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Histological Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 조직학적 특성)

  • 이종원;김천석;채순용;양재원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng = red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). White part with clear or indistinct boundary in center of ginseng body was observed in inferior red ginseng (naeback and saengnaeback red ginseng), and the differences in the internal color intensity was also found with naked eye. In hunter color values of normal and inferior parts of red ginseng in accordance with particle size, L value was increased with a diminishment in particle size, while a and b value were decreased. Absorbance at visible spectrum did not differ from water and 70% ethanol extract from normal and inferior parts of red ginseng, but absorbance in UV spectrum of extract from naeback part showed higher than those of normal and saengnaeback part. In comparison of intrastructure by electron microscope, the horizontal and vertical section of cortex and pith layer from normal part showed the very dense state, but small holes were found in naeback part of red ginseng by naked eye and electron microscope. The specific surface area of normal, naeback and saengnaeback part appeared 3.02, 3.33 and 6.55 ㎡/g, respectively. From above results, we consider saengnaeback red ginseng is red ginseng in the intermediate process which normal red ginseng changes to naeback red ginseng.

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Studies on Ginseng Vinegar (인삼식초에 관한연구)

  • 김승겸
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 1999
  • Ginseng-vinegars were produced by the fermentation of 5% ethanol solution contained ginseng, red ginseng, ginseng marc and red ginseng marc using Acetobacter aceti 3281 for 26 days at 35$^{\circ}C$. The ginseng and red ginseng vinegar contained 0.236mg/ml of total sugar 0.236mg/ml of reducing sugar and 0.05% of ethanol and 1.005 of specific gravity 8,58CFU of viable cell count 3,24 of pH and 5.11% of acidity. Whereas the vinegars produced using the water-extracted red ginseng marc and the ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc were consisted of total sugar was 1.27mg/ml and 1.60mg/ml reducing sugar was 0.077mg/ml and 0.725mg/ml specific gravity was 1.001 and 1.004 the number of viable cells was 8.51CFU/ml and 8.1CFU/ml pH was 2.81 and 2.89 acidity was 5.18% and 5.32% respectvely ethanol concentration was 0.05% in both cases. In five-grade scoring test of sensory evaluation, it was estimated favorable that each vinegar made by were-extracted red ginseng marc, ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc ginseng and red ginseng ginseng from 0.5 to 32% of water-and ethanol-extract red ginseng was extracted with 10% white vinegar for 30 days. The best sensory vinegars were obtained that ginseng of 0.4~1.6% above red glnsend of 0.8% water-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.8~1.6% and ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.4~1.6% added in 10% white vinegar respectively.

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Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

  • Lee, Sang Myung;Bae, Bong-Seok;Park, Hee-Weon;Ahn, Nam-Geun;Cho, Byung-Gu;Cho, Yong-Lae;Kwak, Yi-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.384-391
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    • 2015
  • It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction ($90^{\circ}C$ for 14-16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70-73 Brix at $50-60^{\circ}C$). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0-1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5-7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.

Comparative Study on the Essential Oil Components of Panax Species (인삼속(Pauax species) 식물의 정유성분 조성 비교)

  • Ko, Sung-Ryong;Choi, Kang-Ju;Kim, Young-Hoi
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to determine the differences of essential oil components among Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng, and Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Mayer) , American and Canadian ginseng (P. Quinquefolium), and sanchi ginseng (P notoginseng). The steam distilled oils of these ginsengs were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and 22 sesquiterpenes, 8 sesquiterpene alcohols, 8 monoterpenes, 5 aldehydes, 4 esters, 3 acids, 2 alcohols and 5 miscellaneous components were identified. The major oil components of Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng were $\beta$-panasinsene, $\beta$-caryophyllene, $\alpha$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, selina-4,11-diane, bicyclo-ger-macrene and spathulenol. The contents of $\beta$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, $\alpha$-basabolene and spathulenol were higher in Korean red ginseng than Chinese and Japanese red ginseng. The contents of $\alpha$-cubebene, selina-4,11-diene and ledol were higher in Chinese red ginseng than Korean and Japanese red ginseng, but those of selina-4,11-diene and spathulenol were lower in Japanese red ginseng than Korean or Chinese red ginseng. On the other hand, the GC patterns of the oils from American, Canadian and sanchi ginseng were different from that of Korean white ginseng.

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Recent Trend of Import and Export of p. ginseng in Japan (일본의 최근 인삼수출입 동향)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.200-203
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    • 1994
  • Recent trend of ginseng (p. ginseng) trade in Japan was analyzed. From 1984 white ginseng import increased continuously to 240% while export of red ginseng decreased to 29%. Red ginseng import increased until 1990 and decreased thereafter, resulting in 12% of total import ginseng in 1993 from 47% in 1990. During five years (1989∼1993) white ginseng import from Korea decreased from 44% to 14% of total white ginseng imported while import from China increased. Red ginseng import from China ranged 97 to l00% of total red ginseng and little change was shown during five years. Price of Korean ginseng was higher than that of China by 2.2 times for white and 6.6 times for red. The continuous decrease of Chinese ginseng price might affect import trend. Export price of red ginseng increased continuously and was higher than that of Korean red ginseng (1.95 times) and much higher than import price (20 times in 1993).

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Preparation of Red Ginseng Extract Rich in Acidic Polysaccharide from Red Tail Ginseng Marc Produced After Extraction with 70% Ethyl Alcohol (홍미삼 알콜 추출박을 이용한 산성다당체 다량 함유 홍삼 엑기스 제조)

  • 도재호;이종원
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.60-64
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    • 1996
  • In this study, we investigated the appropriate conditions to extract acidic polysaccharide and to prepare red ginseng extract being rich in acidic polysaccharide from red tail ginseng marc produced after manufacturing alcoholic extract from red tail ginseng. Amount of acidic polysaccharide in red tail ginseng marc was about 11%. The best condition for the extraction of acidic polysaccharide from the marc was using of 3~5 mg of $\alpha$-amylase/g residue/15 ml of distilled water, and the amount of acidic polysaccharide in water extract of the residue treated with $\alpha$-amylase was about 27%. So, it is possible to manufacture red ginseng extract being rich in acidic polysaccharide using water extract of red tail ginseng alcoholic residue as extraction solvent. From the above results, we suggest that red tail ginseng residue produced by manufacturing alcoholic extract of red tail ginseng has high potencies in the utilization of waste material.

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Sensory and Mechanical Characteristics of the Lemon Red Ginseng-pyun prepared by different ratio of red ginseng (레몬홍삼과편의 홍삼 배합비에 따른 관능적.텍스쳐 특성)

  • Kim Eun-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to determine the sensory evaluation and mechanical characteristics of lemon red ginseng-pyun. Lemon red ginseng-pyun was made with lemon juice(21.4%), sweet potato starch(6.7%), water(53.3%), sugar(13.3%), honey(5.3%) and various concentrations of red ginseng powder(0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10%). The quality characteristics of the sample were estimated in terms of pH, color difference, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation. The pH of lemon red ginseng-pyun showed no significant difference among the different ratios of red ginseng. With increasing red ginseng powder addition, the lightness was significantly(p<0.05) lower, and a value and b values were significantly(p<0.05) higher. In sensory evaluation, with increasing red ginseng powder addition, the color and bitter taste of lemon red ginseng-pyun were stronger, while clarity of the 10% added red ginseng was significantly(p<0.05) lower than that of the 0% added red ginseng. Elasticity, hardness, chewiness, softness. sweet taste and overall acceptability were not significantly different in any group. In texture profile analysis, chewiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and hardness were significantly(p<0.05) increased in the 10% added red ginseng but springiness was not significantly different in any group. Overall acceptability was related to texture, appearance, overall taste and sweet taste of lemon red ginseng-pyun. Therefore, development of lemon red ginseng-pyun with no sugar or artificial sweeteners is encouraged as a healthy diet for diabetes and hypertension patients, because red ginseng is defined as a functional foods.

An Isolation of Crude Saponin from Red-Ginseng Efflux by Diaion HP-20 Resin Adsorption Method (홍삼유출액으로부터 Diaion HP-20 수지 흡착법에 의한 조사포닌의 분리)

  • 곽이성;경종수;김시관;위재준
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to isolate saponin compounds from red-ginseng efflux, which was produced during the industrial processing of red-ginseng from fresh ginseng. We isolated crude saponin from the efflux extract (moisture content 35.0%) by using Diaion HP-20 adsorption method. Non-saponin fraction, which was adsorbed on Diaion HP-20 resin, was removed by eluating with $H_{2}O$ and 25% spirit. Then crude saponin was eluated with 95% spirit, continuously. Saponin in the eluated fractions was confirmed by TLC analysis. Crude saponin isolated from red ginseng efflux extract contained 12.10% of saponin. whereas those of white ginseng and red-ginseng were 3.30 and 3.39%, respectively. Ginsenoside contents showed the highest contents kin crude saponin from red ginseng efflux extract. Expacilly, the ginsenoside-$Rb_{1}$ and Re showed the highest contents in red-ginseng efflux extract when compared with those of white ginseng and red ginseng crude saponins. And the other ginsenosides except ginsenoside-$Rb_{1}$ and -Re also showed the highest contents in red ginseng efflux extract. However, the ratio of PD saponin (Panaxadiol saponin: $Rb_{1}+Rb_{2}$+Rc+Rd) to PT saponin (panaxatriol: $Re+Rg_{1}$) showed almost the same level when compared with those of ginseng saponin fractions. Ratio of PD/PT from red ginseng efflux extract was 1.99. Ratios of PD/PT from white ginseng and red ginseng were 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Saponin purity, which was calculated by ratio percent of total ginsenoside to curde saponin content, was 45.90%. In case of white ginseng and red ginseng, the purities were 35.50 and 36.00%, respectively. However, by PHLC analysis, we confirmed that crude saponin isolated from red ginsengs. It suggested that crude saponin isolated from red ginseng ellux also would be useful component as ginseng saponins.

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The Mass Balance of Protopanaxtriol Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Process (홍삼제조과정 중 파낙사트리올계 진세노사이드의 물질균형)

  • Lee, Sang Myung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2015
  • This mass balance study about ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Red ginseng processed from Fresh ginseng is useful to understand that herbal material sources of ginseng and raw material consumption in Red ginseng preparations. In our results, total molar amounts of ginsenoside Rg1, Re and their converts in Fresh ginseng, Red ginseng, and Red ginseng extract are substantially the same. The molar amounts of ginsenoside Rg1, Re (4.324, 2.880 μmol/g) as starting materials in Fresh ginseng are kept constant as total molar amounts (sum of starting and converts) in Red ginseng (4.264, 2.596 μmol/g) and Red ginseng extract (3.389, 3.129 μmol/g). This result means that protopanaxtriol type ginsenosides and their characteristic converts are not destroyed or inflowing in Red ginseng process. Therefore, it is important for quality assurance of Red ginseng preparations that the ratio between ginsenosides Rg1, Re and these converts is kept constant.

Comparative Study of Red Ginseng and White Ginseng (I) -Effect of Red and White Ginseng on the growth of Broiler Chicken- (홍삼(紅蔘)과 백삼(白蔘)의 비교연구(比較硏究)(I) -홍삼과 백삼이 육용추(肉用雛)의 발육에 미치는 영향-)

  • Han, Dae-Suk;Bae, Dae-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 1976
  • To compare the effects of red Ginseng and white Ginseng on the growth of experimental animals, both Ginseng were given to Broiler male chicken. Red and white Ginseng were administered to Broiler chicken in doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4g per kg weight of chicken. The increase in weight were 282g in red Ginseng group and 162g in white Ginseng group compared with control group. The increase of the feeding amounts per kg weight were 2.4kg for red Ginseng group, 2.67kg for white Ginseng group and 2.87kg for non-treated group. The growth of each organ in the red Ginseng group showed favorable increase trend than white Ginseng group as a whole and, particularly, considerable significance were observed in liver and brain. These results suggest that red Ginseng has better effect on the growth of chicken and organ than white Ginseng does.

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