• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kochujang

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Discrimination of Kochujang by Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics (이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 의한 고추장의 판별)

  • Kim, Young-Soo;Oh, Hoon-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.561-566
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    • 1994
  • The kinds of kochujang were discriminated by using their organic acid compositions, GC peak areas of volatile concentrates and flavor intensity determined by sensory evaluation. Tested kochujang were 51 kinds of traditional kochujang and 10 kinds of industry-produced kochujang in the market. The traditional kochujang included 20 kinds of Sunchang kochujang prepared with glutinous rice, 11 kinds of Boeun kochujang prepared with barley and 20 kinds of Sachun kochujang prepared with wheat. Boeun kochujang was distinguished from other kinds of traditional and industry-produced kochujang by using canonical discriminant analysis for the compositions of organic acids. Among organic acids, lactic acid was the most contributing variable for the discrimination of various kochujang. Traditional and industry-produced kochujang could be classified into 4 groups by using discriminant analysis for GC peak areas. The peak number 2, 4, 8 and 11 were found to be highly contributing variables for the discrimination of kochujang by using stepwise discriminant analysis. Industry-produced kochujang was discriminated from traditional kochujang by using canonical discriminant analysis for the intensity of 8 kinds of flavor property. The taste 'umami' was found to be the most contributing variable for the discrimination of kochujang.

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Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics of Traditional and Commercial Kochujang during Fermentation (재래식과 공장산 고추장의 이화학적 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Young-Soo;Kwon, Dong-Jin;Oh, Hoon-Il;Kang, Tong-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 1994
  • Physicochemical characteristics of traditional kochujang fermented for 6 months and commercial kochujang were compared. Tested kochujang included 18 kinds of Sunchang kochujang prepared with glutinous rice, 10 kinds of Boeun kochujang prepared with barley and 17 kinds of Sachun kochujang prepared with wheat, and 10 kinds of commercial kochujang. Major free sugar was found to be glucose both in traditional and commercial kochujang. Fructose, maltose, and sucrose were also detected in small amounts. The contents of free sugars in traditional kochujang was approximately one fourth of those presented in commercial kochujang. Commercial kochujang showed the highest level of total free amino acids followed in decreasing order by Sachun, Sunchang, and Boeun kochujang. The most abundant free amino acid was serine in Sunchang kochujang and aspartic acid both in Boeun and Sachun kochujang. On the other hand, glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid in commercial kochujang. Volatile organic acids in various kochujang were determined and acetic, propionic, butyric, and 3-methyl butanoic acids were found in traditional kochujang. However, 3-methyl butanoic arid was not found in commercial kochujang. The most abundant volatile acid was acetic acid in both tradtional and commercial kochujang. Analysis of non-volatile organic acids showed that large amounts of lactic, oxalic, and succinic acids were found in traditional and commercial kochujang. In addition to these, small amounts of itaconic, malic, malonic, and pyroglutamic acids were found in commercial kochujang.

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Reduced Leptin and Raised Glycerol Secretions in Mouse 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Garlic-added Kochujang

  • Kong, Chang-Suk;Mun, Ju-Hong;Kim, Su-Ok;Jung, Hye-Kyung;Ahn, In-Sook;Rhee, Sook-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.110-114
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    • 2006
  • In order to develop the improved kochujang witb an anti-adipogenic effect, garlic-added kochujang was prepared and followed by fermentation at $30^{\circ}C$ for 120 days. Anti-adipogenic effects of the garlic-added kochujang in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated by measuring leptin and glycerol levels as indicators of lipid accumulation associated with lipolysis, respectively. Additional levels of garlic powder in the preparation of kochujang was determined from the result of a sensory evaluation test. Garlic-added kochujang showed the highest points when the added content was 3%. Fermentation of kochujang led to the decreased leptin secretion and increased glycerol release in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The addition of garlic to the kochujang also resulted in reduced leptin secretion and induced lipolysis. Since these results suggested that addition of garlic into kochujang can improve the anti-adipogenic effects of kochujang, it might be possible to develop garlic-added kochujang as an antiobesity-functional kochujang.

Changes in Physiochemical Properties of Kochujang by Red Ginseng Addition (홍삼 첨가에 따른 고추장의 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • 신현주;신동화;곽이성;주종재;김선영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.760-765
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    • 1999
  • Changes in physiochemical properties of Sunchang sikhe kochujang, the most famous traditional kochujang, by red ginseng addition(1, 2 and 5% red ginseng on the total weight basis) were investigated. Measurements of physiochemical parameters such as reducing sugar content, alcohol content, amino type nitrogen content and color difference value were conducted during fermentation at 25oC for 120 days. Alcohol content was increased from the begining of fermentation, reaching at the highest level after 90 days of fermentation and then slowly reduced. Alcohol content of red ginseng kochujang was generally higher than that of control kochujang after 90 days of fermentation. Crude protein content of control kochujang and red ginseng kochujang were reduced during fermentation whereas amino type nitrogen content were gradually increased during fermentation. Amino type nitrogen content of red ginseng kochujang appeared to be slightly lower than that of the control kochujang. The reduction in amino type nitrogen content of red ginseng kochujang was negatively related to the level of red ginseng addition. Among color difference values, L and b value of both control kochujang and red ginseng kochujang were reduced by 30 days from the begining of fermentation and then started to be increased.

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Characteristics of Kochujang Prepared by Monascus anka koji (홍국 코오지를 이용한 고추장의 특성)

  • 서형주;정수현;홍재훈;이효구;조원대
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to improve the palatability of kochujang. The activities of liquefying amylase and saccharogenic amylase in Monacus anka koji were lower than those in Asp. oryzae koji. The acid protease activity(1.4 units/g) in M. anka koji was also lower than that(1.6 units/g) in Asp. oryzae koji. Glucosamine amount in Asp. oryzae koji was 1075 g, and that in M. anka koji was 318 g. Four kinds of Kochujang were prepared with Asp. oryzae koji(A), M. anka koji(M), mixed koji of Asp. oryzae and M. anka(A+M), and mixture of M. anka koji and malt(M+M). The pH of four kinds of kochujang was 5.1 in the beginning and was between 4.70~4.83 after 120 days of fermentation. Reducing sugar of kochujang was between 16.3~20.7% after fermentation and kochujang prepared with M+M showed the highest reducing sugar content. Amino nitrogen of kochujang was between 182 mg%~230 mg% after fermentation and the highest amino nitrogen content was observed at kochujang prepared with A+M. Kochujang prepared with M and M+M showed higher a value than kochujang prepared with A and A+M.

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Volatile Flavor Components of Traditional and Commercial Kochujang (재래식과 공장산 고추장의 향기성분)

  • Kim, Young-Soo;Oh, Hoon-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.494-501
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    • 1993
  • The volatile flavor components of traditional and commercial kochujang were collected by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction (SDE) method. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Tested kochujang included Sunchang kochujang prepared with glutinous rice, Boeun kochujang prepared with barley, Sachun kochujang prepared with wheat and commercial kochujang. One hundred and twelve volatile flavor components which included 30 esters, 15 alcohols, 14 aldehydes, 13 acids, 9 ketones, 7 alkenes, 6 phenols, 3 alkanes, 3 pyrazines, 2 benzenes and 2 furans were identified. The major volatile compounds in traditional and commercial kochujang were 2-methyl propanal and ethanol, which represented $21{\sim}36%\;and\;2{\sim}44%$ of total GC peak area, respectively.

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Effect of Strawberry Puree on the Physicochemical Properties of Kochujang

  • Kim, Hui-Jeong;Seog, Eun-Ju;Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.185-189
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    • 2007
  • Quality characteristics of kochujang prepared with strawberry puree (10, 20, and 30% on the total weight basis) were investigated after 30 and 300 days of storage. The moisture content of strawberry kochujang at 300 days was considerably higher than that of strawberry kochujang at 30 days and increasing strawberry content from 0 to 30% significantly increased moisture content of kochujang progressively (p<0.05). Water activity and titratable acidity also showed similar trends, but pH showed the reverse trend with the highest value in control at 30 days and the lowest value in 30% strawberry kochujang at 300 days. As the strawberry puree content increased, amino-nitrogen content consistently and correspondingly decreased. Amino-nitrogen content at 300 days was higher than that of strawberry kochujang at 30 days. Soluble solids content also showed a similar trend, but soluble solid content at 300 days was considerably lower than that of strawberry kochujang at 30 days. Reduction in soluble solids content with increasing strawberry concentration was more evident at 30 days than at 300 day.

Color, Textural Characteristics and Sensory Quality of Strawberry Puree-Substituted Kochujang during Fermentation

  • Seog, Eun-Ju;Kim, Hui-Jeong;Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 2008
  • Quality characteristics of kochujang prepared with strawberry puree (10, 20, and 30% on a total weight basis) were investigated at 30 and 300 days of fermentation. The highest $L^*$-value was found in 30% strawberry kochujang at 300 days of fermentation. In contrast, the highest degree of redness ($a^*$) was observed in 30% strawberry kochujang at the early stage of fermentation. During the fermentation, values of $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ increased except $a^*$-value of 30% strawberry kochujang, indicating proper substitution of strawberry puree could preserve the desired color of kochujang. After 300 days of fermentation, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness increased while adhesiveness decreased significantly (p<0.05). Taste score and Pearson coefficient between sensory and strawberry concentration revealed that 10% strawberry kochujang was more acceptable than the others, due to color and the formation of flavor compounds during the fermentation and these compounds enhanced the flavor of kochujang.

Changes in Microflora and Enzyme activities of Traditional Kochujang during Fermentation (재래식 고추장 숙성 중 미생물과 효소력의 변화)

  • Kim, Young-Soo;Kwon, Dong-Jin;Koo, Min-Seon;Oh, Hoon-Il;Kang, Tong-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.502-509
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    • 1993
  • Changes in microflora and enzyme activities of 3 kinds of traditional kochujang were investigated during 6 months of fermentation. Tested kochujang included Sunchang kochujang prepared with glutinous rice, Boeun kochujang prepared with barley and Sachun kochujang prepared with wheat. The pH in Sunchang and Sachun kochujang showed a slighlt decrese during fermentation. In contrast, pH of Boeun kochujang decreased rapidly up to 90 days of fermentation and then leveled off thereafter. The final pH values of Sunchang, Boeun and Sachun kochujang were 4.7, 4.0, and 4.6, respectively. The viable cell counts of aerobic bacteria in Sunchang and Sachun kochujang did not show remarkable changes during fermentation, however, those in Boeun kochujang showed a rapid increase up to 60 days of fermentation and stabilized. On the other hand, the viable cell counts of anaerobic bacteria decreased after 120 days of fermentation. Yeasts were found in different traditional kochujang at different time during the first 60 days of fermentation. It was found that ${\alpha}-$, ${\beta}-$, and glucoamylase activities of Sachun kochujang were higher than those of Sunchang and Boeun kochujang during fermentation. Acidic and neutral proteases showed the highest activity during $30{\sim}60\;days$ and $60{\sim}90\;days$ of fermentation, respectively. Sunchang kochujang showed the highest activity of acidic protease followed in decreasing order by Sachun and Boeun kochujang. On the other hand, Boeun kochujang showed the highest activity of acidic protease followed in decreasing order by Sachun and Sunchang kochujang.

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Fermentation Characteristics of Low Salted Kochujang Prepared with Sub-materials (부원료를 첨가한 저식염 고추장의 발효특성 변화)

  • Kim, Dong-Han;Yang, Sung-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2004
  • Effects of sub-materials such as, ethanol, mustard, and chitosan, on enzymatic, microbial and physicochemical characteristics of kochujang were investigated during fermentation. Activity of ${\alpha}$-amylase was low in chitosan-added kochujang, whereas those of ${\beta}$-amylase and pretense did not show any remarkable difference. Viable cells of yeast and bacteria decreased in sub-material-added kochujang during fermentation, with yeast counts decreasing more rapidly in ethanol- and mustard-added kochujang than that with chitosan. Consistency of kochujang decreased during fermentation, with the highest consistency observed in ethanol-added kochujang. Oxidation-reduction potential was low in chitosan-added kochujang. Water activity of all kochujang groups decreased during fermentation with the lowest in ethanol-added kochujang. Hunter L-, a-, and b-values of chitosan-added kochujang were higher than other groups, whereas increase in total color difference of low-salt without sub-material group was lowest pH of kochujang was the highest in ethanol-added kochujang, whereas titratable acidity increased remarkably in chitosan-added group. Total sugar and reducing sugar contents of kochujang were high in ethanol-and mustard-added groups, whereas ethanol production decreased remarkably in mustard-added kochujang. Amino nitrogen content was highest in low-salt without sub-material kochujang during late aging period. Ammonia nitrogen content was lower in mustard-added kochujang. After 12 weeks of fermentation, ethanol-added kochujang was more acceptable than mustard-and chitosan-added groups in taste, color, and overall acceptabilities.