• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lactating Cow

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Evaluation of Urinary Nitrogen Excretion from Plasma Urea Nitrogen in Dry and Lactating Cows

  • Kume, S.;Numata, K.;Takeya, Y;Miyagawa, Y;Ikeda, S.;Kitagawa, M.;Nonaka, K.;Oshita, T.;Kozakai, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1159-1163
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    • 2008
  • Data of 42 balance measurements from dry and lactating Holstein cows and blood and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black cows were collected to evaluate the potential for predicting urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Similar positive correlations were obtained between N intake and apparent N absorption in dry and lactating cows. The regression equations of N intake on urinary N excretion varied in dry and lactating cows, and the difference of urinary N excretion between dry and lactating cows was due to the N secretion into milk. Highly positive correlations were observed between urinary N contents and urinary urea N in Japanese Black cows, and urinary urea N increased with increasing PUN. There were positive correlations between N intake and PUN in dry and lactating cows, but PUN and urinary N excretion in lactating cows were higher than in dry cows. There were positive correlations between PUN and urinary N excretion per BW in dry and lactating cows. Although urinary N excretion could be calculated as (N clearance rate of kidneys)PUNBW, high N clearance rate of kidneys, such as 2.08 L/d/kg BW, may be suitable to calculate urinary N excretion in lactating cows, compared with 1.33 L/d/kg BW in dry cows.

ON FARM EVALUATION OF UREA MOLASSESED STRAW (UMS) FEEDING TO LACTATING COWS

  • Islam, M.;Huque, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.523-527
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    • 1995
  • Two on farm feeding trials were conducted at the Pabna milkshed area during July to October 1993, to evaluate the response of feeding urea molassesed straw (UMS) on milk production of Pabna milking cows and its economics. A feeding trial of 60 days with 50 Pabna milking cows showed that the cows fed UMS as a replacer of dry straw increased daily milk yield by 1.37 litre. Moreover, it reduced the daily requirement of concentrate by 1.0 kg/head. In the second trial, a herd of 52 animals including 14 milking cows were fed UMS in place of traditionally used dry straw. Introduction of UMS increased the milk production by 1.0 litre/cow/day and saved concentrate by 1.5 kg/cow daily. Urea molassesed straw can safely and economically be fed to lactating cows.

Diurnal Variations in Milk and Blood Urea Nitrogen and Whole Blood Ammonia Nitrogen in Dairy Cows

  • Hwang, Sen-Yuan;Lee, Mei-Ju;Peh, Huo-Cheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1683-1689
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    • 2001
  • The levels of urea nitrogen both in blood (BUN) and milk (MUN), and milk protein (MP) reflect protein and energy intake in dairy herd feeding. Blood and milk constituents may be changes rhythmically and influence by different sampling time within a day and after feeding. Trials were conducted using five dietary treatments in both lactating and dry cows to study the effects of sampling time on concentrations of BUN, MUN and whole blood ammonia nitrogen (BAN) in practical dairy cow feeding in Taiwan. The conventional feed ingredients and forages including corn silage, alfalfa hay, timothy or pangola hay and corn grain were used as major source of the diet to follow practical dairy cow feeding. Five different diets were varying in amounts (low=L; standard=S; high=H) of crude protein (P) and energy (E) according to the NRC (1989). The energy to protein ratios in kcal/kg for the PSES, PLES, PHES, PSEH and PSEL were 10.82, 12.54, 9.41, 12.53 and 9.13 in lactating cows, and 11.38, 13.33, 9.78, 13.28 and 9.74 in dry cows, respectively. Results showed that after feeding at 9:30, BUN reached peak at 13:30 and was significantly higher than those to that sampled at 14:30 to 18:30 (p<0.05) in dry cows. Therefore the best blood sampling time for urea nitrogen assay in dry cows is 4 hours after morning feeding. In lactating cows, BUN of 13:30 was significantly higher than those of 8:30 to 11:30 (p<0.05), but there were no significant difference between the BUN values of other sampling time. Hence the suitable blood sampling time for BUN value in lactating cows was located on 3 to 8 hours after morning feeding, but the best time was 4 hours after morning feeding. MUN content is significantly higher in the afternoon collected bulk milk than the fore-strip morning milk (p<0.05), therefore the best sampling time for MUN is from afternoon collected bulk milk. Diurnal BAN changed without traceable rhythmic pattern and was negatively correlated to the BUN (r = -0.78). It is suggested that BAN may not be a good indicator for monitoring dairy cow feeding.

Influence of Mentha×piperita L. (Peppermint) Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Hosoda, K.;Nishida, T.;Park, W.Y.;Eruden, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1721-1726
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    • 2005
  • The characteristic smell of cow milk was suppressed when herbs were consumed by lactating dairy cows. But it is unclear whether or not peppermint ingestion affects the nutritional and milk production parameters in lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of peppermint feeding to lactating dairy cows on nutrient digestibility, energy metabolism, ruminal fermentation and milk production. Eight Holstein cows were given a diet supplemented with or without 5% of dried peppermint per diet on a dry matter basis. The digestion of nutrients from cows fed the diet with peppermint was significantly lower than that of the control group. Energy loss as methane and methane released from cows receiving the peppermint treatment was significantly lower than that in the control cows. Peppermint feeding to cows resulted in the promotion of thermogenesis. However, ruminal fermentation and milk production were not affected by peppermint feeding. In conclusion, peppermint ingestion by lactating dairy cows reduces the nutrient digestibility and methanogenesis, and changes energy metabolism.

Effects of low dietary cation-anion difference induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum, and urine metabolites of lactating dairy cows

  • Wang, Kun;Nan, Xuemei;Zhao, Puyi;Liu, Wei;Drackley, James K.;Liu, Shijie;Zhang, Kaizhan;Bu, Dengpan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. Methods: Four primiparous lactating Chinese Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were infused with increasing amounts (0, 150, 300, or 450 g/d) of ammonium chloride in a crossover design. The DCAD of the base diet was 279 mEq/kg dry matter (DM) using the DCAD formula (Na + K - Cl - S)/kg of DM. Ammonium chloride infusion added the equivalent of 0, 128, 330, and 536 mEq/kg DM of Cl in treatments. According to the different dry matter intakes (DMI), the resulting actual DCAD of the four treatments was 279, 151, -51, and -257 mEq/kg DM, respectively. Results: DMI decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Yields of milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Concentrations of milk protein and milk urea nitrogen increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Concentration of Cl- in serum increased linearly and concentration of PO43- in serum increased quadratically as DCAD decreased. Urine pH decreased linearly and calculated urine volume increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Linear increases in daily urinary excretion of $Cl^-$, $Ca^{2+}$, $PO_4{^{3-}}$, urea N, and ammonium were observed as DCAD decreased. Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and ${\gamma}-glutamyl$ transferase in serum and urea N concentration in serum increased linearly as DCAD decreased. Conclusion: In conclusion, negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion resulted in a metabolic acidosis, had a negative influence on performance, and increased serum enzymes indicating potential liver and kidney damage in lactating dairy cows. Daily ammonium chloride intake by lactating dairy cows should not exceed 300 g, and 150 g/d per cow may be better.

Effect of Restriction of Dry Matter and Nutrient Intakes on Productivity of Holstein Lactating Cows Offered High Levels of Concentrate (건물 및 영양소 섭취량 제한이 농후사료 급여 비율이 높은 착유우의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Young-Seok;Rim, Jong-Su;Jang, Won-Seok;Kim, Myeong-Hwa;Lee, Sang-Rak
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2009
  • Effects of dry matter intake restriction to the level of recommend by NRC (2001) on intake balance of dry matter and nutrients in Holstein lactating cow were evaluated. 24 lactating cows were divided into two groups and individually fed one of the TMR offered as ad libitum (control) and restricted amount (treatment) as recommended by NRC (2001). Milk yield including 4% FCM and FPCM were showed higher tendency in treatment group then those of control group. Also, intakes of dry matter, net energy and metabolizable protein were tended to be higher in treatment group then control group. Actual dry matter and net energy intakes in control group were higher (p<0.001) then those of recommended amount by NRC (2001), whereas no significant differences in treatment group. The estimated $NE_L$ allowable milk yield were lower (p<0.001) in both control and treatment group than those of recommended by NRC (2001). It was concluded that to allow ad libitum feeding of diet containing high levels of concentrate to the lactating cows might decrease the efficiency of feed nutrients and hence result in no positive effect on productivity of milk.

Glucose Kinetics for Milk Synthesis in Etawah Crossbred Goats Fed King Grass Silage Prepared with Manure

  • Kiranadi, B.;Sastradipradja, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.982-985
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    • 2002
  • A study was carried out to determine glucose kinetics, nutrient balance and milk production of lactating Etawah crossbred goats. The animals (27.2 to 29.1 kg BW) were randomly divided into four levels of dietary treatment groups: the first group R1 received 100% (3 kg) fresh king grass (Penisetum purpuroides), the second group R2 received 75% king grass and 25% king grass silage prepared with chicken manure, the third group R3 received 50% king grass and 50% silage, and the fourth group R4 received 100% silage. In addition to the roughage, each group received 800 g of concentrate (CP 14.77% of DM; 17.26 MJ/kg). Animals fed king grass silage made with chicken manure were found to be superior to the group fed king grass alone. Glucose kinetics and retained energy were significantly affected. Calculations showed that glucose requirements for maintenance and milk production can be met for the groups with high levels of silage (R3 and R4). The values of glucose flux were in the range of 2.52 to 4.50 mg/min.kg $BW^{0.807}$ which are lower, but close to, the values for the temperate lactating dairy cow. The present glucose flux value for the lactating Etawah crossbred goat is higher than the previous value published from this laboratory.

Effects of Dandelion (Taraxzcum coreanum) Supplementation on Milk Yield, Milk Compositions and Blood Characteristics in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Cho, Jung Youl;Kim, Eun Joong;Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of Dandelion (Taraxzcum coreanum) supplementation on milk yield, milk composition and blood characteristics in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were divided into two groups (control: TMR supplementation, treatment: TMR with Dandelion supplementation). The milk yield, milk fat, lactose, solids not fat (SNF) and somatic cells counts (SCC) were not significantly different between the control group and the treatment group, whereas milk protein, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and free fat acid (FFA) were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control (p<0.05). The blood components of the treatment group were compared with those of the control group and only aspartate aminotransferase (AST) appeared significantly high (p<0.05). The other blood components were not significantly different in the two groups. Blood corpuscle components in the groups were not significantly different. Especially, all blood corpuscle components in the treatment group were within the normal range. However, the white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM) and hematocrits (HCT) in the control group exceeded the normal range. Based on the above results, the addition of Dandelion to feed increased milk protein, MUN and FFA, but did not significantly affect the composition of the blood and corpuscle in Holstein milking cows.

EFFECTS OF FRUCTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES ON MILK-YIELD AND MILK-COMPONENTS OF DAIRY COWS

  • Kobayashi, S.;Eida, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 1990
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides are found in many plants, such as onion, burdock and wheat. They are not well hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in animals, but are peculiarly assimilated by Bifidobacterium and some useful bacteria. In our previous experiment (Kobayashi et al., 1987) it was suggested that they were effective in decreasing energy loss in the metabolism of dairy calves. In the present study, the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides on body weight, milk-yield and milk-components (fat, protein and solids-not-fat) were investigated in dairy cows. Lactating cows were fed a standard diet containing fructoligo saccharides at 18.70g, 9.35g and 0.0g (control) per 100kg body weight, day for three weeks. Neither treatments significantly affected any of the parameters examined. The fructo-oligosaccharides were assumed to be hydrolyzed by rumen microorganisms and hardly to affect the bacterium florae in the intestines of the lactating cows.

Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Right Atrial Vegetative Endocarditis in a Cow (우의 우심방증식성심내막염의 초음파단층영상진단 1예)

  • Kweon Oh-Kyeong
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 1988
  • A lactating Holstein cow which did not have had responded to drug therapy during 2 months was clinically examined. Right atrial vegetative endocarditis was determined dy ultrasonographic diagnosis, and later it was confirmed at necropsy. An early systolic

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