• Title, Summary, Keyword: Job exposure matrix

Search Result 11, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Construction of an Exposure Matrix Using a Risk Assessment of Industries and Processes Involving Dichloromethane (작업환경측정 자료를 활용한 Dichloromethane 노출 매트릭스 구축에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwan;Park, Dong-Uk;Hong, Sung-Chul;Ha, Kwon-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.36 no.5
    • /
    • pp.391-401
    • /
    • 2010
  • A reduction in risk of occupational exposure to chemical hazards within the workplace has been the focus of attention both through industry initiatives and legislation. The aims of this study were to develop an exposure matrix by industry and process, and to apply this matrix to control the risk of occupational exposure to Dichloromethane (DCM). The exposure matrix is a tool to convert information on industry and process into information on occupational risk. The exposure matrix comprised industries and processes involving DCM, based on an exposure database provided by KOSHA (the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency), which was gathered from a workplace hazards evaluation program in Korea. The risk assessment of the exposure matrix was performed using Hallmark risk assessment tool. The results of the risk assessment were indicated by a Danger Value (DV) calculated from the combination of hazard rating (HR), duration of use rating (DUR), and risk probability rating (RPR) of exposure to the chemical, and were divided into four control bands which were related to control measures. The applicability of the risk assessment of the exposure matrix was evaluated by a field study, and survey of the employees of the exposure matrix groups. Among 45 industries examined, this study found that greater attention should be paid to two industries: the manufacture of other optical instruments and photographic equipment, and the manufacture of printing ink, and to one process among 47 examined, the packing process in the manufacture of printing ink, because these were regarded as carrying the highest risk. This tool of a risk assessment for the exposure matrix can be applied as a general exposure information system for hazard control, risk quantification, setting the occupational exposure limit, and hazard surveillance. The exposure matrix includes workforce data, and it provides information on the numbers of exposed workers in Korea by agent, occupation, and level of exposure and risk.

Mesothelioma in Sweden: Dose-Response Analysis for Exposure to 29 Potential Occupational Carcinogenic Agents

  • Plato, Nils;Martinsen, Jan I.;Kjaerheim, Kristina;Kyyronen, Pentti;Sparen, Par;Weiderpass, Elisabete
    • Safety and Health at Work
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.290-295
    • /
    • 2018
  • Background: There is little information on the dose-response relationship between exposure to occupational carcinogenic agents and mesothelioma. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as the existence of agents other than asbestos that might cause mesothelioma. Methods: The Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study consists of 6.78 million individuals with detailed information on occupation. Mesothelioma diagnoses recorded in 1961-2009 were identified through linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. We determined cumulative exposure, time of first exposure, and maximum exposure intensity by linking data on occupation to the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix, which includes 29 carcinogenic agents and corresponding exposure for 283 occupations. To assess the risk of mesothelioma, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: 2,757 mesothelioma cases were identified in males, including 1,416 who were exposed to asbestos. Univariate analyses showed not only a significant excess risk for maximum exposure intensity, with a hazard ratio of 4.81 at exposure levels 1.25-2.0 fb/ml but also a clear dose-response effect for cumulative exposure with a 30-, 40-, and 50-year latency time. No convincing excess risk was revealed for any of the other carcinogenic agents included in the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix. Conclusion: When considering asbestos exposure, past exposure, even for short periods, might be enough to cause mesothelioma of the pleura later in life.

Developing Asbestos Job Exposure Matrix Using Occupation and Industry Specific Exposure Data (1984-2008) in Republic of Korea

  • Choi, Sangjun;Kang, Dongmug;Park, Donguk;Lee, Hyunhee;Choi, Bongkyoo
    • Safety and Health at Work
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.105-115
    • /
    • 2017
  • Background: The goal of this study is to develop a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM) on asbestos to estimate occupational asbestos exposure levels in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Three Korean domestic quantitative exposure datasets collected from 1984 to 2008 were used to build the GPJEM. Exposure groups in collected data were reclassified based on the current Korean Standard Industrial Classification ($9^{th}$ edition) and the Korean Standard Classification of Occupations code ($6^{th}$ edition) that is in accordance to international standards. All of the exposure levels were expressed by weighted arithmetic mean (WAM) and minimum and maximum concentrations. Results: Based on the established GPJEM, the 112 exposure groups could be reclassified into 86 industries and 74 occupations. In the 1980s, the highest exposure levels were estimated in "knitting and weaving machine operators" with a WAM concentration of 7.48 fibers/mL (f/mL); in the 1990s, "plastic products production machine operators" with 5.12 f/mL, and in the 2000s "detergents production machine operators" handling talc containing asbestos with 2.45 f/mL. Of the 112 exposure groups, 44 groups had higher WAM concentrations than the Korean occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f/mL. Conclusion: The newly constructed GPJEM which is generated from actual domestic quantitative exposure data could be useful in evaluating historical exposure levels to asbestos and could contribute to improved prediction of asbestos-related diseases among Koreans.

The Effect of Exposure to Mixed Organic Solvents on Lipid Peroxidation in Ship Building Painters

  • Park, Jun-Ho;Cha, Bong-Suk;Chang, Sei-Jin;Koh, Sang-Baek;Eom, Ae-Yong;Lee, Kang-Myeung;Jung, Min-Ye;Choi, Hong-Soon
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
    • /
    • v.4 no.4
    • /
    • pp.360-365
    • /
    • 2008
  • In the last several years, studies on the association of oxidative stress damage with exposure in the work place have been conducted. Xenobiotics create an imbalance of the homeostasis between oxidant molecules and antioxidant defense. By monitoring oxidative stress biomarkers, information was obtained on damages induced by oxidative stress and the toxicity of xenobiotics. In the present study, a Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) was constructed using the data from the Working Environment Measurement (WEM) of painters in the shipyard industry from the past 3 years to assess the exposure status. Additionally, by measuring the concentration of urinary malondialdehyde (MDA), the effect of lipid peroxidation was examined. The subjects consisted of 68 workers who were exposed to mixed organic solvents in the painting process and 25 non-exposure controls. The exposure indices of the exposure groups were significantly different (sprayer: 0.83, touchup: 0.54, assistant: 0.13, P<0.05). The urinary MDA concentration of the exposure group was 48.60${\pm}$ 39.23 ${\mu}mol$/mol creatinine, which was significantly higher than 18.03${\pm}$16.33 ${\mu}mol$/mol creatinine of the control group (P<0.05). From the multiple regression analysis of urinary MDA, the regression coefficient for exposure grade was statistically significant. In future studies, evaluation of the antioxidant levels of subjects should be performed simultaneously with quantitative exposure measurements.

Fundamental Research for Establishing Job-Exposure Matrix (JEM) of Farmer Related to Insecticide of Pesticide (III) : Fruit (농약물질 중 살충제 관련 농업 종사자들의 직무-노출 매트릭스 구축을 위한 기초 자료 조사 연구 (III) : 과일류)

  • Choi, Jeong-Hak;Kim, Ki-Youn
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.317-323
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was performed to estimate domestic usage amount of insecticide for fruit cultivation to suggest job-exposure matrix(JEM) regarding farmers treating agricultural insecticide. Materials and Methods: The domestic usage amount of insecticide for fruit cultivation was investigated according to two research methods. The former method is to use agricultural pesticides published annually from Korea Crop Protection Association(KCPA) and the latter method is to apply cultivation area of fruit provided officially from Statistics Korea(SK). Results: It was found that its domestic usage amount has decreased gradually from the first sale to presence(2012). However, there is a significant difference of annual usage trend of insecticide for fruit cultivation between shipments and estimation. The annual usage trends of insecticide for fruit cultivation based on regional classification were different from those based on total aspect. Conclusions: The region which used insecticide for fruit cultivation the most in Korea was as follows: Gyeonsang-do, followed by Jeolla-do, Chungcheong-do, Jeju-do, Seoul/Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do. An averaged ratio of usage amounts of insecticide based on shipments and those based on estimation by cultivation area was $980{\pm}186%$, which means that usage amounts of insecticide estimated by shipments are ten times higher than those based on cultivation area.

The Construction of Job Exposure Matrix (직무 - 노출매트릭스의 설계)

  • Yim, Hyeon Woo;Roh, Youngman;Lee, Won Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.161-168
    • /
    • 2001
  • The types of exposure data needed in an industry-based study depend on the diseases of interest and the study design to be used. The best situation occurs when we have quantified personal exposure estimates for the agents of interest, the least informative case occurs when we have only knowledge of the fact of employment in a plant, industry, or trade where exposure probability is high. Exposure information for most industry-based studies falls somewhere between these tow extremes. Job exposure matrices(JEM) are designed to link information on occupation with information on exposure to specific workplace hazards. Some forms of systematic error of bias may be less likely to occur in studies that utilize job-exposure matrices to indirectly infer exposures from job titles than in studies that assess exposures by asking subjects about their past exposure. JEM can be used effectively in industry-based studies for historic cohort studies, case-control study to assist with the retrospective assessment of occupational exposures among workers whose individual exposure histories are unavailable. JEM generally consist of a computerized database that links information about job categories and likely exposures. These two major axes may be stratified by calendar time. This article reviews the design of JEM in support of industry-based studies. Specific matrices may find broader applicability along with the increasing availability of detailed hygienic data.

  • PDF

The Exposure Status and Biomarkers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Shipyard Workers

  • Koh, Sang-Baek;Park, Jun-Ho;Yun, Ju-Song;Lee, Kang-Myoung;Cha, Bong-Suk;Chang, Sei-Jin;Kim, Cheong-Sik;Kim, Heon;Chang, Soung-Hoon
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
    • /
    • v.2 no.2
    • /
    • pp.134-140
    • /
    • 2006
  • Because shipyard workers are involved with various manufacturing process in shipyard industry, and they are exposed to many kinds of hazardous materials. Especially, painting workers were exposed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This study was conducted to assess the exposure status of PAH based on job-exposure matrix. We investigated the effect of genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes involved in PAH metabolism on levels of urinary metabolite. A total of 93 shipbuilding workers were recruited in this study. Questionnaire variables were age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, drinking, and work duration. The urinary metabolite was collected in the afternoon and corrected by urinary creatinine concentration. The genotypes of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and UGT1A6 were investigated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods with DNA extracted from venous blood. Urinary 1-OHP levels were significantly higher in direct exposured group (spray and touch-up) than indirect exposed group. Urinary 1-OHP, concentration of the high exposure with wild type of UGT1A6 was significantlyhigher than that of the high exposure with other UGT1A6 genotype. In multiple regression analysis of urinary 1-OHP, the regression coefficient of job grade was statistically significant (p<0.05) and UGT1A6 was not significant but a trend (p<0.1). The grade of exposure affected urinary PAH concentration was statistically significant. But genetic polymorphism of xenobiotics metabolism enzymes was not statistically significant. Further investigation of genetic polymorphism with large sample size is needed.

Fundamental Research for Establishing a Job-Exposure Matrix (JEM) for Farmers Related to Insecticides (I): Rice Cultivation (농약물질 중 살충제 관련 농업 종사자들의 직무 -노출 매트릭스 구축을 위한 기초 자료 조사 연구 (I) : 수도작)

  • Kim, Ki-Youn;Cho, Man-Su;Lee, Sang-Gil;Kang, Dong-Mug;Kim, Jong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.24 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-64
    • /
    • 2014
  • Objectives: The principal aim of this study is to investigate and analyze domestic usage amounts of insecticide in rice cultivation in order to provide fundamental data for establishing a job-exposure matrix(JEM) related to farmers working with agricultural insecticides. Materials and Methods: An investigation of domestic usage amounts of insecticides rice cultivation was performed through two methods. The first method utilized information on agricultural pesticides published annually by the Korea Crop Protection Association(KCPA). The second method made use of area of cultivation of rice as officially determined by Statistics Korea(SK). An estimation of domestic usage of insecticides in rice cultivation through the second method was determined by multiplying the total cultivation area of rice($m^2$) by the optimal spray volume of insecticides for rice cultivation per unit of cultivation area($kg/m^2$). Results: As a result of the analysis of public data regarding insecticides in rice cultivation, it was found that the domestic usage amount has decreased sharply from the first year of market sales(1969) to the final data year(2012). There is little difference in the annual usage trend of insecticides in rice cultivation between shipment and estimation. Also, the annual usage trends of insecticides in rice cultivation based on regional classification were nearly similar to those based on the overall aspect. Conclusions: The region which used the largest volume of insecticide in rice cultivation in Korea was the Jeolla Provinces, followed by the Gyeonsang Provinces, the Chungcheong Provinces, Seoul/Gyeonggi Province, Gangwon Province and Jeju Province. Substantially, the mean ratio of usage amounts of insecticide based on shipments and those based on estimation by cultivation area was $96{\pm}29%$, which indicates that the domestic usage amount of insecticide for rice cultivation corresponded to the optimal spray standard per unit area.

Fundamental Research for Establishing Job-Exposure Matrix (JEM) of Farmer Related to Insecticide of Pesticide (II) : Vegetable (농약물질 중 살충제 관련 농업 종사자들의 직무 -노출 매트릭스 구축을 위한 기초 자료 조사 연구 (II) : 채소류)

  • Kim, Ki-Youn;Cho, Man-Su;Lim, Byung-Seo;Lee, Sang-Gil;Knag, Dong-Mug;Kim, Jong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.293-299
    • /
    • 2014
  • Objectives: The main objective of this study is to investigate domestic usage amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation to provide fundamental data for establishing job-exposure matrix(JEM) related to farmers treating agricultural insecticide. Materials and Methods: The survey on domestic usage amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation was conducted by two research methods. The first method is to utilize agricultural pesticides published annually from Korea Crop Protection Association(KCPA). The second method is to apply cultivation area of vegetable announced officially from Statistics Korea(SK). An estimation of domestic usage amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation through the second method was done by multiplying total cultivation area of vegetable($m^2$) with optimal spray amount of insecticide for vegetable cultivation per unit cultivation area of vegetable ($kg/m^2$). Results: As a result of analysis of public data related to insecticide for vegetable cultivation, it was found that its domestic usage amount has decreased gradually from the first sale year(1969) to current year(2012). There is, however, a considerable difference of annual usage trend of insecticide for vegetable cultivation between shipments and estimation. The annual usage trends of insecticide for vegetable cultivation based on regional classification were different from those based on total aspect. Conclusions: The region which used insecticide for vegetable cultivation the most in Korea was Jeolla-do, followed by Gyeonsang-do, Chungcheong-do, Seoul/Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do and Jeju-do. Substantially, mean ratio of usage amounts of insecticide based on shipments and those based on estimation by cultivation area was $281{\pm}115%$, which indicates that usage amounts of insecticide estimated by cultivation area are three times lower than those based on shipments.

Recommendation and current status in exposure assessment using monitoring data in ship building industry - focused on the similar exposure group(SEG) (조선업의 작업환경측정결과를 이용한 노출평가의 문제점과 해결방향 - 유사노출군을 중심으로 -)

  • Roh, Youngman;Yim, Hyeon Woo;Kim, Suk Il;Park, Hyo Man;Jung, Jae Yeol;Park, Sook Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Chung, Chee Kyung;Lee, Won Chul;Kim, Jung Man;Kim, Soo Keun;Koh, Sang Baek;Karl, Sieber;Kim, Euna;Choi, Jung Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.126-134
    • /
    • 2001
  • Statistical approaches for analysis of data from the limited number of samples in ship building industry(SBI) collected by an industrial hygienist for checking compliance to an occupational standard were considered. Sampling for compliance usually has been guided by judgment selection, rather than true randomness, resulting in the creation of compliance samples which approximate a censored sample from the upper tail of the exposure distribution. Similar exposure groups(SEGs) including welding and painting process were established to assess representative values in each groups after reviewing the whole production line in SBI. For the convenient statistical approaches, the code has assigned to each SEGs. The descriptive statistics and probability plotting were used to yield the representative values in each SEGs. In the first step, SEGs of 558 were established from 5 ship building companies. The 38 SEGs showed the uncertainty are divided into each 5 companies and assessed the representative values again. The 44 SEGs in each companies was not showed the normal and lognormal distribution was analyzed each data. And also, recommendation was suggested to resolve the uncertainty in each groups.

  • PDF