• Title, Summary, Keyword: KDB-tree

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Splitting Policies of KDB-Tree for indexing of Moving Objects (이동체 색인을 위한 KDB-Tree 의 분할 정책)

  • 이창헌;임덕성;홍봉희
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.19-21
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    • 2002
  • 최근 이동통신 및 GPS 기술의 발달로 위치기반서비스 요구가 점점 증가하고 있고, 대용량의 위치데이터가 저장되는 위치기반서비스의 구현을 위한 이동체외 저장 및 검색에 관한 연구가 활발하다. 이동체의 위치 정보를 점으로 모델링하여 색인 할 경우 KDB-Tree의 성능이 우수하다. 그러나 KDB-Tree는 시공간에서의 이동체 위치데이터 색인을 고려할 경우 시간 도메인의 특성으로 인해 성능 저하의 문제를 발생시킨다. 본 논문에서는 이동체 위치데이터의 색인을 위한 KDB-Tree의 사용에서 시간 도메인의 특성을 반영한 분할 도메인 선정 방법과 분할 정책을 제시한다. 새로운 분할 정책은 색인의 공간활용도를 높이고 색인의 크기를 작게 하여 검색의 성능을 높인 최근 시간 분할 기법과 LD(Last Division) 분할 정책이다. 본 논문에서는 KDB-Tree의 변경된 분할 정책을 구현하고 성능평가론 수행한다. 이 성능 평가 실험을 통해서 변경된 분할 정책을 사용한 KDB-Tree에서 공간활용도가 높고 검색 성능이 우수함을 보인다.

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Bit-Vector-Based Space Partitioning Indexing Scheme for Improving Node Utilization and Information Retrieval (노드 이용률과 검색 속도 개선을 위한 비트 벡터 기반 공간 분할 색인 기법)

  • Yeo, Myung-Ho;Seong, Dong-Ook;Yoo, Jae-Soo
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.799-803
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    • 2010
  • The KDB-tree is a traditional indexing scheme for retrieving multidimensional data. Much research for KDB-tree family frequently addresses the low storage utilization and insufficient retrieval performance as their two bottlenecks. The bottlenecks occur due to a number of unnecessary splits caused by data insertion orders and data skewness. In this paper, we propose a novel index structure, called as $KDB_{CS}^+$-tree, to process skewed data efficiently and improve the retrieval performance. The $KDB_{CS}^+$-tree increases the number of fan-outs by exploiting bit-vectors for representing splitting information and pointer elimination. It also improves the storage utilization by representing entries as a hierarchical structure in each internal node.

The Dynamic Split Policy of the KDB-Tree in Moving Objects Databases (이동 객체 데이타베이스에서 KDB-tree의 동적 분할 정책)

  • Lim Duk-Sung;Lee Chang-Heun;Hong Bong-Hee
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.396-408
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    • 2006
  • Moving object databases manage a large amount of past location data which are accumulated as the time goes. To retrieve fast the past location of moving objects, we need index structures which consider features of moving objects. The KDB-tree has a good performance in processing range queries. Although we use the KDB-tree as an index structure for moving object databases, there has an over-split problem in the spatial domain since the feature of moving object databases is to increase the time domain. Because the over-split problem reduces spatial regions in the MBR of nodes inverse proportion to the number of splits, there has a problem that the cost for processing spatial-temporal range queries is increased. In this paper, we propose the dynamic split strategy of the KDB-tree to process efficiently the spatial-temporal range queries. The dynamic split strategy uses the space priority splitting method for choosing the split domain, the recent time splitting policy for splitting a point page to maximize the space utilization, and the last division policy for splitting a region page. We compare the performance of proposed dynamic split strategy with the 3DR-tree, the MV3R-tree, and the KDB-tree. In our performance study for range queries, the number of node access in the MKDB-tree is average 30% less than compared index structures.

KDBcs-Tree : An Efficient Cache Conscious KDB-Tree for Multidimentional Data (KDBcs-트리 : 캐시를 고려한 효율적인 KDB-트리)

  • Yeo, Myung-Ho;Min, Young-Soo;Yoo, Jae-Soo
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.328-342
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    • 2007
  • We propose a new cache conscious indexing structure for processing frequently updated data efficiently. Our proposed index structure is based on a KDB-Tree, one of the representative index structures based on space partitioning techniques. In this paper, we propose a data compression technique and a pointer elimination technique to increase the utilization of a cache line. To show our proposed index structure's superiority, we compare our index structure with variants of the CR-tree(e.g. the FF CR-tree and the SE CR-tree) in a variety of environments. As a result, our experimental results show that the proposed index structure achieves about 85%, 97%, and 86% performance improvements over the existing index structures in terms of insertion, update and cache-utilization, respectively.

TPKDB-tree : An Index Structure for Efficient Retrieval of Future Positions of Moving Objects (TPKDB 트리 : 이동 객체의 효과적인 미래 위치 검색을 위한 색인구조)

  • Seo Dong Min;Bok Kyoung Soo;Yoo Jae Soo;Lee Byoung Yup
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.624-640
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    • 2004
  • Recently, with the rapid development of location-based techniques, index structures to efficiently manage moving objects have been required. In this paper, we propose a new spatio-temporal index structure that supports a future position retrieval and minimizes a update cost. The proposed index structure combines an assistant index structure that directly accesses current positions of moving objects with KDB-tree that is a space partitioning access method. The internal node in our proposed index structure keeps time parameters in order to support the future position retrieval and to minimize a update cost. Moreover, we propose new update and split methods to maximize the space utilization and the search performance. We perform various experiments to show that our proposed index structure outperforms the existing index structure.

A Study on the Spatial Indexing Scheme in Geographic Information System (지리정보시스템에서 공간 색인기법에 관한 연구)

  • 황병연
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 1998
  • The I/O performance for spatial queries is extremely important since the handling of huge amount of multidimensional data is required in spatial databases for geographic information systems. Therefore, we describe representative spatial access methods handling complex spatial objects, z-transform B tree, KDB tree, R tree, MAX tree, to increase I/O performance. In addition, we measure the performance of spatial indexing schemes by testing against various realistic data and query sets. Results from the benchmark test indicates that MAX outperforms other indexing schemes on insertion, range query, spatial join. MAX tree is expected to use as index scheme organizing storage system of GIS in the future.

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Design and Implementation of the dynamic hashing structure for indexing the current positions of moving objects (이동체의 현재 위치 색인을 위한 동적 해슁 구조의 설계 및 구현)

  • 전봉기
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.1266-1272
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    • 2004
  • Location-Based Services(LBS) give rise to location-dependent queries of which results depend on the positions of moving objects. Because positions of moving objects change continuously, indexes of moving object must perform update operations frequently for keeping the changed position information. Existing spatial index (Grid File, R-Tree, KDB-tree etc.) proposed as index structure to search static data effectively. There are not suitable for index technique of moving object database that position data is changed continuously. In this paper, I propose a dynamic hashing index that insertion/delete costs are low. The dynamic hashing structure is that apply dynamic hashing techniques to combine a hash and a tree to a spatial index. The results of my extensive experiments show the dynamic hashing index outperforms the $R^$ $R^*$-tree and the fixed grid.

Spatio-Temporal Index Structure based on KDB-Tree for Tracking Positions of Moving Objects (이동 객체의 위치 추적을 위한 KDB-트리 기반의 시공간 색인구조)

  • Seo Dong-Min;Bok Kyoung-Soo;Yoo Jae Soo;Lee Byoung-Yup
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.77-94
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    • 2004
  • Recently, the needs of index structure which manages moving objects efficiently have been increased because of the rapid development of location-based techniques. Existing index structures frequently need updates because moving objects change continuatively their positions. That caused entire performance loss of the index structures. In this paper, we propose a new index structure called the TPKDB-tree that is a spatio-temporal index structure based on KDB-tree. Our technique optimizes update costs and reduces a search time for moving objects and reduces unnecessary updates by expressing moving objects as linear functions. Thus, the TPKDB-tree efficiently supports the searches of future positions of moving objects by considering the changes of moving objects included in the node as time-parameter. To maximize space utilization, we propose the new update and split methods. Finally, we perform various experiments to show that our approach outperforms others.

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Spatio-Timporal Index Structure for Retrieving Future Positions of Moving Objects (이동 객체의 미래 위치 검색을 위한 시공간 색인 구조)

  • Seo, Dong-Min;Bok, Kyoung-Soo;Yoo, Jae-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.1395-1398
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    • 2003
  • 최근 위치기반 기술의 급속한 발전으로 인하여 이동 객체를 효율적으로 관리하기 위한 색인 구조의 필요성이 증가하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 KDB-트리를 기반으로 하는 새로운 형태의 시공간 색인 구조인 TPKDB-트리 (Time Parameterized KDB-Tree)를 제안한다. 제안하는 색인 구조는 갱신 비용을 최소화 하여 이동 객체 검색의 효율성을 증가시키고 노드 내에 포함되어 있는 이동 객체의 변화를 시간에 대한 파라미터로 유지함으로서 효율적으로 이동 객체의 미래 위치 검색을 지원한다. 또한, 공간활용도를 최대화하기 위해 EFP 분할 (Enhanced First Division Splitting) 기법을 제안한다. 제안하는 색인 구조의 우수성을 입증하기 위해 실험을 통해 다른 색인 구조차의 성능 비교를 수행한다.

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An Efficient Indexing Technique for Time-evolving Moving Spatial Data (시공간 이동객체들을 위한 효율적인 색인 기법)

  • Kang, So-Young;Yang, Sung-Bong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 2006
  • 무선 네트워크의 기술 발달과 이동기기들의 많은 보급에 따라 GIS, LBS 등의 위치기반 서비스 등이 널리 사용되고 있다. 이러한 서비스를 수행하기위하여 방대한 양의 이동 객체들의 효율적인 관리, 검색에 대한 연구가 많이 이루어지고 있으며 이동 객체들의 특성과 사용목적에 따라 다양한 연구결과가 제시되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 시간에 따라 다양한 속도와 방향으로 이동하는 다차원 이동 공간 데이터를 위한 효율적인 색인 기법을 제시한다. 제안된 방법은 KDB-Tree와 QSF-Tree에 기반을 두고 있으며 색인 구조의 검색 성능을 향상시키기 위한 분할, 갱신 방법을 제시하여 시간에 따라 현재 속도와 방향이 다양하게 변화하는 데이터를 신속히 데이터를 색인하고 영역 질의 뿐만 아니라 미래 예측 질의에 대하여 현재 보유한 데이터 정보를 기반으로 미래 예측 결과를 신속히 산출할 수 있도록 한다.

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