listing, the feeding length of class B cattle became shorter (p<0.001) than that of class A cattle. Then, the feeding lengths of both classes showed no significant differences. Feeding lengths of both class A and B BVs for carcass weight (CW) changed similarly to the corresponding BV classes for BMS. The analysis of the relationships among the listed BV classes and the actual carcass characteristics showed that class A cattle had a higher (p<0.001) BMS than class B cattle, and that the higher-class cattle had a heavier CW (p<0.05). On the basis of previous reports, the cattle, particularly those with lower genetic marbling ability, seem to only increase marbling at markedly low efficiency for a few months before slaughter. Therefore, the finding that carcass characteristics corresponded to their class of BVs suggests that an optimum feeding length based on listed BVs not only increases the efficiency of beef production, but also reduces the environmental load.

Variability of the Rumination-Behaviour in Strrrs fed a Constant Amount of Hay (목건초의 정량급여시 소 반추행동의 변이성)

  • ;Minoru Otha
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.8 no.3
    • /
    • pp.68-76
    • /
    • 1988
  • The variation of rumination response in steers fed a same amount of orcharugrass hay was investigated. With three steers (6, 12, 24 months) of the Japanese Black Breed, rumination behaviour was measured continuously during a 5 days period by masseter EMG telemetry system. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average daily rumination time of respective animals were 438,447 and 433 min. with small daily variation both within and among animal. But the rumination time per DM kg of hay consumed varied from 66 to 138 min., and calf spent longer than older calf. 2. Actural chewing time showed small variation, and percentage of actural chewing time spent in rumination time was from 88 to 93% on individual average. 3. The daily number of chewing in rumination was approximately 25,000 to 30,000 with large individual differences. The chews per DM kg intake varied from 3,800 to 9,600, and calf chewed more than older calf. 4. The average rate of chewing per 100 sec. (chewing speed), there was a large difference between animals i.e. 104, 114, 131 respectively, but very little variance between days in individual. 5. No relation between day to day variations in eating time and rumination behavior, but significantly positive correlation was observed in the relation among rumination time, chewing time, No. of boluses and No. of chews. 6. Active time of day in rumination altered considerably day to day, but variation in the amount of rumination per day as expressed by the rumination time was relatively small.

  • PDF

Variability of the Rumination-Behaviour in Steers fed a Constant Amount of Hay (牧乾草의 定量給與時 소 反芻行動의 變異性)

  • Jeon, Byong-Tae;Otha, Minoru
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.68-76
    • /
    • 1988
  • The variation of rumination response in steers fed a same amount of orcharograss hay was investigated. With three steers (6, 12, 24 months) of the Japanese Black Breed, rumination behaviour was measured continuously during a 5 days period by masseter EMG telemetry system. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average daily ruminatio time of respective animals were 438,447 and 433 min. with small daily variation both within and among animal. But the rumination time per DM kg of hay consumed varied from 66 to 138 min., and calf spent longer than older calf. 2. Actural chewing time showed small variation, and percentage of actural chewing time spent in rumination time was from 88 to 93% on individual average. 3. The daily number of chewing in rumination was approximately 25,000 to 30,000 with large individual differences. The chews per DM kg intake varied from 3,800 to 9,600, and calf chewed more than older calf. 4. The average rate of chewing per 100 sec. (chewing speed), there was a large difference between animals I.e. 104, 114, 131 respectively, but very little variance between days in individual. 5. No relation between day to day variations in eating time and rumination behavior, but significantly positive correlation was observed in the relation among rumination time, chewing time, No. of boluses and No. of chews. 6. Active time of day in rumination altered considerably day to day, but variation in the amount of rumination per day as expressed by the rumination time was relatively small.

  • PDF

Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves

  • Chen, Siyu;Tanaka, Shigefumi;Ogura, Shin-ichiro;Roh, Sanggun;Sato, Shusuke
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.28 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1662-1668
    • /
    • 2015
  • We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration ($25.5{\pm}4.9$ [mean${\pm}$standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS ($16.9{\pm}6.7$) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration ($5.8{\pm}2.5$ [mean${\pm}$standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS ($10.0{\pm}2.8$) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations.

Cloning of Farm Animals in Japan; The Present and the Future

  • Shioya, Yasuo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.37-43
    • /
    • 2001
  • 1. About fifty thousand of cattle embryos were transferred and 16000 ET-calves were born in 1999. Eighty percents of embryos were collected from Japanese Black beef donors and transferred to dairy Holstein heifers and cows. Since 1985, we have achieved in bovine in vitro fertilization using immature oocytes collected from ovaries of slaughterhouse. Now over 8000 embryos fertilized by Japanese Black bull, as Kitaguni 7~8 or Mitsufuku, famousbulls as high marbling score of progeny tests were sold to dairy farmers and transferred to their dairy cattle every year. 2. Embryo splitting for identical twins is demonstrated an useful tool to supply a bull for semen collection and a steer for beef performance test. According to the data of Dr. Hashiyada(2001), 296 pairs of split-half embryos were transferred to recipients and 98 gave births of 112 calves (23 pairs of identical twins and 66 singletons). 3. A blastomere-nuclear-transferred cloned calf was born in 1990 by a joint research with Drs. Tsunoda, National Institute of Animal Industry (NIAI) and Ushijima, Chiba Prefectural Farm Animal Center. The fruits of this technology were applied to the production of a calf from a cell of long-term-cultured inner cell mass (1988, Itoh et al, ZEN-NOH Central Research Institute for Feed and Livestock) and a cloned calf from three-successive-cloning (1997, Tsunoda et al.). According to the survey of MAFF of Japan, over 500 calves were born until this year and a glaf of them were already brought to the market for beef. 4. After the report of "Dolly", in February 1997, the first somatic cell clone female calves were born in July 1998 as the fruits of the joint research organized by Dr. Tsunoda in Kinki University (Kato et al, 2000). The male calves were born in August and September 1998 by the collaboration with NIAI and Kagoshima Prefecture. Then 244 calves, four pigs and a kid of goat were now born in 36 institutes of Japan. 5. Somatic cell cloning in farm animal production will bring us as effective reproductive method of elite-dairy- cows, super-cows and excellent bulls. The effect of making copy farm animal is also related to the reservation of genetic resources and re-creation of a male bull from a castrated steer of excellent marbling beef. Cloning of genetically modified animals is most promising to making pig organs transplant to people and providing protein drugs in milk of pig, goat and cattle. 6. Farm animal cloning is one of the most dreamful technologies of 21th century. It is necessary to develop this technology more efficient and stable as realistic technology of the farm animal production. We are making researches related to the best condition of donor cells for high productivity of cloning, genetic analysis of cloned animals, growth and performance abilities of clone cattle and pathological and genetical analysis of high rates of abortion and stillbirth of clone calves (about 30% of periparutum mortality). 7. It is requested in the report of Ministry of Health, labor and Welfare to make clear that carbon-copy cattle(somatic cell clone cattle) are safe and heathy for a commercial market since the somatic cell cloning is a completely new technology. Fattened beef steers (well-proved normal growth) and milking cows(shown a good fertility) are now provided for the assessment of food safety.

  • PDF