• Title, Summary, Keyword: KL-Grade

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The Study on Correlation between the KL-Grade and Improvement of Knee Pain Treated by Korean Medicine Therapy (KL-Grade의 정도와 슬관절 통증의 한의학적 치료 효과의 상관성 연구)

  • Lee, Gi-eon;Huh, Suk-won;Lee, Hyun-ho;Jeong, Seong-hyun;Jo, Kyeong-sang;Han, Si-hoon;Choi, Ji-hoon;Roh, Ji-ae
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2017
  • Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the effects between the KL-Grade and improvement of knee pain treated by Korean Medicine therapy. Methods 114 patients who received inpatient treatment from July 2014 to May 2017 in the Daejeon Jaseng of Korean Medicine Hospital were divided into 5 groups by the KL-Grade. All patients received a combination of treatment including acupunture, pharmacopunture, herbal medication. They were compared and analyzed on the basis of improvement between measuring Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC Index), EuroQol-5 Dimension Index (EQ-5D Index) as they were hospitalized and as they were discharged. The statistically significance was evaluated by SPSS 23.0 for windows. Results After treatment, KL-Grade 0 group's Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC Index), EuroQol-5 Dimension Index (EQ-5D Index) improvement was $2.02{\pm}1.69$, $7.50{\pm}9.67$ and $0.11{\pm}0.15$ respectively. KL-Grade 1 group's improvement was $2.09{\pm}1.23$, $11.75{\pm}13.99$ and $0.12{\pm}0.13$ respectively. KL-Grade 2 group's improvement was $1.60{\pm}1.07$ and $14.70{\pm}14.19$ respectively. But In this group, EQ-5D Index has decreased by $0.01{\pm}0.10$. KL-Grade 3 group's improvement was $1.88{\pm}1.31$, $7.81{\pm}13.35$ and $0.13{\pm}0.20$ respectively (p<0.034). In the case of KL-Grade 4, the population was not statistically significant (N=2) and therefore excluded from statistical significance. And there was no statistically significance between 4 group's improvement after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusions The above study showed that Korean medicine treatments showed significant therapeutic effects on knee pain and degenerative knee joints, but there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of degenerative arthritis (KL-Grade).

Analysis of the Characteristics of Ground Reaction Force According to the Level of Knee Osteoarthritis During Gait (보행 시 농작업 종사자들의 슬관절 퇴행성 등급에 따른 지면반력 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ill;Lee, Chul-Gab;Hong, Wan-Ki;Kim, Min
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.393-399
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    • 2015
  • Objective : This study was conducted with an aim to use it as basic data for developing assistive devices, such as insoles that can suppress the progress of degenerative diseases and strategies, to improve early degenerative diseases by assessing walking characteristics of farm workers who were classified as KL-grade in the perspective of motor mechanics. Method : 38 male and female adults who complained of knee joint pain for more than six months were selected, and they were classified according to KL-grade. KL-grade was assessed by an orthopaedic specialist and an occupational environment health specialist. Filming equipment (FX-1, CASIO, Japan) and a ground reaction force system (AMTI OR6, AMTI, USA) were used to identify ground reaction force characteristics, and WOMAC was used for a pain rating scale. Results : There was a difference between the right and left side (axis-X) according to KL-grade, and when the grade was higher, the internal ground reaction force was also higher. Changes in COP were not affected by KL-grade of the knee joint, but it tended to increase as the grade increased. There were differences in the time required for limb support while walking according to the grades, and when the grade was higher, walking was more inefficient with long braking force and short propulsion forces. Also, pain rating scale, the right and left side, and COP changes while in support phase were related. Conclusion : There was a partial, statically significant difference in KL-grade and ground reaction force occurring during the support phase, and there were differences in ground reaction forces according to the grades of degenerative arthritis in the knee joint, indicating that this study is worthy as basic data for future studies.

The Correlation between Korean Medical Treatment on Degenerative Meniscus Tear and Kellgren-Lawrence-grade, Body Mass Index (퇴행성 반월상 연골판 파열 환자의 한의학적 치료 효과와 Kellgren-Lawrence-grade, Body Mass Index의 상관성)

  • Lee, Gi-Eon;Lee, Geon-Yeong;Han, Si-Hoon;Kim, Gook-Beom;Kim, Hyo-Jun;Jang, Jae-Won;Jang, Youngwoo;Cho, Jae-Heung
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2018
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to observe the effectiveness of complex Korean medicine treatment applied to the patients with degenerative meniscal tear and the correlation among clinical effectiveness, body mass index (BMI) and Kellgren-Lawrence grade (KL-grade). Methods The study participants were 38 patients who had been diagnosed with degenerative meniscal tear. Participants were classified by BMI, KL-grade and treated with acupuncture, electroacupuncture and pharmacopuncture. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC Index) and EuroQol-5 Dimension Index (EQ-5D Index). Results Both NRS and WOMAC scores were significantly reduced after treatment (p<0.001). The EQ-5D for assessing quality of life showed further improvement (p<0.05). A statistically significant correlation was observed between the BMI and NRS, EQ-5D. KL-grade was correlated with WOMAC. Conclusions These results show that complex Korean medicine treatment to the patient with degenerative meniscal tear may be effective as a conservative therapy. Further research is required to confirm the effectiveness of Korean medicine treatment.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Lumbar Spondylosis and Its Association with Low Back Pain among Rural Korean Residents

  • Lee, Sung Yeon;Cho, Nam H.;Jung, Young Ok;Seo, Young Il;Kim, Hyun Ah
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2017
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the relevant risk factors for lumbar spondylosis (LS) among middle-aged and elderly rural Korean residents and to explore the association between radiographic LS and lower back pain (LBP) in relation to age and gender. Methods : This community-based, cross-sectional study evaluated 1512 subjects with available radiograph. The prevalence of LBP was obtained using a questionnaire and disability resulting from LBP was measured using a validated Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (ODI). In lumbar spine radiographs, vertebral levels from L1/2 to L4/5 were evaluated for the presence of osteophytes and joint-space narrowing (JSN), and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading was applied. Results : Of 4261 subjects aged 40-79 years, data from 1512 subjects were included. The prevalence of radiographic LS indicated by grade ${\geq}2$ osteophytes and JSN were 53.9 and 15.8%, respectively. Seventy-three percent of subjects had KL grade ${\geq}2$ spondylosis and LBP was present in 36.5% of subjects. Although LS was more common among males, the prevalence of LBP was higher among females. Age, male gender and history of hand or knee arthritis were risk factors for LS. LS was significantly associated with LBP mostly among females over 60 years old and correlated with the ODI after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion : Our study among rural Korean residents revealed a high prevalence of LS and LBP. The association between LS and LBP was observed mostly among females and LS was significantly correlated with the severity of back pain.

Studies of Plant Tumor Induction (Pat 1) Experiments on the Inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in out Field (식물의 암종유발에 관한 연구 1 (제 1 ) Agrobacterium tumefaciens 의 에 관하여)

  • 이민재;홍순우;최영길
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 1966
  • As a part of studies of plant tumor induction, this experiment was prepared for the purpose of studying the ability of tumor induction and the tendency of tumor initiation in some Korean plants using the various Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains. Results obtained from this experiment are as follows. The virulences of five strains used in this experiment were gradually decreased in order of strain A6Kl, B6, 11BV7, T37 and 11 BNV6. Especially strain T37 which is known to the host limited strain showed virulent effect to the most of plants given for the materials as well as strain A6Kl, B 6 and 11BV7. Concerning the grade of tumor development, in plants which has tough stem, for example, Glycine max Meer, tumor induction was not well developed after the inoculation of all strains. Particullary in Ricinus communes Linne all strains showed virulent effect but tumor tissues were declined in relation to the development of lignification. It was also confirmed that the induction of tumor tissues on plants is to delay according to the increase of the age of host plants.

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A study on the Improvement of Work Environment System of interior Architecture (실내건축 업역의 업무환경 제도 개선에 관한 연구)

  • 오인욱
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • no.37
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    • pp.3-11
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    • 2003
  • The study Is Intended to investigate and analyze the system and practice that have been applied to Interior Architecture, comparing with a number of similar foreign cases, in an attempt to seek the way toward its development as well as to come up with the solution for enhancing the competitiveness, thereby making a recommendation on how to create the desirable work environment of Interior Architecture down the road. The conclusion and recommendation we have made is highlighted as follow. Among the practical or procedural challenges in the process of improving work environment of Interior Architecture, development of current national technical qualification system in a way of further detailing the categories of Ki-sul-sa(highest engineer grade) or Ki-neung-jang(highest technician grade) as part of measures aimed at gradual approaching for improvement of design fees and rates or supervision fees will be very crucial, that calls for close coordination with the Ministry of Labor and Human Resources Development Service of Korea. In a bid to upgrade the Interior Architecture to become the part of knowledge-based industry, amendment to Korean Standard Industrial Classification along with Standard Classification of Occupations and Academic Classification will be essential, and moreover with the attitude of reflection and self-improvement, the endeavors to be able to deal with the revision of existing laws and regulations in a consistent way and manner, by forming a joint committee among the three Interior Architecture-related organizations(KOSID, ICC, KlID), will be more than important.