• Title/Summary/Keyword: Japanese Black Cows

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The change of sleeping and lying posture of Japanese black cows after moving into new environment

  • Fukasawa, Michiru;Komatsu, Tokushi;Higashiyama, Yumi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1828-1832
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Environmental change is one of the stressful events in livestock production. Change in environment disturbs cow behavior and cows require several days to regain a stable behavioral pattern. Sleeping posture (SP) and lying posture (LP) have been used as indicators for animal that are relaxed and well-acclimated to their environment. The aim of this study was to examine the time required by Japanese black cows for stabilization of SP and LP after moving into new environment. Methods: Seven pregnant Japanese black cows were used. Cows were moved into new tie-stall shed and their sleeping and lying posture measured 17 times during 35 experimental days. Both SP and LP were detected by accelerometer fixed on middle occipital and hip-cross, respectively. Daily total time, frequency, and average bout of both SP and LP were calculated. Results: Daily SP time was the shortest on day 1 and increased to the highest on day 3. It then decreased until day 9, after that stabilized about 65 min/d till the end of experiment. Daily LP time changed in same manner as daily SP time. The average SP bout was the longest on day 1, and then decreased to stable level on day 7. On the other hand, the average LP bout was the shortest on day 1, and it increased to stable level on day 7. Conclusion: These results showed that pregnant Japanese black cows needed 1 week to stabilize their SP. However, there were different change patterns between the average SP and LP bout, even though the change pattern of daily SP and LP time were similar.

Current Level of Reproductive Performances in Japanese Black Cows

  • Uchida, Hiroshi;Kobayasi, Jin;Inoue, Tatsushi;Suzuki, Keiichi;Oikawa, Takuro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1098-1102
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    • 2002
  • A set of 313,169 reproduction records of Japanese Black cows calving between 1987 and 1996 were collected in nation widely Japan to investigate the current level of reproductive performances and the factors influencing the performances such as calving interval, first calving age, services per conception, calving difficulty, non-gestation period and gestation length. All the records of reproductive performances are outcome of artificial insemination. The means of first calving age, calving interval, non-gestation period and gestation length were 25.0 months, 389.9, 101.9 and 287.5 days, respectively. Services per conception were 1.41 and degree of calving difficulty was 1.07, which suggests most of the calving, did not need assistance. There were chronological tendencies that first calving age became younger while calving interval became longer. Differences in reproductive performance were found for seasons and calving numbers. Calving interval became shorter towards the fourth calving but became longer afterwards. The cows calving in May had the shortest calving interval followed by those in April and June and first calving age had a similar tendency. The cows with the standard body condition score showed more favourable reproductive performances compare with those with rather fatty or thin body condition scores.

MILK YIELD AND ITS REPEATABILITY IN JAPANESE BLACK COWS

  • Shimada, K.;Izaike, Y.;Suzuki, O.;Oishi, T.;Kosugiyama, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1988
  • Daily milk yield estimates were obtained on 74 lactations of 35 Japanese Black cows on weeks 1 to 9, 11, 13, 17, 21 and 26 postpartum using the weigh-suckle-weigh method. The data obtained were analyzed by least-squares procedures according to the models including the following effects; dam, lactation number, season of calving, week of experiment and partial regressions on the lactation number. The overall mean and standard error for daily milk yield was $4.55{\pm}0.04\;kg$. The milk yield declined essentially linearly throughout the experimental period. The main effects of lactation number, season of calving and week of experiment were highly significant. Differences in daily milk yield among cows were significant, and the repeatability was estimated as $0.60{\pm}0.06$. The overall means(kg) and repeat-abilities of cumulative milk yield for 1, 4, 9, 13, 17, 21 and 26 weeks postpartum were 41, 0.08; 166, 0.40; 361, 0.61; 503, 0.66; 632, 0.67; 749, 0.65 and 884, 0.58; respectively. The means of calf weight at birth and 26 weeks weight for different lactations ranged from 25.5 to 33.6 kg and 145.6 to 185.4 kg, respectively. Calf daily gains between experiment weeks were low in earlier stages of lactation.

Heritability and Repeatability Estimates for Reproductive Traits of Japanese Black Cows

  • Oyama, K.;Katsuta, T.;Anada, K.;Mukai, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1680-1685
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    • 2002
  • Reproductive data collected from more than 20,000 Japanese Black cows of Hyogo and Shimane Prefectures were analyzed. Averages of age at first calving, gestation length, days open and calving interval were 25.1 mo, 289 d, 112 d and 401 d, respectively. Variance components were obtained by REML procedure and the heritability estimate of age at first calving was 0.22. In gestation length the heritability estimate was 0.40 and no permanent environmental effect was estimated. Estimated variance components of calving interval were similar to those of days open and the heritability and repeatability of calving interval were 0.05 and 0.09, respectively. Random farm effects accounted for approximately 10% of phenotypic variations in all traits. Genetic and farm correlations between age at first calving and calving interval were 0.27 and 0.39, respectively. It was found that temporary environment was an important source of variation for calving intervals of Japanese Black.

Evaluation of Urinary Nitrogen Excretion from Plasma Urea Nitrogen in Dry and Lactating Cows

  • Kume, S.;Numata, K.;Takeya, Y;Miyagawa, Y;Ikeda, S.;Kitagawa, M.;Nonaka, K.;Oshita, T.;Kozakai, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1159-1163
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    • 2008
  • Data of 42 balance measurements from dry and lactating Holstein cows and blood and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black cows were collected to evaluate the potential for predicting urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Similar positive correlations were obtained between N intake and apparent N absorption in dry and lactating cows. The regression equations of N intake on urinary N excretion varied in dry and lactating cows, and the difference of urinary N excretion between dry and lactating cows was due to the N secretion into milk. Highly positive correlations were observed between urinary N contents and urinary urea N in Japanese Black cows, and urinary urea N increased with increasing PUN. There were positive correlations between N intake and PUN in dry and lactating cows, but PUN and urinary N excretion in lactating cows were higher than in dry cows. There were positive correlations between PUN and urinary N excretion per BW in dry and lactating cows. Although urinary N excretion could be calculated as (N clearance rate of kidneys)PUNBW, high N clearance rate of kidneys, such as 2.08 L/d/kg BW, may be suitable to calculate urinary N excretion in lactating cows, compared with 1.33 L/d/kg BW in dry cows.

Short-term Response of Vegetation to Cattle Grazing in an Abandoned Orchard in Southwestern Japan

  • Hayashi, K.;Ikeda, K.;Ueda, A.;Fumita, T.;Etoh, T.;Gotoh, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.514-520
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    • 2006
  • An abandoned mandarin orange orchard in southwestern Japan was set-stocked by Japanese Black cows at two stocking rates (1.0 and 2.0 animals/ha), and vegetation dynamics and diet selection by cattle were monitored for two years, in an effort to obtain information on effective use of abandoned agricultural fields for low-cost animal production and environmental conservation. Two dominant species at the commencement of grazing, kudzu (Pueraria lobata Ohwi) and tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.), showed different responses to grazing during the two years; the composition of kudzu decreased, contrasting with that of tall goldenrod which increased at both stocking rates. This was caused by high preference for kudzu and avoidance or low preference for tall goldenrod by cattle. Retrogression of vegetation due to cattle disturbances occurred at both stocking rates, with the high stocking rate leading to a lower degree of succession than the low stocking rate. It was shown that cattle grazing, particularly at a high stocking rate, was effective in the management of vegetation of an abandoned orchard.

Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System

  • Yamaguchi, Manabu;Ikeda, Kentaro;Takenouchi, Naoki;Higashiyama, Masakazu;Watanabe, Akira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.930-934
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    • 2013
  • The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.

Number of Calves Produced at Specified Age as a Measure of Reproductive Performance in Beef Cattle under Artificially-Inseminated Breeding Scheme

  • Oyama, Kenji;Fujiwara, Shinya;Katsuta, Tomohiro;Honda, Takeshi;Mukai, Fumio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 2009
  • Reproductive abilities in beef cattle herds are receiving increased attention due to recent rises in production costs. To achieve more efficient management, a measure of fertility, namely the number of calves produced at k yr of age ($NCP_k$), was developed and its genetic parameters were estimated from Japanese Black cows by restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The k examined were distributed from 2 to 10 yr of age and $NCP_2$ averaged 1.077 calves over 43,536 cows. The averages increased by approximately 0.9 calf with each additional 1 yr increment in k. Heritabilities of $NCP_k$ were estimated to be low ranging from 0.083 to 0.162, which seemingly suggested a difficulty of genetic improvement. However, large genetic variation and high accuracy were observed in predicted breeding values of $NCP_k$. For example, the breeding values of $NCP_7$ were predicted between -0.303 and +0.213 with average accuracy of 0.607 for cows with observations. Genetic correlations among different k were generally high and positive (0.474 to 0.995). The analyses showed that at least $NCP_4$ was required to maintain the genetic correlations of 0.8 or higher with subsequent $NCP_k$. Also $NCP_5$ maintained the genetic correlations of 0.9 or higher with subsequent $NCP_k$ The results suggested some possibilities for $NCP_k$ to be a selection criterion considering its genetic variation, high accuracy and consistency with subsequent performance.