• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean native cattle

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Project to increase productivity of livestock in Honam area against UR (호남지역의 양축농가에 있어서 UR에 대처한 가축의 생산성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Joo-mook;Kwon, Oh-deog;Chae, Joon-seok;Kim, Myeong-chul;Kim, Heung-seob;Lee, Sung-jae;Lee, Hoo-sik;Roh, Soo-il;Kim, Kil-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.195-212
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    • 1994
  • For the purpose to increase productivities of livestock the present investigations were undertaken in order to clarify the clinical and suclinical status of Korean native cattle, dairy cattle(holstein) and Korean native goat. Blood, feces and urine samples were collected from 247 Korean native cattle(222 adult and 25 calf), 224 dairy cattle(211 adult and 13 calf) and 142 Korean native goat rearing at Chonbuk area and analyzed for clinical, serum chemical, hematological and urinary findings. In addition, we were examined the infection rate of theileriosis, internal parasite and ring worm. The mean value for each component was calculated by statistical analysis using Excel computer program. From these investigations the following results were obtained. The mean values for RBC, PCV and etc in 433 adult cow(Korean native cattle and dairy cattle) were similar with other reports. But the mean values for MCHC of all species were lower than normal. Adult Korean native cattle and adult dairy cattle which showed hematologically normal levels were only 9.01% and 9.48%, respectively. Abnormally high values for PCV, RBC and Hb were recorded in 7.66% of adult Korean native cattle, 20% of korean native calf, 15.38% of dairy calf and 13.36% of Korean native goat. Adult Korean native cattle and adult dairy cattle which showed hematologically anemia were 4.95% and 19.43% respectively, but Korean native calf and dairy calf showed normal. Adult Korean native cattle, adult dairy cattle, Korean native calf and dairy calf which showed normal serum protein level 84.0%, 90.8%, 50% and 44.4%, respectively. In present investigations, 50% of Korean native calf and 55.6% of dairy calf were decreased serum protein values under range. These abnormally decreased serum protein values mean the shortage of antibody, and these have a possibility to occurs to pneumonia and diarrhea. From these results, the economical loss caused by pneumonia was calculated as 124,038,833 won in the KNC and 742,703,430 won in the dairy calf rearing in Chonbuk area. Calculated economical loss caused by enteritis was 56,658,690 won in Korean native cattle, 476,775,799 won in dairy calf, and the total loss amount of 533,434,488 won in Chonbuk area. Abnormally high values$(21.7{\pm}4.0mg/dl)$ for serum calcium were recorded 49.6% in dairy cattle. The mean values for serum total cholesterol were $170.8{\pm}99.8mg/dl$ in Korean native cattle, $196.0{\pm}40.6mg/dl$ in Korean native calf, $202.9{\pm}86.0mg/dl$ in adult dairy cattle and $289.4{\pm}97.5mg/dl$ in dairy calf. The infection rate of internal parsite were as follows; adult Korean native cattle: 21.2%, Korean native calf: 8.0%, adult dairy cattle: 67.8% and Korean native goat: 81.5%. The estimated economical loss caused by internal parasites infection were 1,120,855,837 won in Korean native calf, 4,994,959,405 won in adult Korean native cattle, 3,334,751,066 won in adult holstein, and the total loss amount to 9,450,566,308 won. The infection rate of theileriosis were 1.4% in Korean native cattle and 6.6% in dairy cattle. The presumed economical loss by T. sergenti infection were 154,408,482 won in Korean native cattle and 171,577,237 won in dairy cattle rearing at Chonbuk area. The infection rate of ringworm were 0.5% in Korean native cattle, 0.9% adult dairy cattle and 7.7% in dairy calf. The presumed economical loss by dermatomycophyte were 12,061,532 won in Korean native cattle, 16,895,403 won in dairy cattle, and the total estimated loss amount to 28,955,935 won a year in Chonbuk area.

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Productivity Affected by Various Disease Conditions in Bovine (소의 질병감염이 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성재;이후식;노수일;김길수;이주묵
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.227-246
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    • 1994
  • Present investigations were undertaken in order to clarify the clinical status of Korean native cattle and dairy cattle(holstein). Blood, Feces and urine samples were collected from 247 Korean native cattle(222 adult and 25 calf), 224 dairy cattle(211 adult and 13 calf) at Chonbuk area and analyzed for clinical, serum chemical, hematological and urinary findings. In addition, we were examined the infection rate of Theileriosis, internal patasite and ring worm. The mean value for each component was calculated by statistical analysis using Excel computer program. From these investigations the following results were obtained. The mean values for RBC, PCV and etc in 433 adult cow(Korean native cattle and dairy cattle) were similar with other reports. But the mean values for MCHC of all species were lower than normal. Adult Korean native cattle and adult dairy cattle which showed hematologically normal levels were only 9.01% and 9.48%, respectively. Ahnormally high values for PCV, RBC and Hb were recorded in 7.66% of adult Korean native cattle, 20% of Korean native calf, 15.38% of dairy calf. Adult Korean native cattle and adult dairy cattle which showed hematologically anemia were 4.95% and 19.43% respectively, but all in Korean native calf and dairy calf showed normal values. Adult Korean native cattle, adult dairy cattle, Korean native calf and dairy calf which showed normal serum protein level were 84.0%, 90.8%, 50% and 44.4%, respectively. In present investigations, 50% of Korean native calf and 55.6% of dairy calf were decreased serum protein values under normal range. These abnormally decreased serum protein values mean the shortage of antibody, and these have a possibility to occrus to pneumonia and diarrhea. From these results, the economical loss caused by pneumonia was calculated as 124, 038, 833 won in the KNC and 742, 703, 430 won in the dairy calf rearing in Chonbuk area. Calculated economical loss caused by enteritis was 56, 658, 690 won in Korean native cattle. 476, 775, 799 won in dairy calf and the total loss amount to 533, 434, 488 won in Chonbuk area. Abnormally high values($21.7{\pm}4.0mg/dl) for serum calcium were recorded 49.6% in dairy cattle. The mean values of serum total cholesterol were $170.8{\pm}99.8mg/dl in Korean native cattle, $196.0{\pm}40.6mg/dl$ in Korean native calf, $202.9{\pm}86.0mg/dl$ in adult dairy cattle and $289.4{\pm}97.5mg/dl$ in dairy calf. The infection rate of internal parasite were as follows; adult Korean native cattle:21.2%, Korean native calf:80%, adult dairy cattle:67.8%. The estimated economical loss caused by internal parasites infection were 1, 120, 855, 837 won in Korean native calf, 4, 994, 959, 405 won in adult Korean native cattle, 3, 334, 751, 066 won in adult holstein, and the total loss amount to 9, 450, 566, 308 won. The infection rate of theileriosis were 1.4% in Korean native cattle and 6.6% in dairy cattle. The presumed Economical loss by T. sergenti infection were 154, 408, 482 won in Korean native cattle and 171, 577, 237 won in dairy cattle rearing at Chonbuk area. The infection rat of ringworm were 0.5% in Korean native cattle, 0.9% in adult dairy cattle and 7.7% in dairy calf. The presumed economical loss by dermatomycophyte were 12, 061, 532 won in Korean native cattle, 16, 895, 403 won in dairy cattle, and the total estimated loss amount to 28, 955, 935 won a year in Chonbuk area. The infection rate of ringworm were 0. 5% in Korean native cattle, 0.9% in adult dairy cattle and 7.7% in dairy calf. The presumed economical loss by dermatomycophyte were 12, 061, 532 won in Korean native cattle, 16, 895, 403 won in dairy cattle, and the total estimated loss amount to 28, 955, 935 won a year in Chonbuk area.

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Studies on the Total Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) Activities and CPK Isoenzymes Fractions of the Sera and Organ Tissues in Ruminant (반추수의 혈청과 장기조직의 Creatine Phosphokinase(CPK) 총활성 및 CPK Isoenzyme 분획에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon Sang-Bo;Kim Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.433-449
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    • 1992
  • Total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions of the sera and tissues were examined to obtain the physiological basic data of ruminant available in veterinary clinical practice. For the sera total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions, total 39 clinically healthy Korean native goats (3 to 10 months old, IS of female and 18 of male) and 6 of Korean native goats (1 to 2 years old, 3 of female and 3 of male) were used. Seventeen Korean native cattle (3 to 6 years old, 10 of female and 7 of male) and 27 Holstein-Friesian cattle (2 to 8 months old, 7 of female and 3 to 12 years old, 20 of female) were also examined for the sera total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions. For the total CPK activities and CPK isoenzyme fractions, 3 of female Korean native goats (7 months old), 3 of female Korean native cattle (2 years old) and 3 of dairy cattle (2 years old, 2 of female and 1 of male) were used. The tissues examined were the cerebrum (2 of Korean native cattle), spinal cord (1 of Korean native cattle), heart, lung, diaphragm, reticulum, liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum. colon and femoral muscle. The results obtained were as follows : 1. In Korean native goats less than 1-year-old. serum total CPK activities were 67.8${\pm}$17.7(39.0~96.5) IU/$\ell$ in female and 63.4${\pm}$19.0(28.7~94.4) IU/$\ell$ in male. Further they were 67.0${\pm}$5.3(59.5~70.7) IU/$\ell$ and 54.5${\pm}$11.1(39.1~69.4) IU/$\ell$ in female and male Korean native goats over 1-year-old, respectively. Serum total CPK activities of female were slightly higher than those of male. Significance between age and sex was not found. 2. Serum total CPK activities were 56.8${\pm}$19.7(27.6~90.5) IU/$\ell$ and 65.6${\pm}$10.8(52.8~78.0) IU/$\ell$ in female and male Korean native adult cattle, respectively, Serum total CPK activities of male were slightly higher than those of female, but they were not significant 3. Serum total CPK activities we,e 72.5${\pm}$8.2(57.2~83.2) IU/$\ell$ and 60.8${\pm}$12.5(42.7~80.6) IU/$\ell$ in calves and adult of dairy acttle, respectively. Serum total CPK activities of calves were significantly higher than those of adult(p<0.05). 4. In Korean native goats less than 1-year-old, serum CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and MM>BB>MB in female and male, respectively. Further they were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and MM>B8>MB in female and male Korean native goats over 1-year-old, respectively. The main fractions of CPK isoenzymes were MM in sera of Korean native goats. 5. Serum CPK Isoenzyme fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB In both female and male of Korean native cattle. The main fraction among them was MM. 6. Serum CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>BB>MB in both calves and adult of dairy cattle. The main fraction among them was MM. 7. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order of the femoral muscle>kidney>reticulum>diaphragm>liver>spleen>heart>colon>lung>jejunum in Korean native goats. 8. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order of the spinal cord >cerebrum>femoral muscle>reticulum>kidney>liver>spleen>diaphragm>lung>colon>heart>jejunum in Korean native cattle. 9. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order. of the femoral muscle >liver>retoculum>kidney>heart>colon>lung>spleen>jejunum>diaphrasm in dairy cattle. 10. The pattern of the cardiac CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high in the order of MM>MB without BB fractions and the main fraction was MM. 11. The pattern of the pulmonary CPK isoenzymes fractions was the same Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and the main fraction among them was MM. 12. The pattern of CPK isoenzymes fractions of the diaphragm was Identical in Korean native goats and Korean native cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM >BB >MB except dairy cattle (MM>MB>BB) but the main fraction among them was MM. 13. The pattern of the reticular CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of BB >MM >MB except Korean native goats(BB>MB>MM) but the main, fraction among them was BB 14. The pattern of the hepatic CPK isoenzymrs fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MB >BB >MM except Korean native goats(MB>MM>BB)but the main fraction was MB. 15. The splenic CPK isoenzymes fractions showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order of MB>BB>MM, MM>BB>MB and BB>MB>MM in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fraction among them was different from each other. 16. The pattern of the renal CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM >MB>BB except Korean native goats(BB>MB>MM). 17. The CPK isoenzymes fractions of the Jejunums showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order MM>MB>BB, MM>BB>MB and BB>MM>MB in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fractions were MM In Korean native goats and Korean native cattle, and BB in dairy cattle. 18. The colonic CPK isoenzymes fractions showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB, MM>BB>MB and BB>rrfB>MM in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fractions were MM in Korean native goats and Korean . native cattle, and BB in dairy cattle. 19. The cerebral CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of BB >MM without MB detected in Korean native cattle and those of spinal cord were high with decreasing order of BB >MM >MB. The main fractions in both cerebrum and spinal cord were BB.

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Osmotic fragility of erythrocyte in cattle, sheep and goats (Holstein 유우, 한우, 면양 및 한국재래산양 적혈구의 삼투적 취약성)

  • Min, Byeong-man;Lee, Bang-whan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1990
  • The study was attempted to scrutinize the normal osmotic fragility of erythrocyte in the domestic ruminants, making a comparison with that of human and canine. The animals used in the experiment were apparently healthy adult Holstein cattle, Korean native cattle, sheep (Corriedale) and Korean native goats. Osmotic fragility of erythrocytes was the highest in the Korean native goats, and the next were sheep and Korean native cattle, and Holstein cattle in order. In other words, erythrocytic resistance to osmotic lysis was the strongest in Holstein cattle and the most weak in Korean native goats among the domestic ruminants. In general, resistance of erythrocytes was stronger in human and canine than in the domestic ruminants.

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MILK PROTEIN POLYMORPHISMS AS GENETIC MARKER IN KOREAN NATIVE CATTLE

  • Chung, E.R.;Han, S.K.;Rhim, T.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 1995
  • Genetic variants of ${\alpha}s_1$-casein, ${\beta}$-casein, ${\kappa}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin were investigated by starch urea gel electrophoresis in milk samples of 280 Korean native cattle. A new ${\beta}$-casein variant, designated ${\beta}$-casein $A^4$, was found in milk samples of Korean native cattle. It has a much slower electrophoretic mobility than the ${\beta}$-casein $A^3$ variant in acid gel. This new variant appeared together with either ${\beta}$-casein $A^1$, $A^2$ or B variant. Gene frequencies and genotypic frequencies were estimated. Gene frequencies of four milk protein loci in Korean native cattle were compared with those of imported cattle breeds raised in Korea and Japanese brown cattle. Gene frequencies were ${\alpha}s_1$-casein B .846, ${\alpha}s_1$-casein C .154; ${\beta}$-casein $A^1$ .216, ${\beta}$-casein $A^2$ .666, ${\beta}$-casein $A^4$ .048, ${\beta}$-casein B .070; ${\kappa}$-casein A .648, ${\kappa}$-casein B .352; ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin A .148, ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin B .852. The population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all milk protein loci. Gene frequencies of Korean native cattle were very similar to those of Japanese brown cattle. Interestingly, a new variant, ${\beta}$-casein $A^4$, was found only in Korean native cattle and Japanese brown cattle. These results support the hypothesis that Korean native cattle were used in the development of the Japanese brown cattle.

Comparative liver drug metabolizing enzymes activities between Korean native cattle and swine (한우와 돼지에서 간의 약물 대사효소의 활성 비교)

  • Lee, Gwan-bok;Yun, Hyo-in;Park, Seung-chun;Kim, Min-kyu;Lee, Rae-kyung;Cho, Joon-hyung;Lee, Dong-woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.17-28
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    • 1998
  • Drug-metabolizing activities of Korean native cattle and swine were investigated from viewpoints of the cytochrome P-450's level, their dependent mixed function oxidase activities, the reactive oxygen species formation and cytosolic enzyme acitivities from each liver homogenates. Level of cytochrome P-450 in the liver microsome of Korean native cattle was $0.28{\pm}0.05nmole/mg$ and that in pigs $0.35{\pm}0.03nmole/mg$. Level of cytochrome $b_5$ of Korean native cattle was $0.24{\pm}0.06nmole/mg$, and that of pigs $0.2{\pm}0.05nmole/mg$, showing no difference between two species. NADPH P-450 reductase were higher in Korean native cattle ($58.3{\pm}5.3nmole/mg/min$) than in pigs ($29.9{\pm}3.8nmole/mg/min$)(p<0.01). The activities of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases such as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (cattle, $96.5{\pm}12.5nmole/mg/min$ ; pigs, $13.6{\pm}2.1nmole/mg/min$), N-benzphetamine N-demethylase (cattle, $5.23{\pm}0.82nmole/mg/min$ ; pigs, $0.76{\pm}0.3nmole/mg/min$) and aniline hydroxylase (cattle, $0.95{\pm}0.1nmole/mg/min$ ; pigs, $0.33{\pm}0.08nmole/mg/min$) were much higher in Korean native cattle than in swine(p<0.01). However, the activity of testosterone $7{\alpha}$-hydroxylase was higher in swine ($90.4{\pm}1.2nmole/mg/min$) than cattle (cattle, $32.8{\pm}1.2nmole/mg/min$). Interestingly, testosterone $16{\alpha}$-hydroxylase, a marker enzyme for P-450 IIA was not detected in both animal species. These results suggest that Korean native cattle and pigs have high contents of P-450 IA1 and P-450 IIIA. Total sulfhydryl compound (cattle, $10.3{\pm}1.1nmole/mg$ ; Pigs, $14.5{\pm}1.8nmole/mg$) and glutathione related enzymes except glutathione reductase (cattle, $38.1{\pm}7.9nmole/mg/min$; swine, $22{\pm}3.6nmole/mg/min$) showed higher levels in swine than in Korean native cattle. Superoxide dismutase (cattle, $7.64{\pm}0.84nmole/mg/min$ ; pigs, $4.47{\pm}0.94nmole/mg/min$) and catalase (cattle, $30.4{\pm}3.7nmole/mg/min$ ; pigs, $17.2{\pm}1.8nmole/mg/min$) were remarkably higher in Korean native cattle than in swine (p<0.05).

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Specific Marker Gene Analyses for DNA Polymorphism of the Blood Cell in Korea Native Brindled Cattle (칡한우 혈액에서 DNA 다양성 분석을 통한 표지 유전자 탐색)

  • Kim, Sang-Hwan;Hong, Yeon-Sik;Lee, Ho-Joun;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.315-324
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to detect the specific expressing genes by using RAPD-PCR and RFLP method in the Korea Native Brindled Cattle, Korean Native cow and Holstein cattle. And then, the specific marker gene was investigated by the analysis of the genes for detection significance according to the expressing pattern. We found the specific expression gene by the RAPD-PCR analysis in Korea Native Brindled Cattle. It was detected the differences of the species in the colour and external section. The Korea Native Brindled Cattle were vary low compare to the Korean Native cow and Holstein cattle by analysis result of polymorphism and distribution. And there were a found the specific marker gene by sequencing in the R9B gene fragment of Korea Native Brindled Cattle. And the sequencing result of the R9B was different between Korean Native cow and Holstein cattle. Thus, this gene can be apply as the specific marker gene in the Korea Native Brindled Cattle.

Characterization of major histocompatibility complex antigen on Korean native cattles (한우의 주요 조직 적합성 항원 규명)

  • Yoon, Seok-joo;Kwon, Myung-sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.307-315
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    • 1995
  • The characterization of the MHC of domestic animals may constitute a first step towards increasing the efficiency of food production through improved disease resistance. In order to study the role of the MHC in regulating immune response it is first necessary to identify the different MHC alleles. In this research we try to investigate the possible associations between BoLA of Korean native cattles and infectious cattle disease. For this purpose we used one approach, serology. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Korean native cattle's lymphocyte reacted with alloantisera which recognized seven official BoLA allele. Korean native cattle's lymphocytes were reacted same as European breeds(especially with 673/3(W20)). 2. Korean native cattle's lymphocytes reacted with alloantisera 773/2, 673/3, 638/3, 773/3, 602/2, 639/2 and 639/3 at high reaction frequency. But alloantisera 642/1 was not expressed on Korean native cattle. If this allele, recognized by alloantisera(642/1), officially certificate In BoLA workshop it will be characterization factor of Korean native cattle. 3. According to cellular similarity index, we can presume on genetic relativity which has no family relationship.

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Antibacterial Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolyzates of Lactoferrin derived from Korean Native Cattle (한우 Lactoferrin 가수분해물의 항균 활성)

  • 이수원;양희진
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.316-321
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    • 1998
  • In this study, we carried out to isolate lactoferrin from Korean native cattle and Holstein cow by batch extraction, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography. The purity of the isolated lactoferrin was higher than that of lactoferrin purchased from Sigma, when determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis. Antibacterial activity of E. coli O111 by Korean native cattle lactoferrin was lower than that of Holstein lactoferrin. A minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of Korean native cattle lactoferrin and Holstein lactoferrin was 2.75 mg/ ml and 1.5 mg/ml respectively. The lactoferrin hydrolyzate of Korean native cattle exhibited antimicrobial activity at 0.25 mg/ml, whereas that of Holstein cow exhibited antimicrobial activity at 0.12 mg/ml. The antibacterial potency of the hydrolyzate was at least tenfold greater than that of undigeated lactoferrin with strains tested. The effect of hydrolyzate was bactericidal as indicated by rapid loss of viability of E. coli O111.

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Seroepidemiological Studies on Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus of Cattle in Chonnam Province (전남지방의 소 합포체성 폐렴바이러스(Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus) 감염에 관한 혈청학적 연구)

  • 이채용;이강복;이정길;이정치;김상기;조재진
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2000
  • Sera from 425 Korean native and 203 Holstein cattle were collected from October 1994 to September 1995 from dairy farms and slaughterhouses in Chonnam province to study the exposure rate to bovine respiratory syncytial virus(BRSV). Serum antibody titers against BRSV were measured by neutralization test, and results were as follows: Overall prevalence of seropositive cattle to BRSV were 74.5%, and the exposure rate to BRSV was higher among the Holstein (77.3%) than among the Korean native cattle(73.2%). The serum antibody titers against BRSV ranged from 1:2~$\geq$1:256 in both species. Among Korean native cattle, the most frequent serum antibody titer was 1:4 against BRSV(19.3%), while only 1.4% of seropositive cattle had serum titer of $\geq$1: 256. Among Holstein cattle, 22.7% of examined cattle contained serum titer of 1:8, while 1.5% of seropositive cattle showed $\geq$ 1:256. Antibody titers against BRSV were higher among males than females in both Holstein (82.1% vs. 73.1%) and Korean native (74.5% vs. 69.2%) cattle. Prevalence of seropositive cattle by age in both species were evenly distributed, although the highest number (76.9%) of seropositive were at the age of 3 in Korean native cattle, while 83.5% of seropositive Holstein cattle were of 2 years old. The lowest seropositive rate was observed in cattle of less than 1 year old(25.0%). Seasonal occurrunce of BRSV was the highest in spring season in both Holstein (86.6%) and Korean native (81.0%) cattle (P<0.05).

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