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Measurement of electron temperature and density using Stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography

  • Lee, Sung-Hee;Hong, Young-June;Choi, Eun-Ha
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.475-475
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    • 2010
  • We have generated Ar plasma in dense plasma focus device with coaxial electrodes for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and investigated an emitted visible light for electro-optical plasma diagnostics. We have applied an input voltage 4.5 kV to the capacitor bank of 1.53 uF and the diode chamber has been filled with Ar gas of pressure 8 mTorr. The inner surface of the cylindrical cathode has been attatched by an acetal insulator. Also, the anode made of tin metal. If we assumed that the focused plasma regions satisfy the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions, the electron temperature and density of the coaxial plasma focus could be obtained by Stark broadening of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The Lorentzian profile for emission lines of Ar I of 426.629 nm and Ar II of 487.99 nm were measured with a visible monochromator. And the electron density has been estimated by FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) of its profile. To find the exact value of FWHM, we observed the instrument line broadening of the monochromator with a Hg-Ar reference lamp. The electron temperature has been calculated using the two relative electron density ratios of the Stark profiles. In case of electron density, it has been observed by the Stark broadening method. This experiment result shows the temporal behavior of the electron temperature and density characteristics for the focused plasma. The EUV emission signal whose wavelength is about 6 ~ 16 nm has been detected by using a photo-detector (AXUV-100 Zr/C, IRD). The result compared the electron temperature and density with the temporal EUV signal. The electron density and temperature were observed to be $10^{16}\;cm^{-3}$ and 20 ~ 30 eV, respectively.

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모바일 최강국 달성을 위한 2013년 차세대이동통신 국가연구개발 전략

  • Lee, Hyeon-U;Kim, Geun-Dae;Park, In-Seong
    • Information and Communications Magazine
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2012
  • 국내 차세대 이동통신 산업은 1994년 세계 최초 CDMA 상용화에 이은 CDMA2000 및 W-CDMA 구축, 세계 최초 최고의 무선 인터넷 기술인 WiBro기술의 개발 및 보급, 꿈의 통신으로 여겨지는 3.9세대 LTE시스템 구축과 보급으로 세계 최고의 뛰어나 기술력을 가진 산업으로 발전하였다. 이러한 우수한 국내 이동 통신 인프라는 기존의 조선 및 선박과 같은 전통산업과 바이오 및 의료기기와 같은 신산업과의 융합을 통하여 국가 경쟁력 한층 더 향상 시키는데 기여하였다. 또한 휴대폰분야에서도 국내 기업이 세계 최고의 경쟁력을 가진 기업으로 성장하는 등, 차세대이동통신 산업은 타 산업과 달리 기술의 빠른 추종자 (Fast Follower)에서 기술 선도자 (First Mover)로서의 지위를 가지게 되었다. 그러나, 이동통신 시스템 분야에서는 이미 중국 업체가 세계적으로 약진하고 있으며, 휴대폰 분야에서는 선도 기업과의 경쟁 및 견제, 후발 주자인 중국 및 대만 기업의 추격에 직면하고 있다. 한편 국내 휴대폰관련 중소 중견기업은 급격한 단말 환경변화에 따라 많은 어려움에 처해 있다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 차세대 이동통신 기술 선도자로서 지속적인 경쟁력 확보 및 대-중소기업 동반성장 생태계 조성을 통한 모바일 최강국 달성을 위한 이동통신 분야 국가 연구 개발 전략을 제시하고자 한다. 먼저 제I장에서는 차세대이동통신의 개념 및 분류 기준에 대하여 알아보고, 제II장에서는 차세대이동통신에 대한 국내외 현황과 국내 기술 수준 및 기술 경쟁력을 고찰한다. 제III장에서는 기술 선도자로서의 차세대이동통신 분야의 비젼을 제시하고, 이러한 비젼을 실현시키기 위한 국가연구개발 추진 전략을 제시한다. 마지막으로 제IV장에서는 우리나라 이동통신 미래상과 함께 국가연구개발 전략에 대한 결론을 맺는다.

A STUDY OF LYNDS 1299 DARK CLOUD

  • RYU OK-KYUNGI;LEE YOUNGUNG
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 1998
  • We have mapped about 1.5 square degree regions of Lynds 1299, a well isolated dark cloud in the Outer Galaxy (l = $122^{\circ}$, b = $-7^{\circ}$), in the J = 1- 0 transition of $^{12}CO$ and $^{13}CO$ with the 13.7 m radio telescope at Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO). We found that there are two velocity components in the molecular emission, at $V_{LSR} = -52 km S^{-1}$ (Cloud A) and -8.8 km $s^{-1}$ (Cloud B), respectively. We have derived physical parameters of two molecular clouds and discussed three different mass estimate techniques. We found that there are large discrepancies between the virial and LTE mass estimates for both clouds. The large virial mass estimate reflects the fact that both are not gravitationally bound. We adopt the mass of $5.6 {\times}10^3 \;M{\bigodot}$ for Cloud A and $1.2{\times}10^3 \;M{\bigodot}$) for Cloud B using conversion factor. Cloud A is found to be associated with a localized star forming site, and its morphology is well matching with that of far-infrared (FIR) dust emission. It shows a clear ring structure with an obvious velocity gradient. We suggest that it may be a remnant cloud from a past episode of massive star formation. Cloud B is found to be unrelated to Cloud A (d = 800 pc) and has no specific velocity structure. The average dust color temperature of the uncontaminated portion of Cloud A is estimated to be 24$\~$27.4 K. The low dust temperature may imply that there is no additional internal heating source within the cloud. The heating of the cloud is probably dominated by the interstellar radiation field except the region directly associated with the new-born B5 star. Overall, the dust properties of Cloud A are similar to those of normal dark cloud even though it does have star forming activity.

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Calculation of TDD-based Occupied Frequency Bandwidth in Technique Criteria for 4G Mobile Communication (4세대 이동통신용 기술기준에 적합한 TDD 기반의 점유주파수 대역폭 도출)

  • Hyun, Young-Ju;Lee, Young-Hwan;Jang, Dong-Won;Kim, Kyung-Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7A
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    • pp.730-737
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    • 2007
  • The new wireless multimedia environment is coming because of the variety of an user requirement and a traffic increase which we can not accept in the IMT-2000 present systems. To offer the wireless multimedia service the world wireless communication company which included the ITU-R is developing the standard and technique of 4G systems. We analyzed the technique criteria of the 4G wireless communication system in this paper which is based on that of WiBro System. We referred to the technique criteria of the WiBro system and deduced an occupied frequency bandwidth which is the common element of the uplink and downlink system among main wireless communication technique criteria. And we verified this through the simulation. So we proposed the occupied frequency bandwidth for 4G wireless communication in this paper.

Calculation of FDD-based Occupied Frequency Bandwidth for 4G Mobile (4세대 이동통신을 위한 FDD 방식을 고려한 점유 주파수 대역폭 산출)

  • Hyun, Young-Ju;Lee, Young-Hwan;Jang, Dong-Won;Kim, Kyung-Seok
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.7 no.10
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2007
  • Today, third-generation(3G) of mobile communication service executing the video and TV. And low cost, high speed data rate will emerge communication of the fourth generation(4G) in future. So, in this paper we studied occupied frequency bandwidth of common technique criteria among the technique criteria for the 4G mobile communication of FDD-based on Up/Down-link. The mobile communication traffic is predicted Up/Down-link of non-symmetric in future. So we proposed the PHY layer parameters of occupied frequency bandwidth of Up/Down-link with both 1:3 and 1:6. We also verified this through the simulation. We proposed the occupied frequency bandwidth for the 4G mobile communication in this paper.

Traffic Offloading Algorithm Using Social Context in MEC Environment (MEC 환경에서의 Social Context를 이용한 트래픽 오프로딩 알고리즘)

  • Cheon, Hye-Rim;Lee, Seung-Que;Kim, Jae-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.514-522
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    • 2017
  • Traffic offloading is a promising solution to solve the explosive growth of mobile traffic. One of offloading schemes, in LIPA/SIPTO(Local IP Access and Selected IP Traffic Offload) offloading, we can offload mobile traffic that can satisfy QoS requirement for application. In addition, it is necessary for traffic offloading using social context due to large traffic from SNS. Thus, we propose the LIPA/SIPTO offloading algorithm using social context. We define the application selection probability using social context, the application popularity. Then, we find the optimal offloading weighting factor to maximize the QoS(Quality of Service) of small cell users in term of effective data rate. Finally, we determine the offloading ratio by this application selection probability and optimal offloading weighting factor. By performance analysis, the effective data rate achievement ratio of the proposed algorithm is similar with the conventional one although the total offloading ratio of the proposed algorithm is about 46 percent of the conventional one.

Traffic Information Service System Using Gateway between VANET and Infrastructure Network (VANET과 기간통신망간 게이트웨이를 사용한 교통정보 서비스 시스템)

  • Park, Mi-Ryong;Kim, Sang-Ha;Kim, Dongwon
    • The Journal of The Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2012
  • We propose a traffic information service system for which traffic data are transmitted over vehicle ad-hoc network from neighbor vehicles, and eventually provided to the traffic information center through a few gateway vehicles which are capable of inter-working with the infrastructure network like 3G. The center broadcasts the traffic information through the FM radio. The proposed scheme allows collecting and analyzing traffic status of large areas without incorporating separated monitoring systems, e.g., probe cars and enables to provide accurate traffic information to drivers in timely manner. We also evaluate its performance by ns-3 simulation.

International Benchmarking of Land-to-mobile Interconnection Charges (국외 벤치마킹을 통한 이동망착신 접속료 수준 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Jun, Hyo-Jung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.360-370
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    • 2013
  • As the mobile telecommunications service market grows rapidly, interconnection opportunities from the fixed network to the mobile network increase and the land-to-mobile (LM) interconnection charge becomes critical factor in competition between fixed and mobile telecommunications service providers. This paper aims to evaluate the LM interconnection charge level in Korea in comparison with those of 36 foreign countries and suggest the regression model for the LM interconnection charge. Based on the regression analysis, we found that regulation, GDP per capita, wire telephone penetration, liberalization are identified as significantly affecting factors on the LM interconnection charge level, and the level of the LM interconnection charge is comparatively low.

An Evaluation of Treatment Technologies for Anti-scale in Drainage Works Using Simulation Test of Road Tunnel (도로터널의 모사시험을 통한 배수공 스케일 억제 기술 평가)

  • Park, Eun-Hyung;Nam, Joong-Woo;Han, Yoon-Su;Kim, Hyun-Gi;Chun, Byung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.5-15
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    • 2013
  • Clogging phenomenon is one of the important problems in deteriorated tunnels, and it caused inhibition of drainage system by long-term behavior. Clogging phenomenon is mainly composed of $CaCO_3$ in the form calcite. Calcite is generally created by the reaction of $Ca(OH)_2$ with $CO_2$ emitted from vehicles. The structure of deteriorated tunnels was simulated and the setting of outflow from drainage pipe was observed in this study. The test was experienced by changing the slope of drainage system because existing drainage system was pracitced almost below $5^{\circ}$. As a result, in case of drainage system's slope is $2^{\circ}$, Quantum Stick has an effect for prohibiting scale in drainage system, but magnetic treatment was not effective. As a result, in case of drainage system's slope is $5^{\circ}$, both technologies were effective for prohibiting scale in drainage system, but Quantum Stick was especially more effective than magnetic treatment.

Dual Bias Modulator for Envelope Tracking and Average Power Tracking Modes for CMOS Power Amplifier

  • Ham, Junghyun;Jung, Haeryun;Bae, Jongsuk;Lim, Wonseob;Hwang, Keum Cheol;Lee, Kang-Yoon;Park, Cheon-Seok;Yang, Youngoo
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.802-809
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents a dual-mode bias modulator (BM) for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) power amplifiers (PAs). The BM includes a hybrid buck converter and a normal buck converter for an envelope tracking (ET) mode for high output power and for an average power tracking (APT) mode for low output power, respectively. The dual-mode BM and CMOS PA are designed using a $0.18-{\mu}m$ CMOS process for the 1.75 GHz band. For the 16-QAM LTE signal with a peak-to-average power ratio of 7.3 dB and a bandwidth of 5 MHz, the PA with the ET mode exhibited a poweradded efficiency (PAE) of 39.2%, an EVM of 4.8%, a gain of 19.0 dB, and an adjacent channel leakage power ratio of -30 dBc at an average output power of 22 dBm, while the stand-alone PA has a PAE of 8% lower at the same condition. The PA with APT mode has a PAE of 21.3%, which is an improvement of 13.4% from that of the stand-alone PA at an output power of 13 dBm.