• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese monkey

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Ribosomal Protein S4 Genes in Macaca fuscata: Sequence, Evolution, and Phylogeny

  • Kim, Heui-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2001
  • The cDNA encoding ribosomal protein S4(RPS 4) from an ovary cDNA library of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) was cloned and sequenced. The RPS4X gene from monkey X chromosome encodes a deduced protein of 263 amino acids and share 99.1% cDNA sequence similarity and 100% amino acid sequence identify with the human RPS4X. Rate of synonymous substitution was higher in RPS4Y than in RPS4X in comparison to the monkey and human. The ratio of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions per site indicated that directional selection has nor occurred in RPS4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method revealed that X and Y-linked RPS4 genes have evolved independently.

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The Arg and Lys-Rich Motif in the TSPY Gene of Humans and Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata) is Conserved in Various Primate Species

  • Kim, Heui-Soo;Takashi Kageyama;Osamu Takenaka
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.37-39
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    • 2000
  • Testis-specific protein Y(TSPY) is thought to play an important role during spermatogenesis in primates. The Arg and Lys-rich region of TSPY was implicated as a potential DNA binding site in the human and Japanese monkey. In the study, we investigated this further through looking at the putative amino acid sequences of Arg and Lys-rich region of TSPY gene from seven species of gibbons, five species of Old World monkeys and five species of New World monkeys. A comparison with those of the human and Japanese monkey revealed that the Arg and Lys-rich motif was hightly conserved in various primates. This finding suggests that a possible role for the Arg and Lys-rich motif in primate TSPY is DNA recognition. The functional implications for TSPY are discussed in the light of this and previous findings.

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Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on the Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Genes in Monkey Liver (원숭이 간 약물대사효소 유전자 발현에 미치는 3-methylcholanthrene 영향)

  • 이경원;아사오카;신윤용
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2004
  • In order to understand the mechanism of the regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene expression, we have studied the induction of CYP1A1 and GST$\alpha$, $\mu$, $\pi$ enzymes in Japanese monkey and rhesus monkey after the treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and di-n- butyl phthalate (DBP) and bisphenol A (BPA). The levels of mRNA were measured by RT-PCR in brain, intestine and liver. In the case of adult monkey, treatment with 3MC induced CYP1A1 mRNA in liver by 10-fold. The treatment with DBP induced CYP1A1 mRNA. Effects of 3MC and DBP on GST mRNA expression was not clear. But GST$\mu$ was slightly inhibited by the treatment with 3MC and DBP. GST$\pi$ was not induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP in liver. GST$\alpha$ was slightly induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP in liver. In the case of fetus monkey, the basal levels of fetus CYP1A1 mRNA and GSTs mRNA were relatively low compared to adult monkey. As the age of monkey increased, the basal levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were also increased. 3MC induced the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in liver. The levels of GST$\mu$ and GST$\alpha$ were not changed by the treatment with 3MC and DBP. GST$\pi$ was slightly induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP.

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Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on the Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Genes in Monkey Intestine (원숭이 소장 약물대사효소 유전자 발현에 미치는 3-methylcholanthrene 영향)

  • 이경원;아사오카;신윤용
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2004
  • In order to understand the mechanism of the regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene expression, we have studied the induction of CYP1A1 and $GST\alpha,$ $\mu,$ $\pi$ enzymes in Japanese monkey and rhesus monkey after the treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and bisphenol A (BPA). The levels of mRNA were measured by RT-PCR in brain, intestine and liver. In the case of adult monkey, treatment with 3MC induced CYP1A1 mRNA in intestine by 11-fold. The treatment with DBP induced CYP1A1 mRNA. Effects of 3MC and DBP on GST mRNA expression was not clear. But $GST\mu$ was slightly inhibited by the treatment with 3MC and DBP. $GST\alpha$ was induced in intestine by 1.5-fold. $GST\pi$ was slightly induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP in intestine. In the case of fetus monkey, the basal levels of fetus CYP1A1 mRNA and GSTs mRNA were relatively low compared to adult monkey. As the age of monkey increased, the basal levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were also increased. 3MC induced the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA didn't significantly induce CYP1A1 mRNA in intestine. The levels of $GST\mu$ and $GST\pi$ were not changed by the treatment with 3MC and DBP. $GST\pi$ was slightly induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP.

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Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on the Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Genes in Monkey Brain (원숭이 뇌 약물대사효소 유전자 발현에 미치는 3-methylcholanthrene 영향)

  • 이경원;아사오카;신윤용
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 2004
  • In order to understand the mechanism of the regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene expression, we have studied the induction of CYP1A1 and GSTα, μ, π enzymes in Japanese monkey and rhesus monkey after the treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and di-n- butyl phthalate (DBP) and bisphenol A (BPA). The levels of mRNA were measured_by RT-PCR in brain, intestine and liver. In the case of adult monkey, treatment with 3MC induced CYP1A1 mRNA in brain by 2-fold. The treatment with DBP induced CYP1A1 mRNA. Effects of 3MC and DBP on GST mRNA expression was not clear. But GSTμ was slightly inhibited by the treatment with 3MC and DBP. GSTα was not induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP in brain. GSTπ was slightly induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP in brain. In the case of fetus monkey, the basal levels of fetus CYP1A1 mRNA and GSTs mRNA were relatively low compared to adult monkey. As the age of monkey increased, the basal levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were also increased. 3MC induced the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in liver, whereas it didn't significantly induce CYP1A1 mRNA in brain. The levels of GSTμ and GSTα were not changed by the treatment with 3MC and DBP. GSTπ was slightly induced by the treatment with 3MC and DBP.

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Gender-Related Differences in a Process of the Age-Dependent Alterations of the Elements in Monkey Sino-Atrial Node

  • Satoh, Hiroyasu;Tohno, Setsuko;Minami, Takeshi;Oishi, Takao;Hayashi, Motoharu;Tohno, Yoshiyuki
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2010
  • Gender differences in the trace elements of monkey sino-atrial (SA) node were investigated in a process of age-dependent alterations. Sixty hearts from Japanese and rhesus monkeys (30 male and 30 female) used were aged ranging from 1-day- to 30-year-old. The elements were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Advancing age decreased all the trace elements. Ca, P, S and Mg significantly decreased. The correlation coefficients of Ca and P were $-0.178{\pm}0.081$ (p<0.05) and $-0.088{\pm}0.022$ (p<0.05) in male (n=30), and $-0.095{\pm}0.026$ (p<0.05) and $-0.069{\pm}0.017$ (p<0.05) in female (n=30), respectively. The age-dependent coefficients for Fe/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/P, Fe/S, Zn/S, Fe/Mg and Zn/Mg were exhibited markedly in male, but all was less in female. In gender-related differences, only a ratio of P/Ca (p<0.05) was significantly observed with ageing. The trace elements such as Cu, Se and Sn were less detected in the SA nodes. These results indicate that the age-dependent changes in the ratios of elements are appeared more rapidly in male monkey SA node, and the gender difference is observed in ratio of P/Ca. The different attenuations may be involved with the age- and gender-related SA nodal functions.

Spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach and tongue of Japanese monkeys(Macaca fuscata) (일본원숭이의 위장과 혀에서 자연발생한 편평상피세포암)

  • Kang, Boo-hyon;Kim, Dae-yong;Shin, Nam-sik;Kwon, Soo-wan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.161-167
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    • 1996
  • Two cases of stomach mass and one case of tongue mass were observed in Japanese monkeys(Macaca fuscata) which were raised in Yong-in Farm Land. Histologically, two spontaneous tumors were found in the cardiac region of the stomach and were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors had invaded the submucosa, muscular layer and serosa, but metastasis was not found in the other tissues including the lymph node. One spontaneous tongue mass was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma.

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Propagation and Attenuation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Tissue Culture Cells (조직배양세포에서의 일본뇌염virus 증식에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ho-Wang;Moon, Seok-Bae
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 1981
  • Japanese encephalitis has been prevalent for long time in the Far East and many patients have been reported in both South East and Mid-West Asia recently. Recently, vaccine was used in prevention of this viral disease of man which was derived from formalin inactivated virus inoculated into mouse brain, but live attenuated active vaccine for human is not developed yet. Author inoculated Japanese encephalitis virus into several cell culture strains for development of live attenuated encephalitis virus strain and the results were as follows: 1. Japanese encephalitis virus was inactivated rapidly in cell free medium at $36^{\circ}C$ and totally inactivated by 72 hours. 2. In growth curve of Japanese encephalitis virus in HeLa cell cultures, maximal multiplication of the virus was occured at 4th day and virus multiplication was continued for at least 12 days. 3. After succeeding passage of the virus in HeLa cell cultures and human esophagus epithelial cell cultures, infectivity of virus for mice was disappeared from 2nd passage in HeLa cell cultures and 3rd passage in esophagus epithelial cell cultures. 4. In inoculation to monkey kidney epithelial cells and chick embryo cell cultures, infectivity of the virus for mice was continued after 10th passages.

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Retrospective Survey on the Mortality by Extrinsic Disease in Non-human Primates at Zoological Gardens (동물원 영장류에서 외인성 질환에 의한 폐사원인 분석)

  • 신남식;권수완;이기환;김양범;김명철;이재일;현병화;최양규;이철호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 2000
  • In Everland Zoological Gardens, the mortality by extrinsic cause in non-human primates during 1976∼1999 were retrospectively analyzed based on the clinical charts and/or autopsy reports. The number of deaths from extrinsic factor was 61 among a total of 161 monkeys which were died during that period. Among 61 monkeys of death from extrinsic factor, the number at a detailed cause were as follows: strangulation, 17(27.87%); accident fall, 15(24.59%); suffocation, 13(21.31%); drowning, 7(11.48%); death from pressure, 2(3.28%); collision, 2(3.28%); sunstroke, 1(64%); starvation, 1(1.64%); freezing to death, 1(1.64%); contusion, 1(1.64%). The number of deaths from extrinsic factor was 39 among a total of 81 squirrel monkeys which were died during that period. Among 39 squirrel monkeys of death from extrinsic factor, the number at a detailed cause were as follows; suffocation, 11(28.21%); accident fall, 8(20.51%); strangulation, 7(17.95%); drowning, 7(17.95%); death from pressure, 2(5.13%); starvation, 1(2.56%); collision, 1(2.56%). The number of deaths from extrinsic factor was 14 among a total of 50 Japanese macaque died during that period. Among 14 Japanese macaque from extrinsic factor, the number at a detailed cause were as follows; strangulation, 7(50.55%); accident fall, 6(42.85%); suffocation, 1(7.14%). It was considered that far facilities, adequate space and suitable indoor temperature are needed for the prevention of deaths of extrinsic cause at the monkey raising in zoological gardens or research center.

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