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Assessment of DNA Damage using an Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Comet Assay and Toxic Effects in Chickens by T-2 Toxin Treatment (T-2 toxin을 투여한 닭에서 Comet assay 방법을 이용한 DNA 손상 평가와 독성)

  • Hah Dae-Sik;Heo Jung-Ho;Lee Kuk-Cheon;Cho Myung-Heui;Kim Kuk-Hun;Kim Chung-Hui;Lue Jae-Du;Lee Seung-Hwan;Kim Gon-Sup;Kim Eui-Gyung;Kim Jong-Shu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to evaluate the possible DNA damaging effects of T-2 toxin using an alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay and also to investigate toxic effects in chickens. A total of 20 chickens were used in these experiments. Graded concentrations of dietary T-2 toxin (0, 4, 8, and $16{\mu}g/g$ of diet) were given to groups of 5 broiler chickens. In comet assay, The DNA damage was analysed by the tail extent moment (TEM) and tail length (TL), which were used as markers of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. A significant dose-dependent increase in the extent of DNA migration as well as in the percentage of cells with tails was observed after treatment with T-2 toxin (P<0.05). Treatment with the low T-2 toxin ($4{\mu}/g$ of diet) induced a relatively low level of DNA damage in comparison with the high T-2 toxin ($16{\mu}/g$ of diet) group. The growth rate was significantly reduced by concentrations of 8, and $16{\mu}/g$ of diet (P < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by any concentrations (P < 0.05). The relative weight of the spleen, and lung was decreased by the growth inhibitory concentrations. The bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and kid- ney were decreased in relative weight by concentrations of $16{\mu}/g$ of diet. The relative weight of the liver and heart were unaffected. The hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were decreased at concentration of $16{\mu}/g$ of diet. As compared with control chickens, there was no marked change in serum components except uric acid in T-2 treated chickens. All lymphoid tissues retained atrophic and lymphoid cell depletion throughout the three weeks trial.

A Study of Origination and Genealogy on Street Style according to Anthropology (인류학적(人類學的) 분류(分類)에 따른 스트리트 스타일의 발생(發生)과 계보(系譜)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Young-Jae
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.183-203
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    • 2007
  • This study aims at providing useful fundamental information to re-establish the theories of modern fashion by examining the origination and genealogy of street style. The street styles focusing on caucasoid have a variety of genealogies such as western type, beat, teddy boy, hippie, skinhead, punk, neuron-mantic, indie kid, riot grrrl, grunge and techno cyber punk. In the same period, on the contrary, the streets styles focusing on negroid are zootie, hipster, modernist, rude boy, two-tone, rastafarian, funky, B-boy, fly girl, raggamuffine, bhangra, and acid jazz, which are seen as the culture of the large cities formed along Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean sea like England, America and Jamaica. These have root as the main fashion in western society. Ironically, most of the subculture concentrated on the whites were racists. Because of such a reason, the street styles have been formed as resistance culture that was unable to sympathize with their society and characteristics by distinguishing the whites and the colored people. Zootie or hipster that is one of the street fashion styles was formed in the 1940-50s, while the colored people who lived in the west Indies migrated to England or America. As a minimal modernist style called Ivy look in US, in that time, anti-culture formed by teenagers in whitey, teddy boy and mods fashion can be strictly different from the zootie and hipster. The colored people's street styles of the 1960s developed into aggressive and hard forms from the rude boy and two-tone while their resistance toward the whites was stronger. The rastafarian style researched the peak as the colored people's traditional ethnic characteristics or resistance intention for their freedom in the 1970s. In that time, The colored people's street styles of the 1960s developed into aggressive and hard forms from the rude boy and two-tone while their resistance toward the whites was stronger. The rastafarian style researched the peak as the colored people's traditional ethnic characteristics or resistance intention for their freedom in the 1970s. In that time, the street styles of the whites were mostly the skinhead or hippie. Most of them were racists toward the colored people. The punk type on shown on the whites focused on luxury and exaggerative costume. On the contrary, the funky style of the colored people focused on aggressive nihilism and form. With B-boy, fly girl, reggae, rap music, and break dancing in the 1980s, the subculture gradually told on the high fashion as well as the culture between the whites and the colored people. From such aspects, the colored people tried to maintain their unique traditional characteristics. However, their individual values surged by the coming young generation excluded the colored people's characteristic street styles. Focusing on gender, violence and private success among their major concerns, the raga muffin style that represents multi-races and multi-cultures was formed. The jazz style in the 1990s showed cold post-modernistic eclecticism different from that of the 1940s-50s. Simultaneously, the various classes appeared their street styles by emphasizing on each personality. Now that we are living in multi-cultural society, a human race or nationalism concept is getting obscurer. There is no obvious boundary line in the differences between human race and its fashion.

Factorial analysis on commercial success of the American theatrical CG animation movies : Focused on characters, situations, and images (미국 극장용 CG애니메이션의 흥행 요인 분석: 인물, 상황, 이미지를 중심으로)

  • Chang, Wook-Sang;Han, Boo-Young
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.59-86
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    • 2013
  • 'Spectacles' and 'factuality' provided by computer technology are strengths of CG animation to still lure the audience and after commercial success of a number of theatrical CG animations whose typical producing companies are PIXAR and DreamWorks, were produced to be commercially successful and they win massive popularity even now. In Korea as well, several works tried to achieve a box office success including , , etc. but the result was truly miserable. In the past, this failure was often attributed to a lack of 'technical expertise', but it became clear that in the process of continuous trial and error, 'narrative' and 'images of imagination' which are bases and characteristics of animation are key elements of commercial success. Actually, statistics indicate that narrative is what is considered to be the most important by the audience when they select animation and its importance is so absolute that they say the most significant thing in animation is 'story.' In particular, it can be said that 'characters', 'situations', and 'ideas' play a key role in them which become elements of the story. This paper studied with what characteristics each animation aroused pleasure and fun focused on characters, situations and images in relation to , , and which are American theatrical CG animation films which succeeded in gaining popularity home and abroad. We hope that analysis in this paper will be helpful even just a little bit as a reference material, which allows domestic writers and producers to develop familiar and characteristic works based on imagination and creativity expressing each work's unique personality and characteristics.

Safety Assessments between Commercial Milk and DHA Fortified Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Feeds Containing Protected Fish Oil Treated with Formaldehyde (시중 일반우유와 포름알데히드로 보호 처리된 어유 첨가 사료를 먹인 DHA 강화우유의 안전성 연구)

  • Chun, Su-Hyun;Nam, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Yang, Sung-Yong;Yoo, Jin-Ah;Seo, Dong-Won;Chung, Il-Joong;Lee, Kwong-Won
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2011
  • Our objective in this study is to assess the safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) fortified milk of dairy cows fed feeds containing protected fish oil treated with formaldehyde by analyzing formaldehyde concentration in commercial milk and DHA fortified milk of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated feed. There are 3 milk samples in this study: Commercial milk (CM), DHA fortified milk for Kid (DHA-K) and DHA fortified milk for Baby (DHA-B). We confirm the fresh quality of these three samples by physicochemical tests. In fat content result, three groups are significantly different at the p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test, but fat content of group DHA-K is about half the level of the other two groups. Protein content of group DHA-K is 1 % higher than other two groups. According to the analysis result of DHA content of DHA fortified milk, DHA content of DHA-B is two-fold higher than DHA-K. Similar pattern was seen in the intake based on age. According to HPLC analysis result of formaldehyde concentration in milk, commercial milk and DHA fortified milk are between 0.013 ppm and 0.057 ppm which is formaldehyde standard level in fresh milk settled in WHO (World Health Organization). Three groups have no significantly differences at the p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test. For this reason, it can be concluded that there is no transition of formaldehyde from dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated feeds to its produced milk. Safety about formaldehyde of DHA fortified milk of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated feeds is considered similar to commercial milk.

Growth and clinical efficacy of fortified human milk and premature formula on very low birth weight infants (극소 저체중출생아에서 강화된 모유와 미숙아 전용분유가 성장 및 임상에 미치는 효과)

  • Chueh, Heewon;Kim, Myo Jing;Lee, Young-A;Jung, Jin-A
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.704-712
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : A prospective, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate growth, efficacy, safety and nutritional status for very low birth weight infants fed with human milk fortified with Maeil human milk fortifier (Maeil $HMF^{(R)}$; Maeil Dairies Co., Ltd.). Methods : We enrolled 45 premature infants with a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <33 weeks, who were born at Dong-A University Hospital from October, 2006 through December, 2007. They were divided into 2 groups: infants in one group were fed with human milk fortified with $HMF^{(R)}$, and the second were fed with preterm formula. Growth, biochemical indices, feeding tolerance, and other adverse events in each group were assessed serially and compared relatively. Follow-up data were also collected after discharge at 1, 3, and 6 months corrected age. Results : Characteristics of the 2 groups including average gestational age, birth weight, sex, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, and other adverse events (sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, and intraventricular hemorrhage) showed no significant difference. Average feeding start day ($8.00{\pm}3.27d$ vs. $8.86{\pm}5.37d$) (P=0.99) and the number of days required to reach full feeding after start feeding ($41.78{\pm}20.47d$ vs $36.86{\pm}20.63d$) (P=0.55) were not significantly different in the group fed human milk fortified with $HMF^{(R)}$ when compared with the group that was fed preterm formula. The duration of total parenteral nutrition and the incidence of feeding intolerance also showed no differences between the 2 groups. Although infants fed with human milk fortified with $HMF^{(R)}$ showed faster weight gain than those fed with preterm formula at the end stage of the admission period, other growth indices of the two groups showed no significant difference. No significant correlations were found between the 2 groups with regard to weight gain velocity, height gain velocity, head circumference velocity, and post-discharge follow up growth indices. Conclusion : Premature infants fed human milk fortified with $HMF^{(R)}$ showed no significant difference compared with those fed preterm formula in growth, biochemical indices, and adverse events. Using human milk fortifier can be an alternative choice for very low birth weight infants, who need high levels nutritional support even after discharge from NICU.