• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kinematic Constraints

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Trajectory Generation Method with Convolution Operation on Velocity Profile (속도 영역에서의 컨볼루션을 이용한 효율적인 궤적 생성 방법)

  • Lee, Geon;Kim, Doik
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2014
  • The use of robots is no longer limited to the field of industrial robots and is now expanding into the fields of service and medical robots. In this light, a trajectory generation method that can respond instantaneously to the external environment is strongly required. Toward this end, this study proposes a method that enables a robot to change its trajectory in real-time using a convolution operation. The proposed method generates a trajectory in real time and satisfies the physical limits of the robot system such as acceleration and velocity limit. Moreover, a new way to improve the previous method (11), which generates inefficient trajectories in some cases owing to the characteristics of the trapezoidal shape of trajectories, is proposed by introducing a triangle shape. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a numerical simulation and a comparison with the previous convolution method.

Dynamic Analysis of Floating Wave Energy Generation System with Mooring System (계류시스템을 가진 부유식 파력발전기의 동적거동 해석)

  • Choi, Gyu Seok;Sohn, Jeong Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2013
  • In this study, dynamic behaviors of a wave energy generation system (WEGS) that converts wave energy into electric energy are analyzed using multibody dynamics techniques. Many studies have focused on reducing the effects of a mooring system on the motion of a WEGS. Several kinematic constraints and force elements are employed in the modeling stage. Three-dimensional wave load equations are used to implement wave loads. The dynamic behaviors of a WEGS are analyzed under several wave conditions by using MSC/ADAMS, and the rotating speed of the generating shaft is investigated for predicting the electricity capacity. The dynamic behaviors of a WEGS with a mooring system are compared with those of a WEGS without a mooring system. Stability evaluation of a WEGS is carried out through simulation under extreme wave load.

Articulatory Attributes in Korean Nonassimilating Contexts

  • Son, Minjung
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.109-121
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    • 2013
  • This study examined several kinematic properties of the primary articulator (the tongue dorsum) and the supplementary articulator (the jaw) in the articulation of the voiceless velar stop (/k/) within nonassimilating contexts. We examined in particular the spatiotemporal properties (constriction duration and constriction maxima) from the constriction onset to the constriction offset by analyzing a velar (/k/) followed by the coronal fricative (/s/), the coronal stop (/t/), and the labial (/p/) in across-word boundary conditions (/k#s/, /k#t/, and /k#p/). Along with these measurements, we investigated intergestural temporal coordination between C1 and C2 and the jaw articulator in relation to its coordination with the articulation of consonant sequences. The articulatory movement data was collected by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulometry (EMMA). Four native speakers of Seoul Korean participated in the laboratory experiment. The results showed several characteristics. First, a velar (/k/) in C1 was not categorically reduced. Constriction duration and constriction degree of the velar (/k/) were similar within nonassimilating contexts (/k#s/=/k#t/=/k#p/). This might mean that spatiotemporal attributes during constriction duration were stable and consistent across different contexts, which might be subsequently associated with the nontarget status of the velar in place assimilation. Second, the gestural overlap could be represented as the order of /k#s/ (less) < /k#p/ (intermediate) < /k#t/ (more) as we measured the onset-to-onset lag (a longer lag indicated shorter gestural overlap.). This indicates a gestural overlap within nonassimilating contexts may not be constrained by any of the several constraints including the perceptual recoverability constraint (e.g., more overlap in Front-to-Back sequences compared to the reverse order (Back-to-Front) since perceptual cues in C1 can be recovered anytime during C2 articulation), the low-level speech motor constraint (e.g., more overlap in lingual-nonlingual sequences as compared to the lingual-lingual sequences), or phonological contexts effects (e.g., similarity in gestural overlap within nonassimilating contexts). As one possible account for more overlap in /k#t/ sequences as compared to /k#p/, we suspect speakers' knowledge may be receptive to extreme encroachment on C1 by the gestural overlap of the coronal in C2 since it does not obscure the perceptual cue of C1 as much as the labial in C2. Third, actual jaw position during C2 was higher in coronals (/s/, /t/) than in the labial (/p/). However, within the coronals, there was no manner-dependent jaw height difference in C2 (/s/=/t/). Vertical jaw position of C1 and C2 was seen as inter-dependent as higher jaw position in C1 was closely associated with C2. Lastly, a greater gap in jaw height was associated with longer intergestural timing (e.g., less overlap), but was confined to the cluster type (/kp/) with the lingual-nonlingual sequence. This study showed that Korean jaw articulation was independent from coordinating primary articulators in gestural overlap in some cluster types (/k#s/, /k#t/) while not in others (e.g., /k#p/). Overall, the results coherently indicate the velar stop (/k/) in C1 was robust in articulation, which may have subsequently contributed to the nontarget status of the velar (/k/) in place assimilation processes.