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The Wet and Dry Etching Process of Thin Film Transistor (박막트랜지스터의 습식 및 건식 식각 공정)

  • Park, Choon-Sik;Hur, Chang-Wu
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.1393-1398
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    • 2009
  • Conventionally, etching is first considered for microelectronics fabrication process and is specially important in process of a-Si:H thin film transistor for LCD. In this paper, we stabilize properties of device by development of wet and dry etching process. The a-Si:H TFTs of this paper is inverted staggered type. The gate electrode is lower part. The gate electrode is formed by patterning with length of 8 ${\mu}$m${\sim}$16 ${\mu}$m and width of 80${\sim}$200 ${\mu}$m after depositing with gate electrode (Cr) 1500 ${\AA}$under coming 7059 glass substrate. We have fabricated a-SiN:H, conductor, etch-stopper and photo resistor on gate electrode in sequence, respectively. The thickness of these thin films is formed with a-SiN:H (2000 ${\mu}$m), a-Si:H(2000 ${\mu}$m) and n+a-Si:H (500 ${\mu}$m), We have deposited n-a-Si:H, NPR(Negative Photo Resister) layer after forming pattern of Cr gate electrode by etch-stopper pattern. The NPR layer by inverting pattern of upper gate electrode is patterned and the n+a-Si:H layer is etched by the NPR pattern. The NPR layer is removed. After Cr layer is deposited and patterned, the source-drain electrode is formed. In the fabricated TFT, the most frequent problems are over and under etching in etching process. We were able to improve properties of device by strict criterion on wet, dry etching and cleaning process.

A Transmission Service Method for Processing Visual Recognition of Sender Information (발신자 정보에 대한 시각적 인식 처리를 위한 전송 서비스 기법)

  • 김기현
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.328-336
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    • 2004
  • Recently a mobile service is changing into a system environment that offers the customer various contents service. Representative example of service is a Calling Identity Del ivory Service(CID). Such service has the problem in the case which the receiver cannot remember the phone number of the sender; it has a difficult problem that cannot easily confirm whose the phone number it is. Therefore, it is desirable to design and implement visual services that can enhance the recognition of users. In this paper, we propose the architecture that is similar to a Calling Identity Delivery Service. We propose the architecture for communication service and system that is able to visually display the information of the sender using 2D image data in mobile environment. After that we set the image information to represent the user and this method is able to visually display the information of the sender by transmitting an image data through channels from switch station or base station using the server. When the receiver receives a phone call from the sender, this method provides an efficient service by transmitting visual data with bell sound. That is, the image information of sender is appeared on liquid crystal display(LCD) of the receiver at the same time. We investigate the concepts for processing real-time transmission of image data and describe an example of the implementation result that is based on system. This technology has a potential influence on the marketing and presents an efficiency of this method.

A Study on Development of Voice and SMS Alarm System Based on MODBUS Protocol (MODBUS 프로토콜에서 작동되는 음성 및 SMS 경보 시스템 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Seol, Jun-Soo;Lee, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2015
  • This dissertation proposes method for development technology of voice and SMS(Short Message Service) alarming system based on modbus protocol. The proposed technology is composed of the following 3 stages; hardware development based on microprocessor, development of input and output driver for modem, mp3 decoder, making modbus protocol stack. In the stage of hardware development based on microprocessor, we develop hardware which receives alarm from modbus master and transmit sms message, play mp3. In the stage of development of input / ouput device driver such as modem, mp3 decoder, we develop program which control each devices. In the stage of making modbus protocol stack, voice and sms alarm system is made for receiving alarm via modbus protocol. To evaluate performance of proposed technology, we issued alarm to voice and sms alarming system on purpose. As a result, response speed of detecting alarm was 10.7ms, communication distance was 1.2Km, operating temperature was from $-25^{\circ}C$ to $70^{\circ}C$, we confirmed supporting modbus protocol. And we verified that proposed voice and sms alarming system in the thesis has a performance to be used as an industrial building alarming system.

Disease monitoring of wild marine fish and crustacea caught from inshore and offshore Korea in 2018 (2018년 국내 연근해 수산생물의 전염병 모니터링)

  • Hwang, Seong Don;Lee, Da-Won;Chun, Won Joo;Jeon, Hae-Ryeon;Kim, Dong Jun;Hwang, Jee-Youn;Seo, Jung-Soo;Kwon, Mun-Gyoung;Ji, Hwan-Sung;Kim, Jung Nyun;Jee, Bo-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.474-482
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    • 2019
  • Disease monitoring in wild aquatic animals is necessary to obtain information about disease occurrence, disease agents, and the transmission of diseases between wild and cultured species. In this study, we monitored viral diseases in wild marine fish and crustacea caught by trawl in Korea in April and October 2018. We monitored the viral diseases in 977 fish from 39 different species and 287 crustacea from 14 different species. In fish, we collected kidney and spleen to detect viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), marine birnavirus (MABV), hirame rhabdovirus (HRV), and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). In crustacea, we monitored white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), taura syndrome virus (TSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), yellowhead disease virus (YHDV), and white tail disease virus (WTDV) using pleopods, pereiopods, gills, muscle, and hepatopancreases. Although none of the viral diseases tested in this study were detected in the samples, these results will help disease control between aquaculture species and wild aquatic animals.

Metal 첨가물질에 따른 비정질 IGZO 투명전극 특성 연구

  • Sin, Han-Jae;Hwang, Do-Yeon;Lee, Jeong-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Ik;Park, Seong-Eun;Park, Jae-Seong;Kim, Seong-Jin;Lee, Yeong-Ju;Seo, Chang-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.368-370
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    • 2013
  • 투명 전극은 전기전도도를 갖는 동시에 가시광선을 투과하는 소재를 말하며, 구체적으로는 빛의 파장이 400~700 nm 영역대의 가시광선을 80% 이상 투과하며 전기전도도가 비저항으로 $10^{-3}{\Omega}cm$이하이거나 면저항이 $10^3{\Omega}$/${\Box}$소재를 의미한다. 투명 전극은 전기전도도에 따라 사용되는 용도가 다양하다. LCD, PDP, OLED 와 같은 평판디스플레이 및 3D 디스플레이의 투명전극으로 사용되는 핵심재료일 뿐만 아니라 터치스크린, 투명필름, 대전방지막, 열반사막, EMI 방지막, 태양전지 분야에 광범위하게 이용되고 있다. 일반적으로, 투명전극 박막에 가장 많이 사용되고 있는 소재는 ITO (indium tin oxide)이나, 주성분인 In의 사용량 증가로 상용 ITO 타겟 가격이 급등하고 있음으며, 고가의 ITO 타겟을 대체하기 위한 저가의 투명전극 소재 개발이 절대적으로 요구되며, 신규 소재 개발을 통한 기술력 우위 선점이 필수적으로 요구되는 상황이다. 본 연구에서는 기존에 디스플레이 분야에서 널리 활용되는 고가의 ITO를 대체하기 위한 다성분 금속산화물 투명전극 스퍼터링 타겟 제조기술을 개발하기 위한 연구로서, Metal이 첨가된 In-Ga-Zn-O기반의 3성분계 투명도전성 소재를 조성설계, 고밀도 균질 타겟 제조 및 투명전극 박막을 형성하는 연구를 실시하였다. 고체산화물 산화인듐(In2O3)분말, 산화갈륨(Ga2O3) 분말그리고 산화아연(ZnO)분말과 Metal을 몰비로 칭량한 후 분말을 폴리에틸렌제 포트에 넣고 에탄올을 충분히 채운 후 지르코니아(ZrO2) 볼(ball)을 이용하여 24 h 동안 볼 밀링(ball milling) 방법으로 혼합한 뒤, $120^{\circ}C$의 플레이트위에서 마그네틱 바로 stirring하면서 건조하였다. 이 분말을 건조기에서 완전히 건조한 후 알루미나 유발을 이용해서 pulverizing한 후 sieving기를 이용하여 분말의 조립화를 하였다. 이 분말을 금형에 넣고 300 kg/$cm^2$의 압력으로 press하여 성형한 뒤 대기중에서 소결하였다 소결을 위한 승온 온도는 $10^{\circ}C$/min이었고 소결은 $1,450^{\circ}C$에서 6 h 동안 하였다. IGZO target의 조성 비율은 1:1:12 (mol%)를 사용하였으며, 첨가한 Metal은 Boron (B), Germanium (Ge), Barium (Ba)을 사용하여 타겟을 제작하였다. M-IGZO 박막은RF magnetron Sputter를 이용하여 증착하였으며, 앞선 실험에서 제작한 타겟을 사용하여 M-IGZO박막을 투명전극으로 사용하기 위한 각각의 특성을 파악하였다. 모든 박막은 상온에서 증착을 하였으며, 증착된 박막두께를 측정하기 위해 ${\alpha}$-step IQ를 사용하였고, 광학적 특성을 분석하기 위해 UV-Visible spectrophotometer 로 투과율을 측정하였다. 그리고 전기적 특성을 측정하기 위해 Hall effect measurement 및 4-probe를 사용하였으며, 결정성 분석을 위하여 XRD를 이용하여 분석하였다. 표1은 M-IGZO타겟을 사용하여 증착시간에 따른 면저항 특성을 나타내었다. Ge, B, Ba이 첨가된 IGZO 박막은 증착시간이 증가할수록 면저항이 낮아짐을 알 수 있었다. 또한, Ge이 첨가된 IGZO 박막이 다른 금속이 첨가된 IGZO 박막의 면저항보다 현저히 낮음을 알 수 있었다. Fig. 1(a), (b), (c)는 각 타겟을 동일한 조건으로 증착을 하여 광학적특성을 나타내는 그래프이다. GZO 박막의 광학적 특성을 보면 가시광 영역에서 평균 투과율은 모두 80% 이상으로 우수한 광투과 특성을 보여 투명전자소자로 사용가능하다. 특히, 자외선 영역을 모두 차단하는 UV cut 능력이 우수함을 알 수 있었다. 따라서, 금속이 첨가된 IGZO 박막을 태양전지용 투명전극으로 사용할 경우, 자외선에 의하여 수명이 단축되는 현상을 줄여줄 수 있음을 기대할 수 있으며 내구성 향상에 크게 기여할 것으로 보인다. Fig. 2는 Ge=0, 0.5, 5%인 IGZO 투명전극을 총 40회 반복하여 증착을 실시한 후 각각의 면저항을 측정한 결과이다. 실험결과에 따르면 Ge가 0%, 5%인 IGZO 투명전극은 증착을 거듭할수록 면저항이 증가하는 결과를 나타내었으며, 0.5%인 IGZO 투명전극은 점차 안정화되어가는 결과를 나타내었다. 따라서 안정화 되었을 때 평균 면저항은 26ohm/sq.로 나타났으며, 광투과율은 Fig. 3과 같이 가시광영역에서 평균 80%이상의 결과를 보였으며, 550 nm에서는 86.36%의 우수한 특성을 나타내었다. 본 연구에서는 Metal이 첨가된 In-Ga-Zn-O기반의 3성분계 투명도전성 소재 target을 제작하여 RF magnetron sputter로 박막을 형성한 후 특성을 비교하였다. M-IGZO target 중 Ge (0.5%)을 첨가한 IGZO 타겟을 사용한 투명전극이 가장 우수한 특성을 보였으며, 제작된 M-target의 In 비율이 30% 정도로 기존의 ITO (90%) 대비하여 투명전극 제작 단가를 절감할 수 있다.

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Preliminary Study on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance(EPR) Signal Properties of Mobile Phone Components for Dose Estimation in Radiation Accident (방사선사고시 피폭선량평가를 위한 휴대전화 부품의 전자상자성공명(EPR) 특성에 대한 예비 연구)

  • Park, Byeong Ryong;Ha, Wi-Ho;Park, Sunhoo;Lee, Jin Kyeong;Lee, Seung-Sook
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2015
  • We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by $^{137}Cs$ gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity ($R^2$ > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

A Hardware Implementation of Image Scaler Based on Area Coverage Ratio (면적 점유비를 이용한 영상 스케일러의 설계)

  • 성시문;이진언;김춘호;김이섭
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2003
  • Unlike in analog display devices, the physical screen resolution in digital devices are fixed from the manufacturing. It is a weak point on digital devices. The screen resolution displayed in digital display devices is varied. Thus, interpolation or decimation of the resolution on the display is needed to make the input pixels equal to the screen resolution., This process is called image scaling. Many researches have been developed to reduce the hardware cost and distortion of the image of image scaling algorithm. In this paper, we proposed a Winscale algorithm. which modifies the scale up/down in continuous domain to the scale up/down in discrete domain. Thus, the algorithm is suitable to digital display devices. Hardware implementation of the image scaler is performed using Verilog XL and chip is fabricated in a 0.5${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ Samsung SOG technology. The hardware costs as well as the scalabilities are compared with the conventional image scaling algorithms that are used in other software. This Winscale algorithm is proved more scalable than other image-scaling algorithm, which has similar H/W cost. This image-scaling algorithm can be used in various digital display devices that need image scaling process.

An Empirical Study on How the Moderating Effects of Individual Cultural Characteristics towards a Specific Target Affects User Experience: Based on the Survey Results of Four Types of Digital Device Users in the US, Germany, and Russia (특정 대상에 대한 개인 수준의 문화적 성향이 사용자 경험에 미치는 조절효과에 대한 실증적 연구: 미국, 독일, 러시아의 4개 디지털 기기 사용자를 대상으로)

  • Lee, In-Seong;Choi, Gi-Woong;Kim, So-Lyung;Lee, Ki-Ho;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.113-145
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    • 2009
  • Recently, due to the globalization of the IT(Information Technology) market, devices and systems designed in one country are used in other countries as well. This phenomenon is becoming the key factor for increased interest on cross-cultural, or cross-national, research within the IT area. However, as the IT market is becoming bigger and more globalized, a great number of IT practitioners are having difficulty in designing and developing devices or systems which can provide optimal experience. This is because not only tangible factors such as language and a country's economic or industrial power affect the user experience of a certain device or system but also invisible and intangible factors as well. Among such invisible and intangible factors, the cultural characteristics of users from different countries may affect the user experience of certain devices or systems because cultural characteristics affect how they understand and interpret the devices or systems. In other words, when users evaluate the quality of overall user experience, the cultural characteristics of each user act as a perceptual lens that leads the user to focus on a certain elements of experience. Therefore, there is a need within the IT field to consider cultural characteristics when designing or developing certain devices or systems and plan a strategy for localization. In such an environment, existing IS studies identify the culture with the country, emphasize the importance of culture in a national level perspective, and hypothesize that users within the same country have same cultural characteristics. Under such assumptions, these studies focus on the moderating effects of cultural characteristics on a national level within a certain theoretical framework. This has already been suggested by cross-cultural studies conducted by scholars such as Hofstede(1980) in providing numerical research results and measurement items for cultural characteristics and using such results or items as they increase the efficiency of studies. However, such national level culture has its limitations in forecasting and explaining individual-level behaviors such as voluntary device or system usage. This is because individual cultural characteristics are the outcome of not only the national culture but also the culture of a race, company, local area, family, and other groups that are formulated through interaction within the group. Therefore, national or nationally dominant cultural characteristics may have its limitations in forecasting and explaining the cultural characteristics of an individual. Moreover, past studies in psychology suggest a possibility that there exist different cultural characteristics within a single individual depending on the subject being measured or its context. For example, in relation to individual vs. collective characteristics, which is one of the major cultural characteristics, an individual may show collectivistic characteristics when he or she is with family or friends but show individualistic characteristics in his or her workplace. Therefore, this study acknowledged such limitations of past studies and conducted a research within the framework of 'theoretically integrated model of user satisfaction and emotional attachment', which was developed through a former study, on how the effects of different experience elements on emotional attachment or user satisfaction are differentiated depending on the individual cultural characteristics related to a system or device usage. In order to do this, this study hypothesized the moderating effects of four cultural dimensions (uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs, collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, and power distance) as suggested by Hofstede(1980) within the theoretically integrated model of emotional attachment and user satisfaction. Statistical tests were then implemented on these moderating effects through conducting surveys with users of four digital devices (mobile phone, MP3 player, LCD TV, and refrigerator) in three countries (US, Germany, and Russia). In order to explain and forecast the behavior of personal device or system users, individual cultural characteristics must be measured, and depending on the target device or system, measurements must be measured independently. Through this suggestion, this study hopes to provide new and useful perspectives for future IS research.

Why A Multimedia Approach to English Education\ulcorner

  • Keem, Sung-uk
    • Proceedings of the KSPS conference
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    • pp.176-178
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    • 1997
  • To make a long story short I made up my mind to experiment with a multimedia approach to my classroom presentations two years ago because my ways of giving instructions bored the pants off me as well as my students. My favorite ways used to be sometimes referred to as classical or traditional ones, heavily dependent on the three elements: teacher's mouth, books, and chalk. Some call it the 'MBC method'. To top it off, I tried audio-visuals such as tape recorders, cassette players, VTR, pictures, and you name it, that could help improve my teaching method. And yet I have been unhappy about the results by a trial and error approach. I was determined to look for a better way that would ensure my satisfaction in the first place. What really turned me on was a multimedia CD ROM title, ELLIS (English Language Learning Instructional Systems) developed by Dr. Frank Otto. This is an integrated system of learning English based on advanced computer technology. Inspired by the utility and potential of such a multimedia system for regular classroom or lab instructions, I designed a simple but practical multimedia language learning laboratory in 1994 for the first time in Korea(perhaps for the first time in the world). It was high time that the conventional type of language laboratory(audio-passive) at Hahnnam be replaced because of wear and tear. Prior to this development, in 1991, I put a first CALL(Computer Assisted Language Learning) laboratory equipped with 35 personal computers(286), where students were encouraged to practise English typing, word processing and study English grammar, English vocabulary, and English composition. The first multimedia language learning laboratory was composed of 1) a multimedia personal computer(486DX2 then, now 586), 2) VGA multipliers that enable simultaneous viewing of the screen at control of the instructor, 3) an amplifIer, 4) loud speakers, 5)student monitors, 6) student tables to seat three students(a monitor for two students is more realistic, though), 7) student chairs, 8) an instructor table, and 9) cables. It was augmented later with an Internet hookup. The beauty of this type of multimedia language learning laboratory is the economy of furnishing and maintaining it. There is no need of darkening the facilities, which is a must when an LCD/beam projector is preferred in the laboratory. It is headset free, which proved to make students exasperated when worn more than- twenty minutes. In the previous semester I taught three different subjects: Freshman English Lab, English Phonetics, and Listening Comprehension Intermediate. I used CD ROM titles like ELLIS, Master Pronunciation, English Tripple Play Plus, English Arcade, Living Books, Q-Steps, English Discoveries, Compton's Encyclopedia. On the other hand, I managed to put all teaching materials into PowerPoint, where letters, photo, graphic, animation, audio, and video files are orderly stored in terms of slides. It takes time for me to prepare my teaching materials via PowerPoint, but it is a wonderful tool for the sake of presentations. And it is worth trying as long as I can entertain my students in such a way. Once everything is put into the computer, I feel relaxed and a bit excited watching my students enjoy my presentations. It appears to be great fun for students because they have never experienced this type of instruction. This is how I freed myself from having to manipulate a cassette tape player, VTR, and write on the board. The student monitors in front of them seem to help them concentrate on what they see, combined with what they hear. All I have to do is to simply click a mouse to give presentations and explanations, when necessary. I use a remote mouse, which prevents me from sitting at the instructor table. Instead, I can walk around in the room and enjoy freer interactions with students. Using this instrument, I can also have my students participate in the presentation. In particular, I invite my students to manipulate the computer using the remote mouse from the student's seat not from the instructor's seat. Every student appears to be fascinated with my multimedia approach to English teaching because of its unique nature as a new teaching tool as we face the 21st century. They all agree that the multimedia way is an interesting and fascinating way of learning to satisfy their needs. Above all, it helps lighten their drudgery in the classroom. They feel other subjects taught by other teachers should be treated in the same fashion. A multimedia approach to education is impossible without the advent of hi-tech computers, of which multi functions are integrated into a unified system, i.e., a personal computer. If you have computer-phobia, make quick friends with it; the sooner, the better. It can be a wonderful assistant to you. It is the Internet that I pay close attention to in conjunction with the multimedia approach to English education. Via e-mail system, I encourage my students to write to me in English. I encourage them to enjoy chatting with people all over the world. I also encourage them to visit the sites where they offer study courses in English conversation, vocabulary, idiomatic expressions, reading, and writing. I help them search any subject they want to via World Wide Web. Some day in the near future it will be the hub of learning for everybody. It will eventually free students from books, teachers, libraries, classrooms, and boredom. I will keep exploring better ways to give satisfying instructions to my students who deserve my entertainment.

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Wearable Computers

  • Cho, Gil-Soo;Barfield, Woodrow;Baird, Kevin
    • Fiber Technology and Industry
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.490-508
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    • 1998
  • One of the latest fields of research in the area of output devices is tactual display devices [13,31]. These tactual or haptic devices allow the user to receive haptic feedback output from a variety of sources. This allows the user to actually feel virtual objects and manipulate them by touch. This is an emerging technology and will be instrumental in enhancing the realism of wearable augmented environments for certain applications. Tactual displays have previously been used for scientific visualization in virtual environments by chemists and engineers to improve perception and understanding of force fields and of world models populated with the impenetrable. In addition to tactual displays, the use of wearable audio displays that allow sound to be spatialized are being developed. With wearable computers, designers will soon be able to pair spatialized sound to virtual representations of objects when appropriate to make the wearable computer experience even more realistic to the user. Furthermore, as the number and complexity of wearable computing applications continues to grow, there will be increasing needs for systems that are faster, lighter, and have higher resolution displays. Better networking technology will also need to be developed to allow all users of wearable computers to have high bandwidth connections for real time information gathering and collaboration. In addition to the technology advances that make users need to wear computers in everyday life, there is also the desire to have users want to wear their computers. In order to do this, wearable computing needs to be unobtrusive and socially acceptable. By making wearables smaller and lighter, or actually embedding them in clothing, users can conceal them easily and wear them comfortably. The military is currently working on the development of the Personal Information Carrier (PIC) or digital dog tag. The PIC is a small electronic storage device containing medical information about the wearer. While old military dog tags contained only 5 lines of information, the digital tags may contain volumes of multi-media information including medical history, X-rays, and cardiograms. Using hand held devices in the field, medics would be able to call this information up in real time for better treatment. A fully functional transmittable device is still years off, but this technology once developed in the military, could be adapted tp civilian users and provide ant information, medical or otherwise, in a portable, not obstructive, and fashionable way. Another future device that could increase safety and well being of its users is the nose on-a-chip developed by the Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee. This tiny digital silicon chip about the size of a dime, is capable of 'smelling' natural gas leaks in stoves, heaters, and other appliances. It can also detect dangerous levels of carbon monoxide. This device can also be configured to notify the fire department when a leak is detected. This nose chip should be commercially available within 2 years, and is inexpensive, requires low power, and is very sensitive. Along with gas detection capabilities, this device may someday also be configured to detect smoke and other harmful gases. By embedding this chip into workers uniforms, name tags, etc., this could be a lifesaving computational accessory. In addition to the future safety technology soon to be available as accessories are devices that are for entertainment and security. The LCI computer group is developing a Smartpen, that electronically verifies a user's signature. With the increase in credit card use and the rise in forgeries, is the need for commercial industries to constantly verify signatures. This Smartpen writes like a normal pen but uses sensors to detect the motion of the pen as the user signs their name to authenticate the signature. This computational accessory should be available in 1999, and would bring increased peace of mind to consumers and vendors alike. In the entertainment domain, Panasonic is creating the first portable hand-held DVD player. This device weight less than 3 pounds and has a screen about 6' across. The color LCD has the same 16:9 aspect ratio of a cinema screen and supports a high resolution of 280,000 pixels and stereo sound. The player can play standard DVD movies and has a hour battery life for mobile use. To summarize, in this paper we presented concepts related to the design and use of wearable computers with extensions to smart spaces. For some time, researchers in telerobotics have used computer graphics to enhance remote scenes. Recent advances in augmented reality displays make it possible to enhance the user's local environment with 'information'. As shown in this paper, there are many application areas for this technology such as medicine, manufacturing, training, and recreation. Wearable computers allow a much closer association of information with the user. By embedding sensors in the wearable to allow it to see what the user sees, hear what the user hears, sense the user's physical state, and analyze what the user is typing, an intelligent agent may be able to analyze what the user is doing and try to predict the resources he will need next or in the near future. Using this information, the agent may download files, reserve communications bandwidth, post reminders, or automatically send updates to colleagues to help facilitate the user's daily interactions. This intelligent wearable computer would be able to act as a personal assistant, who is always around, knows the user's personal preferences and tastes, and tries to streamline interactions with the rest of the world.

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