• Title, Summary, Keyword: LPS shock

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Differential Induction of Septic Shock by Lipopolysacchrides from E. coli and S. abortus (S. abortus 유래 LPS와 E. coli 유래 LPS에 의한 패혈증성 쇽 유도 작용 비교)

  • Cho, Jae-Youl;Yoo, Eun-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2007
  • Acute septic shock is one of inflammatory diseases mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$. In this study, we examined the pathological difference and mechanism of lipopolysaccharides isolated from E. coli (E-LPS) or S. abortus (S-LPS) on inducing acute septic shock in ICR mouse. All mice were died by intraperitoneal treatment of S-LPS with 0.75 mg/kg, whereas E-LPS treated with even 3 mg/kg only showed 30% of mice lethal, indicating that S-LPS may be more feasible in triggering a strong septic shock condition. The secretion pattern of TNF-${\alpha}$, a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine in septic shock condition, was also distinct between E-LPS- and S-LPS-treated groups. Thus, S-LPS strikingly increased serum level of TNF-${\alpha}$ (6 ng/ml) at 1 h, while E-LPS just displayed at 2 ng/ml level. However the interaction of S-LPS with LPS receptor toll like receptor (TLR)-4, was not stronger than that of E-LPS, according to experiments with macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. Thus, E-LPS rather than S-LPS strongly enhanced the production of TNF-${\alpha}$. Interestingly, S-LPS more strongly up-regulated splenocyte proliferation, compared to E-LPS group, whereas there was no difference between S- or E-LPS treated groups in proliferation of Balb/c- or C57BL/6-originated splenic lymphocytes. Therefore, our data suggest that S-LPS is a more active endotoxin and that the strong septic shock-inducing effect of S-LPS seems due to the enhancement of early TNF-${\alpha}$ production and S-LPS-sensitive lymphocyte proliferation.

Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Shock (패혈증 쇼크에서 단삼 추출물의 억제 효과와 그 기전에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Sang-Ho;Yun, Jeong-Min;Ko, Woo-Shin;Yoon, Hwa-Jung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.14-26
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : This study was performed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Salvia miltiorrhizae Radix extract (SME) on endotoxin shock.Methods : We used two models; LPS-induced sepsis model for in vivo model, and murine peritoneal macrophages responses for in vitro. SME was administrated orally to mice. After 1 hr, LPS was injected intraperitoneally. Survival rate was checked each time per 12 hr for 5 days. Mice were sacrificed 3 hr after LPS injection, then blood samples and organs were harvested. Cytokines secretion was measured by ELISA. Organs tissues were observed with microscope. Murine peritoneal macrophages were cultured for 1 hr either in a medium alone or in a medium that contained SME, as indicated. Then, the cells were treated with LPS for 24 hr. mRNA levels of cytokines were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine levels in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. The amount of nitrite was measured by using the Griess method to evaluate NO production. The cell lysates were analysed by Western blotting using antibodies for iNOS and β-actin was used as an internal control to monitor equal protein loading.Results : SME improverd the survival rate of mice model. SME inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and organs damages on Endotoxin Shock model. SME suppressed cytokine expression, cytokine secretion,NO production, iNOS expression in LPS-induced murine peritoneal macrophages.Conclusions : The results suggest that SME has protective effects on endotoxin shock through suppression of inflammatory cytokines, organ damages, NO production and so on.

Effects of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata) Extract on Inflammatory Responses in LPS-induced Shock Rats and RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the effects of trifoliate orange extract (TOE) on inflammatory reactions at the time of an LPS shock by performing experiments on rats injected with trifoliate orange extract and in Raw 264.7 cell cultures, with the aim of developing a new anti-inflammatory medicine. The IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were lower in all of the groups treated with TOE than in the control group after 5 h of LPS treatment. The IL-10 concentration was higher in the 300-㎎/㎏ TOE group than in the control group after 2 h and 5 h of LPS treatment. The liver concentrations of cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 decreased more in the groups treated with TOE than in the control group and the IL-6 concentration did not differ significantly between the 100-㎎/㎏ TOE group than in the control group. The TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations did not differ significantly between the TOE groups and the control group. In the experiments involving Raw 264.7 macrophage cultures subjected to LPS shock, the productions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased in all of the groups treated with TOE compared to the control group. The IL-10 concentration did not differ significantly between the groups treated with TOE and the control group. Together the findings of this study suggest that TOE contains functional substances that can influence inflammatory reactions.

GSK3β Inhibitor Peptide Protects Mice from LPS-induced Endotoxin Shock

  • Ko, Ryeojin;Jang, Hyun Duk;Lee, Soo Young
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2010
  • Background: Glycogen synthase kinase $3{\beta}$ ($GSK3{\beta}$) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that is regulated by serine phosphorylation at 9. Recent studies have reported the beneficial effects of a number of the pharmacological $GSK3{\beta}$ inhibitors in rodent models of septic shock. Since most of the $GSK3{\beta}$ inhibitors are targeted at the ATP-binding site, which is highly conserved among diverse protein kinases, the development of novel non-ATP competitive $GSK3{\beta}$ inhibitors is needed. Methods: Based on the unique phosphorylation motif of $GSK3{\beta}$, we designed and generated a novel class of $GSK3{\beta}$ inhibitor (GSK3i) peptides. In addition, we investigated the effects of a GSK3i peptide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production and septic shock. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with GSK3i peptide and monitored over a 7-day period for survival. Results: We first demonstrate its effects on LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40. LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-12p40 production in macrophages was suppressed when macrophages were treated with the GSKi peptide. Administration of the GSK3i peptide potently suppressed LPS-mediated endotoxin shock. Conclusion: Collectively, we present a rational strategy for the development of a therapeutic GSK3i peptide. This peptide may serve as a novel template for the design of non-ATP competitive GSK3 inhibitors.

Compound K Rich Fractions Regulate NF-κB-dependent Inflammatory Responses and Protect Mice from Endotoxin-induced Lethal Shock

  • Yang, Chul-Su;Yuk, Jae-Min;Ko, Sung-Ryong;Cho, Byung-Goo;Sohn, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Young-Sook;Wee, Jae-Joon;Do, Jae-Ho;Jo, Eun-Kyeong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.315-323
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    • 2008
  • In the previous studies, we isolated the compound K rich fractions (CKRF) and showed that CKRF inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4- or TLR9-induced inflammatory signaling. To extend our previous studies,1) we investigated the molecular mechanisms of CKRF in the TLR4-associated signaling via nuclear factor (NF)-${\kappa}B$, and in vivo role of CKRF for induction of tolerance in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. In murine bone marrow-dervied macrophages, CKRF significantly inhibited the induction of mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, CKRF significantly attenuated the transcriptional activities of TLR4/LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$. Nuclear translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ in response to LPS stimulation was significantly abrogated by pre-treatment with CKRF. Furthermore, CKRF inhibited the recruitment of p65 to the interferon-sensitive response element flanking region in response to LPS. Finally, oral administration of CKRF significantly protected mice from Gram-negative bacterial LPS-induced lethal shock and inhibited systemic inflammatory cytokine levels. Together, these results demonstrate that CKRF modulates the TLR4-dependent NF-${\kappa}B$ activation, and suggest a therapeutic role for Gram-negative septic shock.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Cheukbaekjurpihwan(CBJPH) (측백저피환(側柏樗皮丸)의 항염(抗炎) 및 면역반응(免疫反應)에 대한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Jo, Ok-Hyun;Choi, Chang-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.152-165
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: It is the purpose of this study to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of cheukbaekjurpihwan(CBJPH) extract on LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced inflammatory mediators in murine peritoneal macrophages. Methods: To evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of CBJPH extract, the production of cytokines(TNF-${\alpha}$(tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL(interleukin)-6, IL-12) and NO(nitric oxide) was measured in vitro and in vivo. And western blot analysis has been done to look into the mechanism. Results: CBJPH extract reduced LPS-induced NO, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6, IL-12 productions in peritoneal macrophages. CBJPH extract inhibited the activation of JNK(c-Jun N-terminal kinase), but didn't inhibit the activation of MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) such as p38, ERK1/2(extracelluar signal-regulated kinase1/2) and the degradation of $I_{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$(inhibitory kappa B-alpha) in the LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. CBJPH extract suppressed LPS-induced endotoxin shock and the productions of TNF-${\alpha}$, but not of IL-6, after an oral administration of CBJPH extract Conclusion: CBJPH extract suppressed the productions of LPS-induced NO and cytokines by preventing JNK from phosphorylation, which may provide a clinical basis for anti-inflammatory properties of CBJPH.

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Effect of Ephedrae Herba on Immunomodulatory Activity in Lipopolysaccharide-Exposed Rats and Raw 264.7 Cells (마황이 LPS투여 흰쥐의 면역조절능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.431-437
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    • 2009
  • To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Ephedrae Herba in vivo and in vitro acute inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock in rats fed Ephedrae Herba extracts and inflammatory cytokine concentrations were examined. In addition, the effect of Ephedrae Herba extracts on the production of inflammatory cytokines was examined in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. In an in vivo experiment, plasma interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ (TNF-$\alpha$) concentrations were increased at 2 h and reached to maximal levels at 5 h after LPS treatment in all groups. Compared with control group, plasma IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-$\alpha$ levels were lowered at 5 h after LPS treatment, but plasma IL-10 level was higher in at 2 and 5 h after LPS treatment in Ephedrae Herba extract group. In an in vitro experiment using Raw 264.7 macrophages, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ concentrations in the Ephedrae Herba extract group were lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, IL-10 concentration appeared to be higher in the Ephedrae Herba extract group, but this trend was not significant. In conclusion, these results suggested that functional compound (s) in Ephedrae Herba extract may play a role in alleviating inflammatory response.

The Effect of Heat Co-treatment on Acute Lung Injury of the Rat Induced by Intratracheal Lipopolysaccharide (내독소 투여 직후 가해진 열충격이 백서의 급성폐손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Na, Joo Ock;Shim, Tae Sun;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang Do;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong Soon;Kim, Won Dong;Koh, Younsuck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.355-366
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    • 2002
  • Background : The heat shock protein (HSP) 70 families are known to protect cells against the irreversible tissue injury induced by stress and to induce the recovery of cell function during stress. Heat pretreatment was reported to decrease the acute lung injury (ALI) of rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the role of heat shock with LPS co-treatmenton ALI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment, which was given immediately after the beginning of ALI induced by LPS intratracheally administered in rats. Methods : Either saline (saline group) or LPS was intratracheally instilled without heat treatment (LPS group). In addition, heat was conducted 18 hours prior to the instillation of LPS (pre-treatment group) and conducted immediately after instillation of LPS (co-treatment group). Six hours after the LPS or saline treatment, blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue samples were obtained. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the heat shock protein expression in the lung tissue, the differential counts of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the BAL fluids, and the LDH, protein, $IL-1{\beta}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-10 levels in BAL fluid and serum were measured. Results : 1) The MPO activity, the differential PMN counts in the BAL fluid, BAL fluid and serum cytokines were higher in the LPS, the heat pre-treatment and co-treatment group than those of the saline group (p value <0.05). 2) The MPO activity and the protein level in the BAL fluid from the heat co-treatment group were similar to those of the LPS group. 3) The serum $TNF-{\alpha}$ level of the heat co-treatment group was significantly higher than that of the LPS group (p=0.01). Conclusion : Heat shock response administered immediately after a LPS instillation did not attenuate the ALI in this model.

Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) Induction after Lipopolysaccharide Exposure on the IL-6 Production and the Cell Viability after Subsequent Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Murine Alveolar Epithelial Cells (내독소로 전처치한 쥐 폐포상피에서 HSP70 유도가 추가 내독소 자극에 따른 IL-6 생성능 및 세포생존도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung Mi;Kim, Jin Sook;Kim, Young Kyoon;Kim, Seung Joon;Lee, Sook Young;Kwon, Soon Seog;Park, Sung Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.375-384
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    • 2005
  • Background and Aims : Pre-induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is known to effectively attenuate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in lung tissue. However, it is unclear if HSP70 induction after LPS exposure attenuates the subsequent LPS-induced inflammatory response in alveolar epithelial cells. This study examined the effects of HSP70 induction after LPS exposure on the IL-6 production and the cell viability after a subsequent LPS challenge in murine alveolar epithelial cells, and investigated whether or not HSP70 itself may be involved in those effects. Methods : Murine alveolar epithelial cells were cultured and divided into two groups; the Non-Pre-LPS group without a LPS pre-treatment and the Pre-LPS group with a LPS pre-treatment. Each group was subdivided into the following four subgroups: subgroup C (control), subgroup Q (quercetin), subgroup HSP70 (HSP70 induction), and subgroup HSP70-Inh (HSP70 inhibition). HSP70 expression, which was induced by sodium arsenite and inhibited by quercetin, was analyzed by western blot analysis. The IL-6 levels in the culture supernatant were measured by ELISA, and the cell viability was measured using a simplified MTT assay. Results : The IL-6 levels were lower in subgroup HSP70 than in subgroup C (P<0.01), and were higher in subgroup HSP70-Inh than in subgroup HSP70 in both the Non-Pre-LPS and Pre-LPS groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The cell viability tended to decrease in the Pre-LPS group compared with the Non-Pre-LPS group. While the cell viability was higher in subgroups Q, HSP70, and HSP70-Inh than in subgroup C in the Non-Pre-LPS group (P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.01), there was no difference in cell viability among the subgroups in the Pre-LPS group. Conclusion : HSP70 induction after a LPS pre-treatment in murine alveolar epithelial cells inhibits the subsequent LPS-induced IL-6 production without affecting the cell viability, and HSP70 by itself may play an important role in this proccess.

Inhibitory Effect of Extract from Ostericum koreanum on LPS-induced Proinflammatory Cytokines Production in RAW264.7 Cells (LPS로 자극한 RAW264.7 세포에서 강활 추출물의 염증성세포활성물질의 억제효과)

  • Park, Hee-Je;Bae, Gi-Sang;Kim, Do-Yun;Seo, Sang-Wan;Park, Kyung-Bae;Kim, Byung-Jin;Song, Je-Moon;Lee, Kyung-Yong;Na, Chul;Shin, Byung-Chul;Park, Sung-Joo;Song, Ho-Joon;Hwang, Sung-Yeon
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The present study was designed to investigate whether Ostericum koreanum (OK) could regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Methods : To evaluate of anti-inflammatory effect of OK, we examined Nitric oxide (NO), proinflammatory cytokines production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, we checked molecular mechanism especially in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the degradation of inhibitory kappa B a ($Ik-B{\alpha}$) using western blot and also investigated survival of mice in LPS-mediated endotoxin shock. Results : 1. Extract from OK itself have weak cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 cells. Extract from OK inhibited LPS-induced NO, tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$), interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and IL-10 production in RAW264.7 cells. 2. OK inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as p38, extracelluar signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and also the degradation of $I{\kappa}-B{\alpha}$ in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells 3. OK did not inhibit LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Conclusions : OK down-regulated LPS-induced NO and cytokines production through suppressing activation of MAPKs and degradation of $I{\kappa}-B{\alpha}$. Our results suggested that OK may be a beneficial drug against inflammatory diseases.

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