• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean wheat meju

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Quality Characteristic of the Korean Wheat meju according to Milling Degree of Wheat and Fermenting Strains (밀의 도정 및 발효 균주에 따른 우리밀 메주의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Ran;Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Eun-Jung;Seol, Hui-Gyeong;Kim, Eun-Ja;Kim, Il-Hun;Shim, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Young-Gi;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.858-865
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    • 2012
  • In this research, the soaking and steaming conditions of Korean wheat meju according to the degree of milling were investigated, and the quality characteristic was analyzed, for the manufacture of the standardized Korean wheat meju. As a result of the changes in weight, volume, moisture content, and moisture absorption amount, which indicate the physical properties of Korean wheat meju using 20% polished wheat, 50% polished wheat, whole wheat, and whole wheat flour, most of the wheat materials reached the equilibrium state after 4 hours of soaking. Also, the appropriate steaming time to complete the cooking of the wheat materials was found to be 10 min at $100^{\circ}C$, except for whole wheat. The 20 and 50% polished wheat materials were selected for Korean wheat meju based on the soaking and steaming results. The selected wheat materials were fermented using Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis M1, respectively, and the quality properties and enzyme activities showed that A. oryzae would be effective for the manufacture of Korean wheat meju. Also, the 50% polished wheat showed higher total sugar content, reducing sugar content, and ${\alpha}$-amylase activity than the 20% polished wheat. Therefore, it is supposed that the fermentation of 50% polished wheat by A. oryzae would be appropriate for manufacturing superior Korean wheat meju.

Quality Characteristic of Wheat Doenjang according to Mixing Ratio of Meju (메주의 배합비를 달리한 밀된장의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Ran;Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Eun-Ja;Kim, Il-Hun;Shim, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Young-Gi;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2013
  • In this study, wheat doenjang was manufactured using Korean wheat meju and soybean meju, and its quality were investigated according to mixing ratio of meju. The general characteristics such as moisture contents, pH and salinity of wheat doenjang, which is fermented and aged at $25^{\circ}C$ for 70 days, were slightly decreased time dependently as similar pattern. The pH of wheat doenjang ranged from 4.95 to 5.11% and generally decreased with aging. The moisture contents was 54.5~57.5%, and there was no significant differences in the aging period. Also, there was no significant changes in the salt contents. The amino-type nitrogen contents were 376.27~600.91 mg% at day 70 of the aging period, and showed 3 fold change compared to the initial contents. The reducing sugar contents showed significant difference between the samples, and repeated fluctuation in the aging period. Wheat meju sample A, which contains 50% of soybean meju, showed the highest antioxidation ability. In addition, wheat meju sample A showed the highest score in the sensory evaluation of the colour, taste, flavor, and overall acceptability. Therefore, wheat doenjang manufacturing at a 1:1 of mixing ratio will lead to desirable quality of wheat doenjang.

Survey on the Manufacturing Process of Traditional Meju for and of Kanjang(Korean Soy Sauce) (한국 전통간장 및 메주 제조공정에 관한 조사 연구)

  • 이권행;김남대;유진영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.390-396
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    • 1997
  • Meju is a basis for manufacturing Kanjang, Meju was traditionally prepared at home by different types of process depending on the regional area. It is necessary to standardize and simplify the process of Meju-preparation for Kanjang of good quality. For these purposes, the process of Meju and Kangjang making as well as analysis of commercial Kanjang, were compared. Generally, traditional Meju was prepared by steeping and dehulling the whole soybean. After steeping for 24hr. soybean absorbed water up to 110~120% of its weight. The soaked soybeans were steamed for 2hr. and cooled to 5$0^{\circ}C$. Cooked soybeans were crushed down to the size of 10~15 mesh and molded. Molded soybeans were dried for 2 days in the air, hung up by rice straw and fermented for 20~30 days under natural environmental condition. On the other hand, commercial soybean koji was made of defatted soybean. Defatted soybeans were steeped in water and steamed for 15~30min at 0.7~1.2 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$. Steamed and defatted soybean was cooled to 4$0^{\circ}C$. Separately, wheat power was roasted at 200~30$0^{\circ}C$ by wheat roaster. Mixture of steamed defatted soybean and roasted wheat powder (5/5 to 7/3) were inoculated with 0.1~0.2% Aspergillus sojae and incubated for 2 days at 3$0^{\circ}C$ with occasional stirring. Chemical analysis showed that traditional soy sauces contained the following composition: NaCl, 20.12~25.42%; total nitrogen, 0.64~0.91%; pure extract, 9.47~11.20%; color, 2.34~4.01; pH, 4.92~5.12. Commercial products contained: NaCl, 15.20~17.19%; total nitrogen, 1.25~1.40%; pure extract, 18.17~21.47%; color, 5.41~21.12; pH, 4.51~4.66 and ethalnol. 2.97~3.12%. Organoleptic test on taste, color and flavor of traditional and commercial soysauce indicated that most of the consumers prefer commercial products to traditional products. Preferrable formulation of Kanjang based on organoleptic test of soy sauces was assumed as containing; NaCl, 16.0%; total nitrogen, 1.40%; pure extract, 19.97%; color, 12.98; pH, 4.61 and ethanol, 2.96.

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Studies on the Manufacturing of Soy Sauce (1) On Aspergillus Oryzae in Korean bean Meju and Wine Kokja (Mould Cultured to the Wheat Bran) (干醬製造에 關한 硏究 (第一報) 在來메주 及 麵子中의 Aspergillus Oryzae에 代하여)

  • Han, Yong-Suk;Park, Byeong-Duk
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 1957
  • With the intention to examine the Korean bean "Meju" and wine "Kokja" fundamentally we accomplished first the examination of Aspergillus Oryzae in them as follow; 1. 22 kinds of Aspergillus Oryzae were isolated from Korean bean "Meju" and wine "Kokja" 2. Microscopic and physiologic characteristics were surveyed. 3. 5 kinds of powerful moulds in amylolysation and 4 kinds of powerful moulds in proteolysation were found. 4. The moulds isolated from the bean "Meju" were superior to "Kokja's" coulds in amylolytic power and proteolytic power.

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Sensory Characteristics of Different Types of Commercial Soy Sauce (제조방법이 다양한 시판 재래 및 양조 간장의 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Da-Yeon;Chung, Seo-Jin;Kim, Kwang-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.640-650
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    • 2013
  • Soy sauce, a basic ingredient in Asian cuisine, is made of fermented soybeans, salt, water, and barley or wheat flour. The sensory characteristics of soy sauce are not only determined through its main ingredients but also by various flavor compounds produced during the fermentation process. This study was conducted to identify the sensory attributes of five different commercial soy sauce samples that differ in Meju types (traditional Meju or modified Meju) and usage types. Thirty three sensory attributes, including appearance (1), odor (16), flavor (14), and mouthfeel (2) attributes, were generated and evaluated by eight trained panelists. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and principal component analysis. There were significant differences in the intensities of all sensory attributes among the soy sauce samples. Soy sauce made with traditional Meju had high intensity of fermented fish, beany, musty odors and salt, Cheonggukjang, fermented fish flavors. Whereas two soy sauces made with modified Meju were strong in alcohol, sweet, Doenjang, roasted soybean flavors. Two soy sauces for soup made with modified Meju had medium levels of briny, sulfury, fermented odors and bitter, chemical flavors and biting mouthfeel characteristic.

Pigment Content in Meju Fermented by a Monascus Species with Different Materials (Monascus속 곰팡이를 이용한 메주의 재료에 따른 색소함량)

  • 김순동;김일두;박홍덕;박미자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1047-1052
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    • 2001
  • The pigment content in meju fermented by a Monascus species with different materials was studied. The relations between growth of M. pilosus and pigment production were positive and the correlation coefficient associated with this relationship was determined to be : r = 0.9879. Pigments produced by M. purpureus and M. pilosus were composed of 9 and 8 bands, respectively. One kind of them was yellowish, whereas the others were reddish. Total pigment levels in rice meju fermented by M. purpureus and M. pilosus were 335.25 and 1428.90$\mu\textrm{g}$/g, respectively. Pigment levels in the mejus fermented at 3$0^{\circ}C$ showed higher than those at 20 and 4$0^{\circ}C$. The order of pigment content in meju was polished rice > germinated brown rice > wheat > brown rice > waxy brown rice > germinated waxy brown rice. Pigment production by M. pilosus was higher than that of M. purpureus. Pigment content in rice meju prepared by adding 10% seed culture was highest, and pigment content of granulated rice was higher than that of powdered rice. Pigment production was not desirable in soybean meju fermented by seed culture, whereas the pigment levels in meju by adding 10% powdered rice and 10% powdered rice seed meju increased by 23.0 ~75.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g.

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Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of American Cookies Prepared with Job's Tears(Coix lachryma-jobi L.) Chungkukjang Powder and Wheat Bran Powder (율무 청국장 분말과 밀겨 분말을 활용한 아메리칸 쿠키의 항산화 활성과 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Hye-Jeong;Pak, Hee-Ok;Jang, Jae-Seon;Kim, Sung-Su;Han, Chan-Kyu;Oh, Jae-Bok;Do, Wan-Yeo
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2011
  • Job's tears(Coix lachryma-jobi L.) chungkukjang powder and wheat bran powder were added to American cookies for practical use as healthy compounds. We examined the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of cookies prepared with different amounts(as ratios of 10%, 20%, 25% to the flour quantity) of Job's tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder. The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic compounds content and flavonoid content in Job's tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder and cookies. The quality characteristics of Job's tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder American cookie were estimated in terms of bulk density, pH of the dough, spread ratio, color, texture profile analysis, proximate composition, and sensory evaluations. While the spread ratio and the total polyphenol contents, flavonoid contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of cookies significantly increased, pH, hardness and L value of the cookies decreased with increasing Job's tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder(p<0.01). The consumer acceptability score for the 10~20% Job's tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder American cookie ranked significantly(p<0.05) higher than those of the other groups in texture andoverall preference. This suggests that Job's tears chungkukjang and wheat bran powder are good ingredient candidates for increasing consumer acceptability and functionality of cookies.

Studies on the Amylase Producing Bacteria. (partI) (Amylase 생성세균에 관한 연구 1)

  • 이석건;이한창
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 1964
  • 1. Three hundred and twenty four strains of amylase producing bacteria were isolated from various sources and a high amylase producing new strain, which was isolated from MEJU, M-181, was selected for further investigations. 2. The new strain M-181 was similar to Bacillus subtilis in the characteristics. 3. Wheat bran medium was the best one for production of amylase so for as the investigations had been done. The amylase activity of M-181 was measured D$40^{\circ}\\30^{'}$ .$deg._{30'}$ 25,000 to 26,800 on the medium of wheat bran. 4. The strain M-181 did not demand phosphate for production of amylase.

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Isoflavone Content in Soy Sauce made with Whole Grain Soybean Meju during Fermentation (콩알 메주 간장 발효 중 이소플라본 함량)

  • Lee, Hee-Young;Cha, Yong-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.460-465
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the isoflavone contents including daidzein and genistein in soy sauces made with whole grain soybean Meju(WGSM), comparing with defatted Meju(DM) du.ins fermentation. Total isoflavone contents in 2 soy sauces made with DM, Control and product A, increased with period of fermentation and were 15 and 4.3 times higher after 180 days of fermentation than on the day before fermentation respectively. Meanwhile, 2 soy sauces made with WGSM, product B and C, had the highest amounts with $20.53{\mu}g/g\;and\;19.52{\mu}g/g$ of isoflavones on the day before fermentation respectively, and then decreased with fermentation time. High amounts of isoflavones were detected in 20 days of fermentation of soy sauce which made with WGSM and wheat Meju(product D). Daidzein was the largest amounts in isoflavone contents, regardless of total or free isoflavone types. The level of daidzein increased with fermentation time in 2 soy sauces made with DM, Control and product A, whereas 2 soy sauces made with WGSM, product B and C decreased with fermentation time, instead of increasing of genistein contents.

Traditional Jeupjang - A Study on Traditional Jeupjang (Succulent Jang) - (전통즙장 - 전통 즙장에 대한 연구 -)

  • Ann, Yong-Geun;Moon, Young-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.835-848
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    • 2015
  • In the past, Korea had many kinds of jeupjang (succulent jang), a rapidly maturing original Korean jang (fermented soybean paste) of which there is no record in Chinese cookbooks. However, this local delicacy has almost been forgotten. Therefore, we looked for information about jeupjang in cookbooks written prior to the Joseon Dynasty in Korea (1392~1910) and in the 1950s. Among the recipes, there were 34 jeupjangs prepared with vegetables, such as eggplant and cucumber, and 9 without. The main ingredients of jeupjang are soybean, bran (wheat crust), and barley, and wild wheat is also used. Jeupjang is made in small portions to expedite its rapid maturation, but the most common form is egg-shaped, and there is also a flat or round, hilt-shaped version. In most cases, jeupjang consists of a mixture of meju powder (moldy soybean), water, and salt. Other ingredients can include nuruk (moldy bran), bran, wheat flour, an alcoholic beverage, maljang (dried fermented soybeans), ganjang (liquid soy sauce), malt, and takju (Korean murky wine). Jeupjang meju can be fermented in a vessel, most widely in baskets made of straw (sum and dungumi) or willow or interwoven twigs (chirung), but jars can also be used. The leaves of the paper mulberry are generally used for the mat and cover, but straw or leaves of the sumac, mulberry, or pine tree, soy, and fallen leaves are also used. Unlike other jangs, jeupjang is matured at $60^{\circ}C$ to $65^{\circ}C$, using heat emitted from the decomposition of horse dung, haystacks, or manure. Jeupjang became defunct or was transformed into jeomjang, jiraejang, mujang, paggeumjang, makjang, jipjang, and tojang. These jangs differ from jeupjang in that they use rice, malt, or hot pepper powder.