• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean mistletoe

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The importance of clinical mistletoe cancer therapy and korean mistletoe pharmacopuncture preparation development and application possibility for oriental medicine (겨우살이 암치료제의 임상의학적 중요성과 한의학적 겨우살이 약침제제 개발 및 적용 가능성에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Ok-Byung
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : Mistletoe extracts have been in use for around 85 years, predominantly in the area of cancer therapy. Today mistletoe preparations are among the most prescribed drugs in cancer medicine, thus constituting a standard biological therapy in the area of oncology. The purpose of this study is to analyze the practical implications of mistletoe cancer therapy, their clinical status, their preparation techniques and companies. Contents : Mistletoe therapy for cancer has been developed within the context of anthroposophical medicine. One major effect of mistletoe extract is that it stimulates the immune system and cancer defences. In Germany, a total of eight different mistletoe preparations are available, five developed by Anthroposophic Medicine and three evolved from research in phytotherapy. Therapy always consists of an introductory phase in order to test the patient's tolerance, find the right dosage and choose the most suitable preparation. This paper covers the background of mistletoe medical plant materials, mistletoe therapy for cancer, the anthroposophical medicine and clinical research, the practical regulation of treatment, preparation of mistletoe drugs. Result & suggestion : Mistletoe extracts are a complementary teratment of cancer, widely used in intergrative cancer care. The study of the integration of korean mistletoe extracts to oriental cancer medicine, its development and feasibility in Korea are urgently needed. The products, substances, compositions of european mistletoe drugs are very similar to those of oriental medicine theory. Applying the mistletoe cancer therapy and its preparation techniques to oriental medicine, the herbal acupuncture preparation should be modernized and korean mistletoe products are to be developed. To this end, government and herbal acupuncture society need to interact each other for the development of oriental mistletoe cancer medicine.

Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album Coloratum) Extract Induces Eel (Anguilla japonica) Non-specific Immunity

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Park, Kwan-Ha;Choi, Sang-Hoon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2008
  • Background: The immunomodulatory effects of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album Coloratum) on the innate immune responses of eel (Anguilla japonica) were studied. Methods: Mistletoe, Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control was injected into eel peritoneal cavities. Results: Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells in the head kidney of eel were significantly augmented by the second day post-injection of mistletoe. Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) were more produced in mistletoe-injected fish kidney leucocytes than in FCA-injected ones. The level of lysozyme activity in the serum of fish 2 days after injection with mistletoe was also significantly higher than that in the serum of the control fish. The optimal concentration of mistletoe in inducing the highest serum lysozyme activity was revealed to 500${\mu}$g/200 g of fish. In phagocytic activity assay, mistletoe-sensitized eel kidney phagocytes captured more zymosan than did the control fish. Conclusion: Korean mistletoe appeared to be a good activator of the non-specific immune responses of eel.

Korean Mistletoe, Viscum album coloratum Induces Non-Specific Immune Responses in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

  • Choi, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Bae;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Yoon, Taek-Joon
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2004
  • Effects of Korean mistletoe, Viscum album coloratum on the non-specific immune responses of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus were examined. Flounder were inoculated with mistletoe, Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control into their peritoneal cavities. Reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) products were more enhanced in mistletoe-injected fish kidney phagocytes than in FCA-injected ones. The level of lysozyme activity detected in the serum of fish 4 d after injection with mistletoe was also significantly higher than that found in the serum of the control fish. The appropriate concentration of mistletoe in eliciting the highest level of serum lysozyme activity was 500 $\mu$m/300 g of fish. In phagocytic activity assays, mistletoe-sen-sitized flounder kidney phagocytes captured more yeasts than those of the control fish. Korean mistletoe appeared to be a good activator of the non-specific immune responses of Japanese flounder.

Preparation of Alginate/Chitosan Microcapsules and Enteric Coated Granules of Mistletoe Lectin

  • Lyu, Su-Yun;Kwon, Young-Ju;Joo, Hye-Jin;Park, Won-Bong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2004
  • The aqueous extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album, L.) has been used in cancer therapy. The purified mistletoe lectins, main components of mistletoe, have demonstrated cytotoxic and immune-system-stimulating activities. Korean mistletoe (Viscum album L. coloratum), a subspecies of European mistletoe, has also been reported to possess anticancer and immunological activities. A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. coloratum agglutinin, VCA) with Mr 60 kDa was isolated from Korean mistletoe. Mistletoe preparations have been given subcutaneously due to the low stability of lectin in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of alginate/chitosan microcapsules as a tool for oral delivery of mistletoe lectin. In addition, our strategy has been to develop a system composed of stabilizing cores (granules), which contain mistletoe lectin, extract or powder, coated by a biodegradable polymer wall. Our results indicated that successful incorporation of VCA into alginate/chitosan microcapsules has been achieved and that the alginate/chitosan microcapsule protected the VCA from degradation at acidic pH values. And coating the VCA with polyacrylic polymers, Eudragit, produced outstanding results with ideal release profiles and only minimal losses of cytotoxicity after manufacturing step. The granules prepared with extract or whole plant produced the best results due to the stability in the extract or whole plant during manufacturing process.

Effect of Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album Coloratum) on the Non-Specific Immune Responses in Japanese Eel (Anguilla japonica)

  • Cho, Young-Hye;Choi, Dae-Han;Choi, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2005
  • In the present paper, the immunostimulatory effects of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album Coloratum) on the non-specific immune responses of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) were examined. Eel were innoculated with mistletoe, Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control into their peritoneal cavities. The number of nitrobule tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells in the head kidney of fish was significantly increased by the second day post-injection of mistletoe. ROI products were more enhanced in mistletoe-injected fish kidney leucocytes than in FCA-injected ones. The level of lysozyme activity detected in the serum of fish 2 days after injection with mistletoe was also significantly higher than that found in the serum of the control fish. The appropriate concentration of mistletoe to induce the highest level of serum lysozyme activity was revealed to 1000${\mu}g$/200 g of fish. In phagocytic activity assay, mistletoe-sensitized eel kidney phagocytes captured more zymosan than did the control fish. Korean mistletoe appeared to be a good activator of the non-specific immune responses of Japanese eel.

Microencapsulation of Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) Extract and Its Application into Milk

  • Kim, N.C.;Kim, J.B.;Kwak, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to develop microencapsulated Korean mistletoe extract, to determine the stability in vitro and to examine its application in milk. Coating materials used were polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS) and medium-chain triacylglyderol (MCT). The highest efficiency of microencapsulation was 78.3% with 15:1:40 (w/w/v) as PGMS : mistletoe extract : distilled water and 66.1% with 15:1 (w/w) as MCT : mistletoe extract. The size of microcapsule was about 30.0 and $19.5{\mu}m$ with PGMS and MCT, respectively. When microcapsules of mistletoe extract were incubated in simulated gastric fluid at pH 2 for 60 min, 14.8 and 17.2% of lectin was released from capsules which were coated with PGMS and MCT, respectively. Comparatively, 83.2 and 87.3% of lectin was released in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8) after 60 min incubation of capsules coated with PGMS and MCT, respectively. The subsequent study determined the changes of physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk with fortification of the mistletoe extract microcapsules during 12 day storage. TBA value was significantly lower in microcapsule-added groups than in the uncapsulated mistletoe extract-added group during the storage. When 100 ppm microencapsulated mistletoe extract was added, the L-, a- and b- values and viscosity were not significantly different from those of the control. In addition, the release of lectin from mistletoe extract over 12 days was 8.3 and 9.5 mg/100 ml in milk containing microcapsules made by PGMS and MCT, respectively. All sensory attributes showed a significant difference in uncapsulated mistletoe extract-added milk compared with other groups. The present study indicated that microcapsules of Korean mistletoe extract could be applied to milk and microcapsules coated with PGMS were effectively released in a simulated intestinal environment.

Preparation of Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules and Enteric Coated Granules of Mistletoe Lectin for Oral Administration

  • Lyu, Su-Yun;Moon, You-Sun;Kwon, Young-Ju;Park, Won-Bong
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.204.2-204
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    • 2003
  • The aqueous extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album, L.) has been used in cancer therapy. The purified mistletoe lectins, main components of mistletoe, have demonstrated cytotoxic and immune-system-stimulating activities. Korean mistletoe (Viscum album L. coloratum), a subspecies of European mistletoe, has also been reported to possess anticancer and immunological activities. A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine- specific lectin (Viscum album L. coloratum agglutinin, VCA) with Mr 60 kDa was isolated from Korean mistletoe. (omitted)

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Effect of Korean Mistletoe Lectin on Gene Expression Profile in Human T Lymphocytes: A Microarray Study

  • Lyu, Su-Yun;Park, Won-Bong
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.411-419
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    • 2010
  • Korean mistletoe has a variety of biological effects, such as immunoadjuvant activities. This study investigates the effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA) on human T lymphocytes to determine whether VCA acts as an immunomodulator. Purified human T-lymphocytes were cultured with VCA and RNA from each point was analyzed using Affymetrix human genome chips containing 22,500 probe sets which represents more than 18,000 transcripts derived from 14,500 human genes. As a result, there was a striking upregulation of genes coding for chemokines. Seventeen genes out of 50 coding for proteins with chemokine activity were upregulated including CXCL9 and IL-8 which are related to the treatment of cancer. In addition, 28 cytokine genes were upregulated including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-$\gamma$, and TNF-$\alpha$. Taken together, the data suggest that Korean mistletoe lectin, in parallel with European mistletoe, has an ability to modulate human T cell function.

The Impact of Environmental and Host Specificity in Seed Germination and Survival of Korean Mistletoe [Viscum album var. coloratum (Kom.) Ohwi]

  • Lee, Bo Duck;Lee, Young Woo;Kim, Seong Min;Cheng, Hyo Cheng;Shim, Ie Sung
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.710-717
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    • 2015
  • Humankind has been searching for medicinal materials from various plant sources in an attempt to treat disease. Mistletoe is one indubitable plant source for these materials due to its effectiveness in treating various diseases, but it has almost disappeared from the mountainous areas of Korea due to excessive harvesting. In this study, in order to select host tree species for Korean mistletoe [Viscum album var. coloratum (Kom.) Ohwi] by seed inoculation and to clarify the effect of host specificity among various tree species were conducted for the purpose of gaining basic information for the artificial cultivation of Korean mistletoe. Almost all the seeds of Korean mistletoe germinated in vitro at the temperature of 15℃. Among host trees used in this study, Prunus mume showed the highest parasitic affinity with inoculated Korean mistletoe, compared with any other host plants. However, treatment of hormones could not increase the low survival rate of Korean mistletoe on the host trees.

MISTLETOE (Viscum album var. coloratum) Growing on Carpinus laxiflora BL. Induces the Differentiation of Human Acute Promyeocytic Leukemia (HL-60) Cells

  • Kim, Sang-Cheol;Park, Soo-Young;Hyoun, Jae-Hee;Cho, Hee-Yeong;Lee, Young-Jae;Kang, Ji-Hoon;Lee, Young-Ki;Park, Doek-Bae;Yoo, Eun-Sook;Kang, Hee-Kyoung
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.307-313
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    • 2004
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) growing on Carpinus laxiflora BL. on proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Aqueous extract and its $(NH_2)_2SO_4$ saturated fractions of the mistletoe exhibited potent anti-proliferation activity against HL-60 cells. Moreover, when HL-60 cells were treated with 0~30% and 30~70% $(NH_2)_2SO_4$ saturated fractions of the mistletoe, HL-60 expressed CD 66b or CD 14 cell surface antigens and showed activity to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium, indicating that mistletoe induces the differentiation of HL-60 into granulocytes or monocytes. To understand how mistletoe induces the differentiation, we investigated the expression of molecules for modulating the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, such as c-Myc and myeloblastin. The 0~30% $(NH_2)_2SO_4$ saturated fraction of the mistletoe reduced the mRNA levels of c-Myc and myeloblastin in a time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the mistletoe induces the differentiation of HL-60 cells via the decrease of c-Myc and myeloblastin expressions. Thus, it is suggested that mistletoe has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.