• Title, Summary, Keyword: LTE

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Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Current Status, Recent Research and Future Directions

  • Schaffer, Graham
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.7-7
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    • 2001
  • The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost -effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminum P/M. particularly in the automotive industry in order to reduce fuel emissions and improve fuel economy at affordable prices. Additional potential markets for Al PIM parts include hand tools. Where moving parts against gravity represents a challenge; and office machinery, where reciprocating forces are important. Aluminum PIM adds light weight, high compressibility. low sintering temperatures. easy machinability and good corrosion resistance to all advantages of conventional iron bm;ed P/rv1. Current commercial alloys are pre-mixed of either the AI-Si-Mg or AL-Cu-Mg-Si type and contain 1.5% ethylene bis-stearamide as an internal lubricant. The powder is compacted in closed dies at pressure of 200-500Mpa and sintered in nitrogen at temperatures between $580~630^{\circ}C$ in continuous muffle furnace. For some applications no further processing is required. although most applications require one or more secondary operations such as sizing and finishing. These sccondary operations improve the dimension. properties or appearance of the finished part. Aluminum is often considered difficult to sinter because of the presence of a stable surface oxide film. Removal of the oxide in iron and copper based is usually achieved through the use of reducing atmospheres. such as hydrogen or dissociated ammonia. In aluminum. this occurs in the solid st,lte through the partial reduction of the aluminum by magncsium to form spinel. This exposcs the underlying metal and facilitates sintering. It has recently been shown that < 0.2% Mg is all that is required. It is noteworthy that most aluminum pre-mixes contain at least 0.5% Mg. The sintering of aluminum alloys can be further enhanced by selective microalloying. Just 100ppm pf tin chnnges the liquid phase sintering kinetics of the 2xxx alloys to produce a tensile strength of 375Mpa. an increilse of nearly 20% over the unmodified alloy. The ductility is unnffected. A similar but different effect occurs by the addition of 100 ppm of Pb to 7xxx alloys. The lend changes the wetting characteristics of the sintering liquid which serves to increase the tensile strength to 440 Mpa. a 40% increase over unmodified aIloys. Current research is predominantly aimed at the development of metal matrix composites. which have a high specific modulus. good wear resistance and a tailorable coefficient of thermal expnnsion. By controlling particle clustering and by engineering the ceramic/matrix interface in order to enhance sintering. very attractive properties can be achicved in the ns-sintered state. I\t an ils-sintered density ilpproaching 99%. these new experimental alloys hnve a modulus of 130 Gpa and an ultimate tensile strength of 212 Mpa in the T4 temper. In contest. unreinforcecl aluminum has a modulus of just 70 Gpa.

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Genetic Analysis of Low Temperature Germinability of Rice (벼의 저온발아성에 관한 유전분석)

  • Kang, Jong-Re;Ko, Mi-Suk;Kim, Ho-Young;Lim, Sang-Jong;Kim, Soon-Chul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.766-777
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate inheritance modes of low temperature germinability(LTG) on rice. Two experiments were carried out: In experiment I, the seeds of 10 rice varieties yielded at the different cultivation conditions which were transplanted in a paddy field from May 20 to July 5 with 15-day interval, were tested at fixed temperature (13$^{\circ}C$) in-door and at field with natural conditions to find out the change of LTG according to different cultivating condition among the each variety, In experiment II, F$_1$ seeds of full diallal cross from six parents, were analyzed for combining ability and reciprocal differences of low temperature germinability. The results are summarized as follows. The seeds of 10 varieties showed significant differences of LTG at the different cultivation conditions, varieties and their interaction. And the relationship between LTG coefficient at 13$^{\circ}C$ and low temperature emergence(LTE) coefficient at field was highly significantly positive(r=0.511). From the analysis of the diallel cross, high significance was found at reciprocal difference and alpha inheritance. The mean squares of general combining ability(GCA) and specific combining ability of LTG were highly significant with higher mean squares of GCA. Seventeen out of 30 cross combinations showed transgressive segregation.

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Behavior of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement under Moving Vehicle Loads and Effecct of Steel Ratio (이동차량하중에 대한 연속철근콘크리트포장의 거동 및 철근비의 영향)

  • Kim Seong-Min;Cho Byoung-Hooi;Kwon Soon-Min
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.119-130
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    • 2006
  • The behavior of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) and the effect of the steel ratio on the behavior under moving wheel loads were investigated in this study. The CRCP sections having different steel ratios of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8% were considered to evaluate the load transfer efficiency (LTE) at transverse cracks and to investigate the strains in CRCP when the system is subjected to moving vehicle loads. The LTEs were obtained by conducting the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests and the tests were performed at three different times of a day to find the curling effect due to the daily temperature changes in CRCP. The strains in the concrete slab and the bond braker layer of the CRCP system under moving vehicle loads were obtained using the embedded strain gages. The results of this study show that the LTEs at transverse cracks are very high and not affected by the time of testing and the steel ratio. The strains in CRCP under vehicle loads become smaller as the vehicle speed increases or as the wandering distance increases; however, the strains are not clearly affected by the steel ratio.

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A Study for the Mechanical Properties in Scouring and Heat Treatment of PLA Woven Fabric (PLA직물의 정련 및 열처리 시 물성변화에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Yeon;Park, Sung-Min;Kang, Suk-Hee;Park, Jeong-Young;Yeom, Jeong-Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Dyers and Finishers Conference
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    • pp.108-108
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    • 2011
  • PLA 즉 폴리유산섬유는 옥수수를 발효하여 글루코오스(포도당)상태를 만든 후 젖산(유산, Lactic acid)으로 만들고 이것을 탈수, 축합반응시켜 polylactic acid로 만든 것이다. 생분해성이 있으므로 저탄소, 녹색성장의 모토를 대변하는 소재라는 이점이 있다. 구조는 에스테르기의 반복단위를 가지는 소수성 섬유로 벤젠환은 없으나 그 외 구조는 폴리에스테르와 비슷하며, 에스테르기가 존재하므로 분산염료와 수소결합하여 염착된다. 그러나 PLA는 융점이 $170^{\circ}C$, Tg $57^{\circ}C$로 내열성이 낮아서 염색온도, 열처리온도, 다림질에 제약이 있으며, 알칼리에 약한 단점이 있다. 따라서 PLA섬유는 낮은 염착량, 내알칼리성, 염착온도 때문에 염색 및 후가공 단계에 많은 사전 실험을 통한 조건 설정이 필요한 까다로운 섬유이다. 본 연구에서는 (주)휴비스의 PLA원사로 제직한 직물(경사:DTY 75/72SD, 위사:DTY 100/72SD, 조직:DOBBY) 생지에 대하여 열처리 시 장력의 유무, 온도, 시간에 따른 폭의 변화를 측정하여 수축률을 알아보았다. 또한, PLA직물을 온도별로 정련한 후 열처리하여 인열강도 측정을 통해 최적 전처리 조건을 조사하였다. 실험결과, PLA생지를 무장력 상태에서 열처리 시 수축이 심하게 일어나고, 장력이 주어져도 열처리 온도에 따라 수축의 정도에 차이가 나타났다. 열처리 시간은 30, 60, 90, 120초로 주었으나 큰 편차는 없었고, 경사가 위사보다 수축 정도가 더 컸으며, $130^{\circ}C$에서는 전체적으로 수축이 심하였다. 생지의 정련에는 인산에스테르계 정련제와 약알칼리인 탄산나트륨으로 조액하여 60, 70, 80, $90^{\circ}C$에서 10분간 처리한 후, Lab. tenter(Mathis, LTE)를 이용하여 110, 120, $130^{\circ}C$에서 30, 60, 90, 120초간 열처리한 다음, KS K 0535 펜듈럼법에 의거하여 인열강도를 측정하였다. 그 결과, 상기 정련온도에서는 인열강도에 영향을 주지 않았으나, 열처리 온도가 $130^{\circ}C$일 때 현저한 강도의 저하를 나타내었다. 실험조건 하에서 가장 적절한 열처리 조건은 $110^{\circ}C$, 60초로 사료된다. 따라서 PLA의 약한 내열성과 내알칼리성 실험결과, 강도나 수축 등 물성변화가 일어나지 않도록 열처리 온도의 제어에 주의가 필요함을 확인할 수 있었다. 실제 섬유가공 작업현장에서는 일반적으로 열처리기가 $180^{\circ}C$이상의 고온으로 고정된 경우가 많은데, 작업자들에게 PLA소재에 대한 사전주의 및 공정변경에 대한 주지가 요구된다.

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CO Observations Toward IRAS 07280-1829 and Its Related Clouds (적외선원 IRAS 07280-1829와 이와 관련된 분자운의 CO분자선 관측연구)

  • Lee, Chang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.402-410
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    • 2011
  • We present results of CO observations toward an infrared (IR) source, IRAS 07280-1829, and its possibly related molecular clouds. The physical parameters of this IR source such as its infrared slope (${\alpha}$=16) of the Spectral Energy Distribution and bolometric temperature (145 K) indicate that it is an embedded protostar. Its luminosity is ${\sim}2.9{\times}10^4L_{\odot}$, typical of a massive star. The CO profile toward IRAS 07280-1829 has broad wing components, implying a possible existence of CO outflow. The excitation temperature and mass of a molecular cloud (Cloud A) which is thought to harbor the IR source are estimated to be 9~22 K and ~180 $M_{\odot}$, respectively, indicating the Cloud A is a typical infrared-dark cloud. Its LTE mass is found to be much smaller than its virial mass by more than a factor of 10 which is inconsistent with the fact that a protostar recently formed exists in the Cloud A. This may suggest that the environment of the cloud where the IR source is forming is dominant of turbulence and/or magnetic filed, making its virial mass estimated unusually high.

Overexpression and Periplasmic Transport of 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-Phosphate Synthase in E. coli (대장균에서 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-Phosphate Synthase의 대량 발현 및 Periplasmic Space로의 Transport)

  • 김남일;임재윤;조태주
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1997
  • 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate(EPSP) synthase is the sixth enzyme of the shikimate pathway that synthesizes aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is a primary target for the glyphos'lte which is a broad-spectrum and environmetally safe herbicide. As a first step toward development of glyphpsate-resistant EPSP synthase, the EPSP synthase gene(aroA) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cluned into pET-25b vector. In this construct. designated pET-aro, the aroA gene is expressed under control of strong T7 promoter. and the EPSP synthase is produced as a fusion protein with pelB leader at N-terminus and HSV-tag and His-tag at C-terminus. When the pET-aro clone was induced to produce the enzyme, it was found that the EPSP synthase was successfully exported to peri plasmic space. The periplasmic transport was greatly dependent on the induction temperatures. Among the induction temperatures examined($25^{\circ}C$, $30^{\circ}C$, $34^{\circ}C$ and $37^{\circ}C$). induction at $34^{\circ}C$ gave rise to maximal periplasmic transport. The recomhinant EPSP synthase could have been purified hy $Ni^{2+}$ -affinity chromatography using the His-tag. and detected hy anti-HSV -tag antibody. The recombinant EPSP synthase also hound to phosphocellulose resin and was eluted hy shikimate 3-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. as expected. The recombinant EPSP synthase purified from phosphocellulose resin showed typical EPSP synthase activity.

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Monitoring of Tidal Sand Shoal with a Camera Monitoring System and its Morphologic Change (카메라를 활용한 조석사주 관측시스템 구축 및 지형변화)

  • Lee, Soong-Ji;Lee, Guan-Hong;Kang, Tae-Soon;Kim, Young-Taeg;Kim, Tea-Lim
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.326-333
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    • 2015
  • A tidal sandshoal, called 'Puldeung' in the Daeijackdo Marine Protected Area(DMPA), is facing erosion due to sand mining in the nearby coastal region. To monitor the morphologic change and erosion of Puldeung, a camera monitoring system was established at the top of Song-Ee Mountain in Daeijack Island. The system consists of 2 Cannon digital cameras, Eye-fi memory card/Long-Term Evolution wireless network, and solar power supply. The acquired camera images were analyzed to obtain the area of Puldeung by the following methods: geometric correction of image, identification of shoreline, areal measurement of Puldeung and its error estimation. To compare the Puldeung area with previously measured area of 1.79 km2 at tidal height of 137 cm in 2008 and of 1.59 km2 at tidal height of 148 cm in 2010, we selected images with same tidal heights. The Puldeung area was 1.37 and 1.23 km2 at the tidal height of 137 and 148 cm, respectively. The erosion at DMPA is very severe and thus it is imperative to initiate the morphodynamical study on the seasonal variation and long-term evolution of Puldeung as well as the causes and measures of Puldeung erosion.

Resource Allocation Scheme for Multiple Device-to-Device Communications in a Multicell Network (다중 셀 네트워크에서 다중 D2D 통신 자원할당 기법)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Min;Kang, Gil-Mo;Shin, Oh-Soon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.53 no.9
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2016
  • In D2D communications underlaying a multicell network, it is of primary importance to ensure coexistence of cellular links and D2D links with minimal interference. Therefore, resource allocation scheme for D2D links should be designed to limit the interference between cellular links and D2D links. In this paper, we propose an effective resource allocation scheme for multiple D2D links which share the uplink spectrum resource with cellular users in a multicell network. Under the assumption that the locations of users are known to the base station, the proposed scheme allocates cellular resources to D2D links, such that the interference between a cellular link and multiple D2D links is minimized. In particular, we compute two constants from the path loss model and then use the constants to protect both cellular and D2D links. Simulation results are provided to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.