• Title/Summary/Keyword: L/C Fraud

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Analysis on Validity of Discounting the Deferred Payment Undertaking under Documentary Credit Transactions - with a Special Reference to the Application of Fraud Rule - (신용장거래에서 연지급확약할인의 유효성에 관한 연구 -사가의 원칙 적용을 중심으로-)

  • Hahn, Jae-Phil
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.133-156
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    • 2011
  • This paper is to analyze the legality in which the fraud rule allow the issuer of L/C or a court to disrupt the payment to the beneficiary under the deferred payment credit when the nominated bank for deferred payment undertaking made prepayment or negotiation before the maturity date and fraud is identified to be involved. Since the function of commercial L/C is to provide absolute assurance of payment to a beneficiary, the fraud rule based on fraud exception has been known as the negative factor which lead to the disruption of "principle of independence & abstraction" under the commercial L/C transactions. As a result, the fraud rule is necessary to limit the activities of fraudsters, but its scope must be carefully circumscribed so as not to deny commercial utility to an instrument that exists to serve as an assurance of payment. But the fraud itself has not been firmly established because it is inherently pliable in its concept. There are numerous contents to describe the application of fraud to the L/C transactions as a standard such as egregious fraud, intentional fraud, L/C fraud(omitted here), flexible fraud, and constructive fraud. And so the standard applicable to the commercial transaction as the fraud rule would be high or low depending upon the various standards of fraud.

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Evaluations for Fraud in L/C Transactions, and Counter-Measures

  • Lee, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of Korea Trade
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.73-92
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    • 2020
  • Purpose - The letter of credit has been playing a major role to diminish overall risks which exist among concerned parties even though there are differences such as language, culture, law, and distance. This paper reviews essence of the letter of credit and its transaction principles, as well as overall practical questions based on the L/C transaction principle. It also investigates the risk of fraud occurrences in L/C transactions and the importance of fraud prevention and preventive measures in international L/C transactions, including the Fraud Rule, which is a major topic to consider in business transactions. Design/methodology - It is considered that an importing country's concerned parties and an exporting country's concerned parties face different situations. This study employs the existing framework to identify liability, responsibility, and obligation for all concerned parties across countries. Using a quite direct measurement of principles in the letter of credit, such as principle of independence, principle of abstraction, and principle of strictness and coincidence, we studied these differences. Findings - Our main findings can be summarized as follow. The paper enhances the efficiency of the L/C payment method to provide fraud generated from L/C transactions, presentation of a theoretical framework about fraud and fraud prevention, which international trading companies should acknowledge in a material way based on fraud risk resulting from taking advantage of L/C transaction principles. Originality/value - Existing studies focus on fraud accidents in L/C transactions by taking bad advantage of the characteristics of the letter of credit without suggesting risks of fraud. This paper attempts to evaluate and provide preventive measures as a solution for fraud and risky international business in a letter of credit transaction. This area of trade studies is underexplored, both empirically and theoretically, although the issue has long been important to Korean and world community foreign trade.

The Status and Responsibility of the Confirming Bank under UCP600 (UCP600에서 확인은행의 지위와 책임)

  • Park, Sae-Woon;Lee, Sun-Hae
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.433-456
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    • 2012
  • The confirming bank undertakes to make payment to the beneficiary, provided that a complying presentation is made and complies with its confirmation. In case L/C fraud is evident, though, the confirming bank as well as the issuing bank does not have the obligation to make payment. That is, the confirming bank does not take the risks involving documentary fraud. The confirming bank cannot exercise the right to recourse toward the beneficiary or the nominated bank when the issuing bank finds the discrepancies which the confirming bank has not noticed. This is because under UCP600, the issuing bank or the confirming bank cannot refuse to make payment with the cause of documentary discrepancy after 5 banking days following the presentation of documents. Even if the issuing bank accepts the discrepant documents following the confirming bank's request to do so, the confirming bank does not have the responsibility for the confirmation. When under Usance Negotiation Credit, the confirming bank acts as the nominated bank, the confirming bank should make payment in no time if the beneficiary presents complying documents. Therefore, unless the confirming bank intends to make immediate payment, they should consider using Deferred Payment or Acceptance L/C in Usance Credit. It is also safer for the beneficiary to have the reimbursing bank's undertaking to the reimbursement than just have confirmation of the credit because in the latter case they may not have full payment due to disputes regarding discrepancies of the documents even if they have confirmation of the credit.

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