• Title, Summary, Keyword: LTE

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An Adaptive Differential Equal Gain Transmission Technique using M-PSK Constellations (M-PSK 성운을 이용한 적응형 차분 동 이득 전송 기술)

  • Kim, Young-Ju;Seo, Chang-Won
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2016
  • We propose an adaptive scheme of a differential codebook for temporally correlated channels. And the codeword entries of the propose codebook are selected among the set of M-PSK constellations - the values of M proposed in this paper are 8, 16, or 32. Firstly, we analyze mathematically how the optimal spherical cap radius of the proposed codebook is tracked. Then, we explain the practical implementation of the proposed adaptive method. Practically, some candidate differential codebooks we propose in this paper can be switched according to the temporal correlation coefficients of wireless channels in the proposed scheme. Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate that the achievable throughput performance employing the proposed codebook is always superior to those of the differential codebooks employing M-PSK constellations and non-adaptive differential codebooks with the same amount of feedback information.

Analysis for Efficiency of Long Range Wireless IoT Network (장거리무선통신 IoT 네트워크 효율성 분석)

  • Kim, Ki-Young
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.617-623
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    • 2016
  • Recently, IoT technology has been applied to the control of appliances in the home, and information about temperature, humidity, etc. is collected and the application of the system to control the indoor environment automatically is increasing. Currently, the network configuration of IoT devices is mainly used to connect IoT devices to the Internet through wireless gateways. Since such a method is dependent on a gateway, there are limitations in providing various services. Therefore, this paper proposes an independent method of gateway by using IoT network without using gateway by applying long distance wireless communication technology. IoT devices using the proposed long distance wireless internet technology can connect to a remote server and provide mobility that can not be supported by existing methods, thereby providing more various services. The performance evaluation of the proposed network configuration method is compared with the delay time and the amount of data generated in the existing network method constituted by the gateway and the proposed network configuration method respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed method decreases the delay time and the amount of data generated by the gateway.

Joint User Scheduling and Power Control Considering Both Signal and Interference for Multi-Cell Networks (다중 셀 상향링크 네트워크에서 신호와 간섭을 동시에 고려하는 전력 제어 및 사용자 스케쥴링)

  • Cho, Moon-Je;Jung, Bang Chul;Ban, Tae-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.477-483
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we propose a distributed user scheduling with interference-aware power control (IAPC) to maximize signal to generating interference plus noise ratio (SGINR) in uplink multi-cell networks. Assuming that the channel reciprocity time-division duplexing (TDD) system is used, the channel state information (CSI) can be obtained at each user from pilot signals from other BSs. In the proposed scheduling, to be specific, each user reduces the transmit power if its generating interference to other BSs is larger than a predetermined threshold. Each BS selects the user with the largest SGINR among users. Simulation results show that the proposed technique significantly outperforms the existing user scheduling algorithms. It is worth noting that the proposed technique operates with distributed manner without information exchange among cells. Hence, it can be easily applied to the practical wireless systems like 3GPP LTE without significant modifications of the specification.

Validity Study of Dynamic Balance Abilities Measure using a Smartphone (스마트폰을 이용한 동적균형능력 측정의 타당도 연구)

  • Han, Seul-Ki;Lee, Sang-Yong;Lee, Dae-Hee;Park, Jung-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of dynamic balance measurements using a smartphone. METHODS: Thirty subjects were selected out of Y-university students without fractures, operation history, and inflammatory arthritis who had not started regular exercise during the past three months. Their dynamic balance ability was measured by the Biodex Balance System (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc., USA) using smartphones. The smartphone utilized in this study was the Galaxy Note4 LTE (SM-N910K, Samsung, Korea), and the application was the Sensor Kinetics pro (Ver.2.1.2, INNOVENTIONS Inc, US). The dynamic balance ability was measured in triplicate. RESULTS: With eyes closed, a low level of correlation (r>0.30, p<0.05) and low reliability (ICC>0.60) were determined between the roll value of the smartphone gyroscope versus the medial/lateral score of the Biodex Balance System. With eyes closed, a low level of correlation (r>0.30, p<0.05) and low reliability (ICC>0.60) were determined between the total value of the smartphone gyroscope versus the total score of the Biodex Balance System. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that using a smartphone can generate highly limited data regarding balance ability. They are unlikely to replace the existing more expensive devices entirely. However, smartphones may be highly useful in environments in which an expensive device is not available or when dynamic balance ability should be measured immediately or within a few hours.

Multi-Cell Search Scheme for Heterogeneous Networks (이기종 네트워크를 위한 다중 셀 검출 기법)

  • Cho, Yong-Ho;Ko, Hak-lim;Im, Tae-ho
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.395-403
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    • 2016
  • This paper introduces a multi-cell search method for heterogeneous networks (HetNet), in which user equipments need to search multiple cells in its vicinity simultaneously. Due to the difficulty of acquiring channel informations for multiple cells, a non-coherent approach is preferred. In this paper, a non-coherent single-cell search scheme using a weighted vector is proposed, and the successive interference cancellation based multi-cell search algorithm is devised. In order to improve cell search performance, the weighted vector is designed in a way to exploit the general characteristic of wireless channel. Based on the fact that the performance of the proposed single-cell search scheme deviates slowly from the one using the optimal weighted vector, a universal weighted vector is also proposed, which shows the performance close to the optimal ones for various channel environments and signal-to-noise ratio regimes. Simulation results confirm that the proposed multi-cell search algorithm is capable of identifying cells more accurately with the help of the proposed single-cell search scheme, and can detect the remaining cells more effectively by removing the signals of the identified cells from the received signal.

3GPP Standardization Activity for Small Cell Enhancement (3GPP 소형셀 향상 표준화 기술 동향)

  • Baek, SeungKwon;Chang, SungCheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.628-631
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    • 2014
  • Recently, the proliferation of new applications, e.g., mobile TV, Internet gaming, large file transfer, and the various of user terminals, e.g., smart phones and notebooks, has dramatically increased user traffic and network load. In order to meet this traffic growth, vendors and cellular operators are working on the development of new technologies and cellular standards. Within them, small cell deployment has been heralded as one of most promising way to increase both coverage and capacity of future cellular network. Small cell technology enables to improve capacity of cellular radio network by tight cooperation between small cell and macro cell in multi-tier network where small cells are densely deployed within macro cell coverage. In this paper, we describe the deployment scenarios for cooperation between macro cell and small cells and state-of-the-art technologies related to dense small cell deployment. Then, we also provide design principles and standardization trends for small cell enhancement in 3GPP.

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Development of on-demand control technique based on ICT for multiple wells (ICT기반 수요대응형 관정군집제어 기술 개발)

  • Park, Changhui;Kim, Sunghyun;Yi, Myeong-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.32-32
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    • 2020
  • 하나의 수계 또는 용수구역 내에서 작물생육기간 동안 지하수자원 수요량의 집중적인 증가로 인해 지역적 지하수 고갈이 발생하여 농작물 피해가 발생하고 있으며 과잉양수로 인한 지하수위 하강으로 사용자간 갈등도 빈번하다. 또한, 기후변화로 인해 극한기후인 가뭄의 잦은 발생은 이러한 현상을 가속화 한다. 지하수 산출성이 좋은 대수층의 공간적 분포는 복잡한 지질구조로 인해 균일하지 않으며 같은 대수층 내에서도 양수 위치에 따라 산출성은 다르게 나타난다. 이러한 지하수 수요와 공급 및 대수층 분포로 인한 지하수자원 불균형의 해소를 위해 지하수가 풍부한 지역에서 부족한 지역으로 지하수를 공급하는 방법을 적용할 수 있다. 이때 기술적용 지역의 지하수 사용 상황 및 공급 가능량을 정량적으로 평가하고 이를 기반으로 지하수 공급을 제어하는 것이 매우 중요하다. 지하수자원의 수요-공급 불균형이 발생할 때 즉각적으로 대응하기 위해서는 실시간으로 지하수 현황을 감시하고 이를 기반으로 공급 가능량을 산정할 필요가 있으며 이는 정보통신기술(Information and Communication Technology, ICT)에 기반한 관정연계관리체계(Well Network System, WNS)를 구성하는 기술 중 하나인 관정군집제어 기술로 구현될 수 있다. 수계 내에 설치된 기존의 양수정과 새롭게 추가된 관측정들을 4G LTE 네트워크를 통해 하나의 관정군으로 묶고 중앙 서버를 통한 자료 분석 및 양수 펌프 제어를 통해 대수층의 공급 능력과 사용자의 수요 현황에 따른 지하수자원의 체계적 분배를 구현하고자 하였다. 관정군집제어는 관정별 지하수위 및 양수정 양수량을 실시간으로 관측하고 이를 분석서버에 전송하여 해당 지하수계의 공급 가능량 및 인접관정 간섭 등을 분석하여 양수정의 펌프를 실시간으로 제어하고 양수된 지하수를 수요 지역으로 이송한다. 본 연구를 통해 관정군집제어 기술의 구현에 필요한 구성요소를 정의하고 이에 대한 구현 방법을 기술하여 WNS를 구성하는 하나의 요소기술 모델로 제시하고자 하였다.

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A CYANOACETYLENE STUDY OF THE MOLECULAR DISK IN STAR FORMING REGIONS

  • Chung, H.S.;Kameya, Osamu;Morimoto, Masaki
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.217-271
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    • 1991
  • We have observed dense core around young stellar objects, DR21, S140, Orion-KL, and L1551 using four millimeter-wave transitions of $HC_3N\;J$=4-3, J=5-4, J=10-9, and J=12-11. The spatial distribution of $HC_3N$ emission closely resembles the morphology of the previous CS observations that trace high density gas. These observations reveal the existence of $HC_3N$ dense cores around central IR source, elliptical in shape and almost perpendicular to the CO bipolar outflow axis. Small differences can be explained by that $HC_3N$ molecular line is more optically thin and is seen to be more detailed structure in the neighborhood of central IR sources. In S140 and Orion-KL, massive(${\sim}10\;M_{\odot}$), slowly rotating dense cores lie near at the central IR sources of bipolar outflows. The velocity channel maps of DR21 show that the bipolar outflow gas may have a correlation with the dense core of DR21. We analyzed intensities of the four lines to derive physical conditions in dense core from two methods, LTE and LVG. The column density of $HC_3N$, $N(HC_3N)$, between LTE and LVG calculations agree well with each other. The abundances of $HC_3N$ in each observing source have been estimated using the average values of $n(H_2)$ and $N(HC_3N)$ and assuming the size of dense core. The fractional $HC_3N$ abundances in massive dense cores of DR21, S140, and Orion-KL have a range of $(2-7){\times}10^{-10}$, while that of low mass dense core, L1551, has one order of magnitude greater value of $2{\times}10^{-9}$. This should be considered good agreement with the result by Morris et al.(1976). It may be considered that dense cores of DR21, S140, and Orion-KL may have almost same stage of chemical evolution, and their abundances have a small values relative to that of L1551. The column density $N(HC_3N)$ decreases with increasing distance from the densest part of the cloud, the central infrared source, and have the relation of $N(HC_3N){\varpropto}R^{\alpha}$, where a has a range of 0.65 to 0.89. The values of $n(H_2)$ are not varied with increasing distance from the dense core, and have almost same values. Therefore, it is considered that the dense cores in these regions probably consist of dense clumps in diffuse molecular gas medium, and $n(H_2)$ of each clump is ${\sim}10^5\;cm^{-3}$. Levels in the $T_{ex}$ increases with $n(H_2)$. It is considered that the $HC_3N$ dense cores are not completely thermalized. We examine the relationships between the luminosity of central infrared sources versus mass of the dense cores, and the luminosity of central infrared sources versus molecular hydrogen column density. Luminosities of the central IR sources show good correlation with mass and hydrogen column density of the dense core. Same has been found from CS observations. However, mass and size derived from $HC_3N$ observations are one order of magnitude smaller than those from CS. It can be interpreted that we see more central part of the cloud cores in $NC_3N$ lines than CS lines.

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Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Current Status, Recent Research and Future Directions

  • Schaffer, Graham
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.7-7
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    • 2001
  • The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost -effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminum P/M. particularly in the automotive industry in order to reduce fuel emissions and improve fuel economy at affordable prices. Additional potential markets for Al PIM parts include hand tools. Where moving parts against gravity represents a challenge; and office machinery, where reciprocating forces are important. Aluminum PIM adds light weight, high compressibility. low sintering temperatures. easy machinability and good corrosion resistance to all advantages of conventional iron bm;ed P/rv1. Current commercial alloys are pre-mixed of either the AI-Si-Mg or AL-Cu-Mg-Si type and contain 1.5% ethylene bis-stearamide as an internal lubricant. The powder is compacted in closed dies at pressure of 200-500Mpa and sintered in nitrogen at temperatures between $580~630^{\circ}C$ in continuous muffle furnace. For some applications no further processing is required. although most applications require one or more secondary operations such as sizing and finishing. These sccondary operations improve the dimension. properties or appearance of the finished part. Aluminum is often considered difficult to sinter because of the presence of a stable surface oxide film. Removal of the oxide in iron and copper based is usually achieved through the use of reducing atmospheres. such as hydrogen or dissociated ammonia. In aluminum. this occurs in the solid st,lte through the partial reduction of the aluminum by magncsium to form spinel. This exposcs the underlying metal and facilitates sintering. It has recently been shown that < 0.2% Mg is all that is required. It is noteworthy that most aluminum pre-mixes contain at least 0.5% Mg. The sintering of aluminum alloys can be further enhanced by selective microalloying. Just 100ppm pf tin chnnges the liquid phase sintering kinetics of the 2xxx alloys to produce a tensile strength of 375Mpa. an increilse of nearly 20% over the unmodified alloy. The ductility is unnffected. A similar but different effect occurs by the addition of 100 ppm of Pb to 7xxx alloys. The lend changes the wetting characteristics of the sintering liquid which serves to increase the tensile strength to 440 Mpa. a 40% increase over unmodified aIloys. Current research is predominantly aimed at the development of metal matrix composites. which have a high specific modulus. good wear resistance and a tailorable coefficient of thermal expnnsion. By controlling particle clustering and by engineering the ceramic/matrix interface in order to enhance sintering. very attractive properties can be achicved in the ns-sintered state. I\t an ils-sintered density ilpproaching 99%. these new experimental alloys hnve a modulus of 130 Gpa and an ultimate tensile strength of 212 Mpa in the T4 temper. In contest. unreinforcecl aluminum has a modulus of just 70 Gpa.

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Genetic Analysis of Low Temperature Germinability of Rice (벼의 저온발아성에 관한 유전분석)

  • Kang, Jong-Re;Ko, Mi-Suk;Kim, Ho-Young;Lim, Sang-Jong;Kim, Soon-Chul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.766-777
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate inheritance modes of low temperature germinability(LTG) on rice. Two experiments were carried out: In experiment I, the seeds of 10 rice varieties yielded at the different cultivation conditions which were transplanted in a paddy field from May 20 to July 5 with 15-day interval, were tested at fixed temperature (13$^{\circ}C$) in-door and at field with natural conditions to find out the change of LTG according to different cultivating condition among the each variety, In experiment II, F$_1$ seeds of full diallal cross from six parents, were analyzed for combining ability and reciprocal differences of low temperature germinability. The results are summarized as follows. The seeds of 10 varieties showed significant differences of LTG at the different cultivation conditions, varieties and their interaction. And the relationship between LTG coefficient at 13$^{\circ}C$ and low temperature emergence(LTE) coefficient at field was highly significantly positive(r=0.511). From the analysis of the diallel cross, high significance was found at reciprocal difference and alpha inheritance. The mean squares of general combining ability(GCA) and specific combining ability of LTG were highly significant with higher mean squares of GCA. Seventeen out of 30 cross combinations showed transgressive segregation.

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