• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kinesiophobia

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Comparisons for the Abnormality of Breathing Pattern, Kinesiophobia and Flexion Relaxation Phenomenon in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain and Healthy Person during Flexion and Extension of the Trunk

  • Yoon, Junggyu
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.1750-1755
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    • 2019
  • Background: Most of the previous researches on the abnormality of breathing pattern have focused on the silence of functional movements owing to such abnormality, however, have not been clearly identified the relationship between the abnormal breathing pattern on one hand and kinesiophobia and flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) on the other hand. Objective: To compare patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and healthy person in the abnormality of breathing pattern, kinesiophobia, and FRP during flexion and extension of the trunk. Design: Case-control study. Methods: The research subjects consisted of a group of 15 healthy adults and another group of 15 patients with CLBP. Capnography was used to measure the endtidal $CO_2$ ($EtCO_2$) and respiratory quotient (RQ). The muscle activity of multifidus and erector spinae of the subjects was measured during flexion and extension of the trunk to identify their FRP. The Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ) and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) were utilized to measure their breathing patterns and kinesiophobia, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was conducted in order to analyze the normal distribution of the measured data. Their general characteristics were identified by the descriptive statistics and the independent t-test was performed to identify the differences between the two groups in terms of abnormality of breathing pattern, kinesiophobia, and FRP. The level of significance was set at ${\alpha}=.05$. Results: The patients with CLBP had significantly less $EtCO_2$ and shorter breathing hold time (BHT) than normal healthy person (p<.05). The patient with CLBP also had significantly greater kinesiophobia than healthy person (p<.05), and had less FRP than the healthy person (p<.01). Conclusions: These results suggest that the CLBP had greater abnormality of breathing pattern and kinesiophobia with less FRP than healthy person.

Convergence Study on the Relationship between Kinesiophobia and Fear of Falling in Patients with Stroke (뇌졸중 환자의 운동공포증과 낙상공포 사이의 관계에 대한 융합 연구)

  • Jo, Sungbae;Choi, Wonjae;Jung, Jihye;Park, Jiyu;Lee, Seungwon
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.10 no.10
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to investigate the convergence relationship between kinesiophobia and fear of falling in patients with stroke. A total of 113 patients with stroke participated in this study. Participants underwent inpatient rehabilitation and completed surveys with three different questionnaires including the fall efficacy scale (FES), translated Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia 13 (TSK-13), and activity-specific balance confidence scale (ABC). TSK-13 and FES showed weak negative correlation (r=-0.226), and TSK-13 and ABC showed moderate negative correlation (r=-0.300). FES had a very strong positive relationship compared with ABC (r=0.838). Faller showed significantly low FES and ABC scores compared with non-faller (p<0.05). These results present that patients with stroke had mild kinesiophobia, and kinesiophobia is related to fear of falling. It is necessary to evaluate kinesiophobia in stroke rehabilitation.

Risk Factors of the Masticatory Function in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

  • Kim, Keon-Hyung;Park, Jo-Eun;Kim, Mee-Eun;Kim, Hye-Kyoung
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.92-102
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To investigate the masticatory function of patients with different temporomandibular disorders (TMD) phenotypes, and to explore the risk factors for the masticatory function of TMD patients among multiple biopsychosocial variables using patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Methods: Clinical features and TMD diagnoses of 250 cases were investigated by reviewing medical records. Psychosocial factors were evaluated using four questionnaires representing pain severity and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS), psychological distress (Symptom Check List-90-Revised, SCL-90R) and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for Temporomandibular Disorders, TSK-TMD). Masticatory function, as a dependent variable, was determined using the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS). Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation were used for analyses. Results: A total of 145 cases were included and classified into four subgroups including group 1: TMD with internal derangement without pain (n=14), group 2: TMD with muscle pain (n=32), group 3: TMD with joint pain (n=60) and group 4: TMD with muscle-joint combined pain (n=39). Pain severity (p=0.001) and interference (p=0.022) were the highest in group 2, but the mean global score of JFLS was the highest in group 3, followed by group 4, group 2, and group 1 (p=0.013). Pain severity, pain interference, the mean global score of PCS and the mean global score of TSK-TMD showed significant and moderate correlation with the mean global score of JFLS. All subdimensions and the global severity index of SCL-90R had significant, but weak correlations with all scores of JFLS. Conclusions: The results suggest that masticatory functional limitation depends on the TMD phenotypes. Among the various PROs, pain perception, pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia seem to be more influential risk factors on jaw function than psychological distress, such as depression and anxiety.

Reliability of the Korean Version of Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for Temporomandibular Disorders

  • Park, In Hee;Jang, Ji Hee;Chung, Jin Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the original English version of tampa scale for kinesiophobia for temporomandibular disorders (TSK-TMDs) for cultural equivalency into Korean language and to evaluate the reliability of the Korean version of the TSK-TMD among symptom free subjects. Methods: The original version of TSK-TMD was translated and cross-culturally adapted following international guidelines. A total 90 subjects (50 women, 40 men) were participated to fill out the questionnaire. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability with a one- or two-week time interval were evaluated. Results: The internal consistency of TSK-TMD of the original and the modified 12-item TSK-TMD were 0.866, and 0.858, respectively using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. And the internal consistency of activity avoidance (AA) and somatic focus (SF) subscale were 0.838 and 0.807 assessed with Cronbach's alpha indicating excellent reliability. Test-retest reliability of the original TSK-TMD measured by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.764, and coefficients value of the 12-question TSK-TMD was 0.752. Test-retest reliability of AA subscale was 0.722 and SF subscale was 0.677 measured by ICC. Conclusions: The Korean version of the TSK-TMD questionnaire was found to be a reliable instrument and successfully translated to Korean language. There are no significant differences between overall and modified version of TSK-TMD. It can be used as a valuable instrument for the analyses of the psychosocial aspects of the TMD patients in Korea.

Regression Analysis of the Relationship Among the Level of Pain and Dysfunction and Psychosocial Factors in Patients With Chronic Back Pain (회귀분석을 이용한 만성요통환자의 통증 및 기능장애수준과 심리사회학적 요인의 상관성 연구)

  • Choi, Im-soon;Jang, Hyun-jeong;Kim, Suhn-yeop
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2016
  • Background: Chronic back pain shows a high correlation with lumbar disability, physical disability for daily activities, and psychosocial factors, such as depression. Object: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of the level of pain and disability with psychosocial factors, which are potential disturbance variables, in patients with chronic lumbar pain. Method: The sample included 258 patients, who had complained of chronic lumbar pain for more than three months. The Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the level of pain, and a Korean version of Oswestry Disability Index was used to measure the level of disability. Psychosocial factors were measured using the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia-11, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using PASW 18.0, and an independent samples t-test was used to examine frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation of sociodemographic characteristics and major variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between the level of pain and disability and psychosocial factors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to determine the level of pain and psychosocial factors of functional disorder. The significance level was set at ${\alpha}=.05$. Result: There is a strong correlation between the level of pain and functional disorder and psychosocial factors in patients with chronic lumbar pain. The study also revealed that as the levels of pain and fear avoidance increase, pain self-efficacy decreases. Conclusion: The results suggest that negative perceptions towards pain, limitations of physical movement, and severe fear avoidance directly affect the decrease in pain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to test pain self-efficacy when measuring the level of pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain.

Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Pain, Pain Interference, and Life Satisfaction for the Elderly People with Chronic Pain (수용전념치료가 만성통증 노인의 통증, 통증간섭 및 삶의 만족에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Jaesook;Lee, Bong-keon
    • The Korean Journal of Stress Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.231-242
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    • 2018
  • Background: The population of the aged has been rapidly increasing worldwide, and about 50% of them are under chronic pain by irreversible degenerative diseases. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) on pain, pain interference, and life satisfaction in people with chronic pain. In addition, this study proposed that anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, psychological inflexibility in pain, pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia are mediating the effectiveness of ACT. Methods: Participants of ACT program for this study comprised the elderly aged 65 and over who had been suffering from chronic pain for at least 6 months and reported their pain intensity of at least five on the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale, 0-10). During the sessions, experimental group participated in the ACT program designed by Stoddard and Wetherell(2011) and the control group received health education. After finishing eight sessions of each program, data from 25 participants in the experimental group and 27 in the control group were used for the final analysis. Results: The results showed that the ACT program is significantly more effective on relieving pain, pain interference, anxiety, and psychological inflexibility in pain than health education program. However, anxiety and psychological inflexibility did not have significant mediating effects on pain and pain interference. Conclusions: Finally, this study has verified the curative effect of ACT for elderly people suffering from chronic pain. Therefore, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can be used for supplementary treatment for patients with degenerative disease.