• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese Black Cows

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Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System

  • Yamaguchi, Manabu;Ikeda, Kentaro;Takenouchi, Naoki;Higashiyama, Masakazu;Watanabe, Akira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.930-934
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    • 2013
  • The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.

The change of sleeping and lying posture of Japanese black cows after moving into new environment

  • Fukasawa, Michiru;Komatsu, Tokushi;Higashiyama, Yumi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1828-1832
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Environmental change is one of the stressful events in livestock production. Change in environment disturbs cow behavior and cows require several days to regain a stable behavioral pattern. Sleeping posture (SP) and lying posture (LP) have been used as indicators for animal that are relaxed and well-acclimated to their environment. The aim of this study was to examine the time required by Japanese black cows for stabilization of SP and LP after moving into new environment. Methods: Seven pregnant Japanese black cows were used. Cows were moved into new tie-stall shed and their sleeping and lying posture measured 17 times during 35 experimental days. Both SP and LP were detected by accelerometer fixed on middle occipital and hip-cross, respectively. Daily total time, frequency, and average bout of both SP and LP were calculated. Results: Daily SP time was the shortest on day 1 and increased to the highest on day 3. It then decreased until day 9, after that stabilized about 65 min/d till the end of experiment. Daily LP time changed in same manner as daily SP time. The average SP bout was the longest on day 1, and then decreased to stable level on day 7. On the other hand, the average LP bout was the shortest on day 1, and it increased to stable level on day 7. Conclusion: These results showed that pregnant Japanese black cows needed 1 week to stabilize their SP. However, there were different change patterns between the average SP and LP bout, even though the change pattern of daily SP and LP time were similar.

Heritability and Repeatability Estimates for Reproductive Traits of Japanese Black Cows

  • Oyama, K.;Katsuta, T.;Anada, K.;Mukai, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1680-1685
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    • 2002
  • Reproductive data collected from more than 20,000 Japanese Black cows of Hyogo and Shimane Prefectures were analyzed. Averages of age at first calving, gestation length, days open and calving interval were 25.1 mo, 289 d, 112 d and 401 d, respectively. Variance components were obtained by REML procedure and the heritability estimate of age at first calving was 0.22. In gestation length the heritability estimate was 0.40 and no permanent environmental effect was estimated. Estimated variance components of calving interval were similar to those of days open and the heritability and repeatability of calving interval were 0.05 and 0.09, respectively. Random farm effects accounted for approximately 10% of phenotypic variations in all traits. Genetic and farm correlations between age at first calving and calving interval were 0.27 and 0.39, respectively. It was found that temporary environment was an important source of variation for calving intervals of Japanese Black.

Current Level of Reproductive Performances in Japanese Black Cows

  • Uchida, Hiroshi;Kobayasi, Jin;Inoue, Tatsushi;Suzuki, Keiichi;Oikawa, Takuro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1098-1102
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    • 2002
  • A set of 313,169 reproduction records of Japanese Black cows calving between 1987 and 1996 were collected in nation widely Japan to investigate the current level of reproductive performances and the factors influencing the performances such as calving interval, first calving age, services per conception, calving difficulty, non-gestation period and gestation length. All the records of reproductive performances are outcome of artificial insemination. The means of first calving age, calving interval, non-gestation period and gestation length were 25.0 months, 389.9, 101.9 and 287.5 days, respectively. Services per conception were 1.41 and degree of calving difficulty was 1.07, which suggests most of the calving, did not need assistance. There were chronological tendencies that first calving age became younger while calving interval became longer. Differences in reproductive performance were found for seasons and calving numbers. Calving interval became shorter towards the fourth calving but became longer afterwards. The cows calving in May had the shortest calving interval followed by those in April and June and first calving age had a similar tendency. The cows with the standard body condition score showed more favourable reproductive performances compare with those with rather fatty or thin body condition scores.

MILK YIELD AND ITS REPEATABILITY IN JAPANESE BLACK COWS

  • Shimada, K.;Izaike, Y.;Suzuki, O.;Oishi, T.;Kosugiyama, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1988
  • Daily milk yield estimates were obtained on 74 lactations of 35 Japanese Black cows on weeks 1 to 9, 11, 13, 17, 21 and 26 postpartum using the weigh-suckle-weigh method. The data obtained were analyzed by least-squares procedures according to the models including the following effects; dam, lactation number, season of calving, week of experiment and partial regressions on the lactation number. The overall mean and standard error for daily milk yield was $4.55{\pm}0.04\;kg$. The milk yield declined essentially linearly throughout the experimental period. The main effects of lactation number, season of calving and week of experiment were highly significant. Differences in daily milk yield among cows were significant, and the repeatability was estimated as $0.60{\pm}0.06$. The overall means(kg) and repeat-abilities of cumulative milk yield for 1, 4, 9, 13, 17, 21 and 26 weeks postpartum were 41, 0.08; 166, 0.40; 361, 0.61; 503, 0.66; 632, 0.67; 749, 0.65 and 884, 0.58; respectively. The means of calf weight at birth and 26 weeks weight for different lactations ranged from 25.5 to 33.6 kg and 145.6 to 185.4 kg, respectively. Calf daily gains between experiment weeks were low in earlier stages of lactation.

Evaluation of Urinary Nitrogen Excretion from Plasma Urea Nitrogen in Dry and Lactating Cows

  • Kume, S.;Numata, K.;Takeya, Y;Miyagawa, Y;Ikeda, S.;Kitagawa, M.;Nonaka, K.;Oshita, T.;Kozakai, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1159-1163
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    • 2008
  • Data of 42 balance measurements from dry and lactating Holstein cows and blood and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black cows were collected to evaluate the potential for predicting urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Similar positive correlations were obtained between N intake and apparent N absorption in dry and lactating cows. The regression equations of N intake on urinary N excretion varied in dry and lactating cows, and the difference of urinary N excretion between dry and lactating cows was due to the N secretion into milk. Highly positive correlations were observed between urinary N contents and urinary urea N in Japanese Black cows, and urinary urea N increased with increasing PUN. There were positive correlations between N intake and PUN in dry and lactating cows, but PUN and urinary N excretion in lactating cows were higher than in dry cows. There were positive correlations between PUN and urinary N excretion per BW in dry and lactating cows. Although urinary N excretion could be calculated as (N clearance rate of kidneys)PUNBW, high N clearance rate of kidneys, such as 2.08 L/d/kg BW, may be suitable to calculate urinary N excretion in lactating cows, compared with 1.33 L/d/kg BW in dry cows.

Identification of Japanese Black Cattle by the Faces for Precision Livestock Farming (흑소의 얼굴을 이용한 개체인식)

  • 김현태;지전선랑;서률귀구;이인복
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.341-346
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    • 2004
  • Recent livestock people concern not only increase of production, but also superior quality of animal-breeding environment. So far, the optimization of the breeding and air environment has been focused on the production increase. In the very near future, the optimization will be emphasized on the environment for the animal welfare and health. Especially, cattle farming demands the precision livestock farming and special attention has to be given to the management of feeding, animal health and fertility. The management of individual animal is the first step for precision livestock farming and animal welfare, and recognizing each individual is important for that. Though electronic identification of a cattle such as RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) has many advantages, RFID implementations practically involve several problems such as the reading speed and distance. In that sense, computer vision might be more effective than RFID for the identification of an individual animal. The researches on the identification of cattle via image processing were mostly performed with the cows having black-white patterns of the Holstein. But, the native Korean and Japanese cattle do not have any definite pattern on the body. The purpose of this research is to identify the Japanese black cattle that does not have a body pattern using computer vision technology and neural network algorithm. Twelve heads of Japanese black cattle have been tested to verify the proposed scheme. The values of input parameters were specified and then computed using the face images of cattle. The images of cattle faces were trained using associate neural network algorithm, and the algorithm was verified by the face images that were transformed using brightness, distortion, and noise factors. As a result, there was difference due to transform ratio of the brightness, distortion, and noise. And, the proposed algorithm could identify 100% in the range from -3 to +3 degrees of the brightness, from -2 to +4 degrees of the distortion, and from 0% to 60% of the noise transformed images. It is concluded that our system can not be applied in real time recognition of the moving cows, but can be used for the cattle being at a standstill.

The Identification of Japanese Black Cattle by Their Faces

  • Kim, Hyeon T.;Ikeda, Y.;Choi, Hong L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.868-872
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    • 2005
  • Individual management of the animal is the first step towards reaching the goal of precision livestock farming that aids animal welfare. Accurate recognition of each individual animal is important for precise management. Electronic identification of cattle, usually referred to as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), has many advantages for farm management. In practice, however, RFID implementations can cause several problems. Reading speed and distance must be optimized for specific applications. Image processing is more effective than RFID for the development of precision farming system in livestock. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to attempt the identification of cattle by using image processing. The majority of the research on the identification of cattle by using image processing has been for the black-and-white patterns of the Holstein. But, native Japanese and Korean cattle do not have a consistent pattern on the body, so that identification by pattern is impossible. This research aims to identify to Japanese black cattle, which does not have a black-white pattern on the body, by using image processing and a neural network algorithm. 12 Japanese black cattle were tested. Values of input parameter were calculated by using the face image values of 12 cows. The face was identified by the associate neural memory algorithm, and the algorithm was verified by the transformed face image, for example, of brightness, distortion, noise and angle. As a result, there was difference due to a transformation ratio of the brightness, distortion, noise, and angle. The algorithm could identify 100% in the range from -30 to +30 degrees of brightness, -20 to +40 degrees of distortion, 0 to 60% of noise and -20 to +30 degree of angle transformed images.

EFFECT OF MILK YIELD ON GROWTH OF MULTIPLE CALVES IN JAPANESE BLACK CATTLE (WAGYU)

  • Shimada, K.;Izaike, Y.;Suzuki, O.;Kosugiyama, M.;Takenouchi, N.;Ohshima, K.;Takahashi, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.717-722
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    • 1992
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of producing multiple calves using embryo transfer in Japanese Black cattle. Milk yield of cows and forage intake of calves were measured for 11 cows with single calves, 14 cows with twins and one cow with triplets. The means of 26 weeks cumulative milk yield were 854, 1028 and 1271 kg for cows having singles, twins and triplets, respectively. Male birth weights for single calves, twins and triplet were 34.9, 26.6 and 19.9 kg, and female ones were 31.7, 24.1 and 22.1 kg, respectively. Weight and daily gain of calves were affected by weeks (W), sex (S), the number of calves (N), parity, birth season, $W{\times}N$, $S{\times}N$ and regression on milk yield. Growth rate was higher for single calves than for twins until about 9 weeks of age, then weights increased at a similar rate. Male calf weaning weights for singles, twins and triplets were 207.0, 177.1 and 162.2 kg, and those for females were 185.4, 151.6 and 180.4 kg, respectively. Average regression coefficients of calf growth on milk yield were significant, and single calf was affected more than twin calves by increment of milk yield. As the number of calves per cow increased, hay intake of calves decreased and concentrate intake tended to increase between 6 and 13 weeks of age.

Cloning of Farm Animals in Japan; The Present and the Future

  • Shioya, Yasuo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2001
  • 1. About fifty thousand of cattle embryos were transferred and 16000 ET-calves were born in 1999. Eighty percents of embryos were collected from Japanese Black beef donors and transferred to dairy Holstein heifers and cows. Since 1985, we have achieved in bovine in vitro fertilization using immature oocytes collected from ovaries of slaughterhouse. Now over 8000 embryos fertilized by Japanese Black bull, as Kitaguni 7~8 or Mitsufuku, famousbulls as high marbling score of progeny tests were sold to dairy farmers and transferred to their dairy cattle every year. 2. Embryo splitting for identical twins is demonstrated an useful tool to supply a bull for semen collection and a steer for beef performance test. According to the data of Dr. Hashiyada(2001), 296 pairs of split-half embryos were transferred to recipients and 98 gave births of 112 calves (23 pairs of identical twins and 66 singletons). 3. A blastomere-nuclear-transferred cloned calf was born in 1990 by a joint research with Drs. Tsunoda, National Institute of Animal Industry (NIAI) and Ushijima, Chiba Prefectural Farm Animal Center. The fruits of this technology were applied to the production of a calf from a cell of long-term-cultured inner cell mass (1988, Itoh et al, ZEN-NOH Central Research Institute for Feed and Livestock) and a cloned calf from three-successive-cloning (1997, Tsunoda et al.). According to the survey of MAFF of Japan, over 500 calves were born until this year and a glaf of them were already brought to the market for beef. 4. After the report of "Dolly", in February 1997, the first somatic cell clone female calves were born in July 1998 as the fruits of the joint research organized by Dr. Tsunoda in Kinki University (Kato et al, 2000). The male calves were born in August and September 1998 by the collaboration with NIAI and Kagoshima Prefecture. Then 244 calves, four pigs and a kid of goat were now born in 36 institutes of Japan. 5. Somatic cell cloning in farm animal production will bring us as effective reproductive method of elite-dairy- cows, super-cows and excellent bulls. The effect of making copy farm animal is also related to the reservation of genetic resources and re-creation of a male bull from a castrated steer of excellent marbling beef. Cloning of genetically modified animals is most promising to making pig organs transplant to people and providing protein drugs in milk of pig, goat and cattle. 6. Farm animal cloning is one of the most dreamful technologies of 21th century. It is necessary to develop this technology more efficient and stable as realistic technology of the farm animal production. We are making researches related to the best condition of donor cells for high productivity of cloning, genetic analysis of cloned animals, growth and performance abilities of clone cattle and pathological and genetical analysis of high rates of abortion and stillbirth of clone calves (about 30% of periparutum mortality). 7. It is requested in the report of Ministry of Health, labor and Welfare to make clear that carbon-copy cattle(somatic cell clone cattle) are safe and heathy for a commercial market since the somatic cell cloning is a completely new technology. Fattened beef steers (well-proved normal growth) and milking cows(shown a good fertility) are now provided for the assessment of food safety.

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