• Title, Summary, Keyword: LTE

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IoT-based Dangerous Zone Alarming System for Safety Management in Construction Sites (건설 현장 안전관리를 위한 IoT 기반의 위험구역 경보 시스템)

  • Kim, Seung-Ho;Kang, Chang-Soon;Ryu, HanGuk
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.10 no.10
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2019
  • Effective construction safety management systems are desperately required for reducing damage caused by increasing safety accidents in construction sites. Safety accidents in construction sites can effectively protect if proactive measures are taken to prevent unauthorized worker access the expected hazardous area. In this study, we have developed a IoT(Internet of Things)-based dangerous zone alarming system for safety management in construction sites, which can be operated at low cost in large-scale sites as well as small and medium-sized construction sites. The development system utilizes a Zigbee-based beacon technology and cellular mobile communication technology to detect when authorized workers, unauthorized field workers or outsiders approaches hazardous zones. If somebody approaches the dangerous zones the system notifies immediately to the safety manager with a danger warning signal. It is expected that this system can effectively prevent safety accidents when applied to construction sites.

Technique Criteria Calculation for Next Generation Mobile Communication (차세대 이동통신을 위한 기술기준 산정)

  • Kim, Kyung-Seok;Hyeon, Yeong-Ju
    • The Journal of The Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.101-113
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    • 2008
  • The new wireless multimedia environment is coming because of the variety of an user requirement and a traffic increase which we can not accept in the IMT-2000 present systems. To offer the wireless multimedia service the world wireless communication company which included the ITU-R is developing the standard and technique of 4G systems. We analyzed the technique criteria of the 4G wireless communication system in this paper which is based on that of WiBro System. The mobile communication traffic is predicted Up/Down-link of non-symmetric in the future. And we proposed the PHY layer parameters of occupied frequency bandwidth of Up/Down-link with both 1:3 and 1:6. And we verified this through the simulation. So we proposed the technique criteria for 4G wireless communication in this paper.

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Hybrid-clustering game Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Macro-Femto HetNet

  • Ye, Fang;Dai, Jing;Li, Yibing
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.1638-1654
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    • 2018
  • The heterogeneous network (HetNet) has been one of the key technologies in Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) with growing capacity and coverage demands. However, the introduction of femtocells has brought serious co-layer interference and cross-layer interference, which has been a major factor affecting system throughput. It is generally acknowledged that the resource allocation has significant impact on suppressing interference and improving the system performance. In this paper, we propose a hybrid-clustering algorithm based on the $Mat{\acute{e}}rn$ hard-core process (MHP) to restrain two kinds of co-channel interference in the HetNet. As the impracticality of the hexagonal grid model and the homogeneous Poisson point process model whose points distribute completely randomly to establish the system model. The HetNet model based on the MHP is adopted to satisfy the negative correlation distribution of base stations in this paper. Base on the system model, the spectrum sharing problem with restricted spectrum resources is further analyzed. On the basis of location information and the interference relation of base stations, a hybrid clustering method, which takes into accounts the fairness of two types of base stations is firstly proposed. Then, auction mechanism is discussed to achieve the spectrum sharing inside each cluster, avoiding the spectrum resource waste. Through combining the clustering theory and auction mechanism, the proposed novel algorithm can be applied to restrain the cross-layer interference and co-layer interference of HetNet, which has a high density of base stations. Simulation results show that spectral efficiency and system throughput increase to a certain degree.

Concentration and risk assessment of indoor air quality in day care centers and postnatal care centers (보육시설, 산후조리원의 실내공기질 농도 및 위해성평가)

  • An, Jihee;Oh, Yujin;Im, Ji Young;Ahn, Mun Seob;Hong, Eunju;Son, Bu-Soon
    • Journal of odor and indoor environment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we measured the concentration of Particulate Matter($PM_{10}$), Formaldehyde(HCHO), and Total Bacteria Count (TBC) at two facilities: day care centers, and postnatal care centers located in the cities of Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Jeolla and Gyeongsang from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015. $PM_{10}$ concentration was similar to the day care centers and postnatal care centers. HCHO concentration was the highest in the postnatal care centers. TBC concentration was the highest in the day care centers. Comparing the different cities, $PM_{10}$ concentration was the highest in Gyeonggi, HCHO concentration was the highest in Gyeonggi, and TBC concentration was the highest in Gyeonggi. As a result of HCHO's risk assessment, it was found that adults exceeded the carcinogenicity tolerance of $10^{-6}$ specified by the US EPA. This study is expected to be helpful in preventing damage to health from the contaminated indoor air at sensitive facilities, and can be used as basic data for indoor air quality management.

A Design of Multi-hop Network Protocol based on LoRaWAN Gateway

  • Kim, Minyoung;Jang, Jongwook
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2019
  • Currently, LPWA(Low Power Wide Area) communication technology is widely used due to the development of IoT(Internet of Things) technology. Among the LPWA technologies, LoRaWAN(Long Range Wide Area Network) is widely used in many fields due to its wide coverage, stable communication speed, and low-cost modem module prices. In particular, LoRa(Long Range) can easily construct LoRaWAN with a dedicated gateway. So many organizations are building their own LoRaWAN-based networks. The LoRaWAN Gateway receives the LoRa packet transmitted from an End-device installed in the adjacent location, converts it into the Internet protocol, and sends the packet to the final destination server. Current LoRa Gateway uses a single-hop method, and each gateway must include a communication network capable of the Internet. If it is the mobile communication(i.e., WCDMA, LTE, etc.) network, it is required to pay the internet usage fee which is installed in each gateway. If the LoRa communication is frequent, the user has to spend a lot of money. We propose an idea on how to design a multi-hop protocol which enables packet routing between gateways by analyzing the LoRaWAN communication method implemented in its existing single-hop way in this paper. For this purpose, this paper provides an analysis of the standard specification of LoRaWAN and explains what was considered when such protocol was designed. In this paper, two gateways have been placed based on the functional role so as to make the multi-hop protocol realized: (i) hopping gateway which receives packets from the end-device and forwards them to another gateway; and (ii) main gateway which finally transmits packets forwarded from the hopping gateway to the server via internet. Moreover, taking into account that LoRaWAN is wireless mobile communication, a level-based routing method is also included. If the protocol proposed by this paper is applied to the LoRaWAN network, the monthly internet fee incurred for the gateway will be reduced and the reliability of data transmission will be increased.

Spectrum Measurement Study of Arc Plasma on Triggered Vacuum Switch (TVS) (TVS에서 아크 플라즈마의 분광 측정 연구)

  • Nam, S.H.;Han, Y.J.;Lee, B.J.;Kim, S.H.;Park, S.S.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1732-1734
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this experiment was to develope Triggered Vacuum Switch(TVS) and to improve understanding of the high current vacuum arc phenomena in the TVS. The TVS has an array of rods of alternate polarity in which a fixed gap spacing is maintained between the rods. The cross section of each rod has trapezoidal shape. Breakdown of the TVS produced high current vacuum arc plasma. A spectroscopic measurement was performed over 20 kA peak current in the center of electrodes, in the vicinity of cathode, and outside electrodes. The electrode material tested was Fe. Measured Fe spectrum range was from 200 nm to 900 nm. Measurement result showed that over 90 percent of the charge states were FeII and the others were FeI and FeIII. The electron temperature was determined from the relative line intensity ratio methode of FeII system by assuming the local thermal equilibrium(LTE). The electron temperature at the center of electrodes was measured as 1.5 eV at 26 kA peak current. The electron temperature varied with its peak current. Intensity of spectrums is the highest in the vicinity of the cathode. Further we will also present study result of the diode phenomena in the TVS.

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Stress Analysis of Fir-Tree Root in Turbine Rotor Using Photoelastic Technique (광탄성기법을 이용한 터빈로터 퍼-트리부의 응력해석)

  • Sin, Gwang-Bok;Gyeong, U-Min;Hong, Chang-Seon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1784-1797
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    • 1996
  • The disk/blade assembly of a turbine engine is made in the shape of a dovetail type or a fir-tree type. Since disk fillet regions or contact surfaces undergo high stress comcentration, fatigue cracks frequentrly occur in the disk/blade assembly. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the stress distributions in the fir-tree type disk/balde assembly and predict the region of fatigue failure. The stress distributions of the disk/blade assembly were investigated by using the photoelastic method and the finite element method. Two dimensional photoelastic techniques were used to investigate the stress distributions of contact surfaces and fillet regions. TH stress distributions were obtained by the shear-difference method and were compared to the finite element results. It was found that maximum tensile stresses were higher in the fillet region thatn in the contact surfaces of the fir-tree models. The finite element results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

Real-time Intelligent Exit Path Indicator Using BLE Beacon Enabled Emergency Exit Sign Controller

  • Jung, Joonseok;Kwon, Jongman;Jung, Soonho;Lee, Minwoo;Mariappan, Vinayagam;Cha, Jaesang
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2017
  • Emergency lights and exit signs are an indispensable part of safety precautions for effective evacuation in case of emergency in public buildings. These emergency sign indicates safe escape routes and emergency doors, using an internationally recognizable sign. However visibility of those signs drops drastically in case of emergency situations like fire smoke, etc. and loss of visibility causes serious problems for safety evacuation. This paper propose a novel emergency light and exit sign built-in with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Beacon to assist the emergency self-guiding evacuation using devices for crisis and emergency management to avoid panic condition inside the buildings. In this approach, the emergency light and exit sign with the BLE beacons deployed in the indoor environments and the smart devices detect their indoor positions, direction to move, and next exit sign position from beacon messages and interact with map server in the Internet / Intranet over the available LTE and/or Wi-Fi network connectivity. The map server generate an optimal emergency exit path according to the nearest emergency exit based on a novel graph generation method for less route computation for each smart device. All emergency exit path data interfaces among three system components, the emergency exit signs, map server, and smart devices, have been defined for modular implementation of our emergency evacuation system. The proposed exit sign experimental system has been deployed and evaluated in real-time building environment thoroughly and gives a good evidence that the modular design of the proposed exit sign system and a novel approach to compute emergency exit path route based on the BLE beacon message, map server, and smart devices is competitive and viable.