• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lactation Curve

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Non-linear modelling to describe lactation curve in Gir crossbred cows

  • Bangar, Yogesh C.;Verma, Med Ram
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.3.1-3.7
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    • 2017
  • Background: The modelling of lactation curve provides guidelines in formulating farm managerial practices in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitable non-linear model which most accurately fitted to lactation curves of five lactations in 134 Gir crossbred cows reared in Research-CumDevelopment Project (RCDP) on Cattle farm, MPKV (Maharashtra). Four models viz. gamma-type function, quadratic model, mixed log function and Wilmink model were fitted to each lactation separately and then compared on the basis of goodness of fit measures viz. adjusted $R^2$, root mean square error (RMSE), Akaike's Informaion Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). Results: In general, highest milk yield was observed in fourth lactation whereas it was lowest in first lactation. Among the models investigated, mixed log function and gamma-type function provided best fit of the lactation curve of first and remaining lactations, respectively. Quadratic model gave least fit to lactation curve in almost all lactations. Peak yield was observed as highest and lowest in fourth and first lactation, respectively. Further, first lactation showed highest persistency but relatively higher time to achieve peak yield than other lactations. Conclusion: Lactation curve modelling using gamma-type function may be helpful to setting the management strategies at farm level, however, modelling must be optimized regularly before implementing them to enhance productivity in Gir crossbred cows.

Lactation and Function of Curve Parameters in Yankasa Sheep

  • Afolayan, R.A.;Abubakar, B.Y.;Osinowo, O.A.;Dim, N.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.890-894
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    • 2002
  • The accuracy of the gamma function to describe lactation curve of Yankasa ewes was investigated using milk production data obtained from 168 ewes with either complete or incomplete 84 day lactation records. Ewes were daily hand milked after over-night separation from lamb and thorough disinfection of the udder. The daily milk yield on the average was estimated from the weekly total yield. The effect of type of birth, parity, season of birth and lactation length on the components of lactation curve (a, b, c and s) were analysed by least-square procedures. All factors except parity significantly (p<0.01) influenced the curve parameters. The goodness of fit of the function did not differ between the two classes of varying duration of lactation; incomplete lactation however, showed a lower persistency and as expected lower level of production. Correlations ($r_p$) between lamb weight gain and milk yield using the weight records from lamb weighed at weekly intervals indicated a high and positive relationship in the early lactation that decreased in intensity as the lactation advanced.

Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter

  • Angeles-Hernandez, J.C.;Albarran-Portillo, B.;Gomez Gonzalez, A.V.;Pescador Salas, N.;Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1119-1126
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood's Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott's multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients ($R^2$), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management.

Effects of season and age at first calving on genetic and phenotypic characteristics of lactation curve parameters in Holstein cows

  • Torshizi, Mahdi Elahi
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.8.1-8.14
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    • 2016
  • In this research data representing 72,946 primiparous cows from 724 herds with 638,063 total test day records calved between 2001 and 2011. These data were analysed to determine the effect of age at first and season of calving on parameters of the Wood lactation curve. Also, genetic trend of the lactation curve parameters in different calving years were evaluated. The results indicate that the highest rate of atypical lactation curve was related to cows that calved in summer (28.05 %). The maximum phenotypic relationship between initial milk yield and total 305-d milk yield was observed in cows calved in spring (0.40). The role of peak yield is more than peak time on 305-d total milk yield in primiparous Holstein. One month increase in age at first calving from 18 to 26 month raised 305-d milk yield by around 138 kg and from 27 to 32 month decreased by 61 kg. The persistency of lactation between 101 and 200 days is higher than that of 201-305 days. Our results indicate that the shape of lactation curve is largely dependent on the season of calving (higher level of milk production in cows which calved in autumn and winter). The heritabilities of parameters of lactation curve and persistency measures were low. The genetic trends for peak time, peak yield and 305-d milk yields were positive and estimated to be 0.019, 0.021 and 8.13 kg/year respectively. So the range from 24 to 26.5 month of calving is the optimum calving time in primiparous Holstein for maximizing 305-d milk yield.

Effect of Days Open on the Lactation Curve of Holstein Cattle in Saudi Arabia

  • Ali, A.K.A.;AI-Haidary, A.;Alshaikh, M.A.;Gamil, M.H.;Hayes, E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.277-286
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    • 2000
  • A total of 21,441 milking records of biweekly test-days were collected from six dairy farms of Almarai company, Saudi Arabia to determine the effect of days open on lactation curve and milk production during the period of 1991 to 1996. These records included cows calved in two seasons: winter, for cows calved from October to March and summer, for cows calved from April to September. Season of calving did not have a significant effect on the last biweekly points of the curve, and this is due to the effect of the evaporative cooling system. Days open had a marked effect on milk production. The difference in milk yield between cows with days open <60 days and days open >150 days was 1,021 liter. Moreover, the difference in milk yield at early lactation decreased from 1,021 to 829 liter as the days open increased from 75 to 125, due to the decrease in the effect of conception on milk production with advancing lactation. These data also showed that the middle part of the curve (105-255) was the least affected part by the variation in days open because the pregnancy effect become more obvious after five months of conception. These data showed that the dairy cattle produce more than 70% of the milk yield during the first 250 days of the lactation curve.

Phenotypic Relationship between Lactation Persistency and Change in Body Condition Score in First-lactation Holstein Cows

  • Yamazaki, Takeshi;Takeda, Hisato;Nishiura, Akiko;Sasai, Youji;Sugawara, Naoko;Togashi, Kenji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.610-615
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    • 2011
  • We examined the correlations between lactation curve shape, including persistency and changes in body condition score (BCS) during early-stage (0 to 30 days in milk (DIM)), nadir-stage (31 to 90 DIM), and late-stage (91 to 240 DIM) lactation in 191 first-lactation cows. Data used were first-parity BCS records, scored twice every month after calving, and daily milk yields. Individual lactation curves were depicted by the Wilmink function. Lactation persistency was defined as the difference in estimated milk yields between 240 DIM and 60 DIM. Changes in BCSs in the early and late stages were defined as linear regression coefficients. There were no significant correlations between traits for lactation curve shape and change in BCS in early-stage lactation. Peak yield and total milk yield were negatively correlated with BCSs in nadir- and late-stage lactation and with BCS change in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation yields had low body reserves and health status in mid- to late lactation and had delayed recovery of body reserves. Lactation persistency was positively correlated with change in BCS in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation persistency tended to be healthy and to recover their body reserves well in late lactation.

The Effect of Evaporative Cooling in Alleviating Seasonal Differences in Milk Production of Almarai Dairy Farms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  • Ali, A.K.A.;AL-Haidary, A.A.;Alshaikh, M.A.;Hayes, E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.590-596
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    • 1999
  • The effect of evaporative cooling in alleviating seasonal variations of dairy cows raised in AlMarai Dairy Farms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied using milking record collected during the period of 1991 to 1996. The data included 13303 and 8137 records represented winter and summer calving seasons. Evaporative cooling system improved production for cows calved in summer. The least square means of milk yield were 9631 and 9556 liter for cows calved in winter and summer seasons but no significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between the yield of two seasons. No significant effect of season on calving under evaporative cooling on most of the biweekly points of the lactation curve. The farm, parity and milk level showed a significant effect on the shape of the curve. Functions of the lactation curve like initial yield, 305 MY, peak yield, time of peak and duration were estimated for each phase of the lactation curve.

Studies on the Lactation Curve of Holstein Cows in Gwangju Area (광주지방 유우의 비유곡선)

  • 나진수;문승주
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.31-35
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    • 1982
  • A study of 188 lactations of Holstein cows in Gwangju area was undertaken to establish the shape of lactation curve during the period from October in 1980 to January in 1982. The Gammafunction described by Wood(1967) was fitted to the lactations observed. The results obtained in the present study were summarized as follows; 1. The lactation curve of the 188 lactations was expressed by the equation based on Wood's model (1967) as follows; Yn=24.5m0.0762e-0.0944n(R2=0.99) 2. The lactation curves by parity were represented by the equations as follows; Yn=18.81n0.1486e-0.0741n(R2=0.98)……………parity 1 Yn=26.51n0.1161e-0.1200n(R2=0.96)……………parity 2 Yn=26.95n0.2804e-0.1703n(R2=0.99)……………parity 3 Yn=27.92n0.1429e-0.1427n(R2=0.98)……………parity 4 Yn=22.61n0.1985e-0.1211n(R2=0.94)……………parity 5 3. The lactation curves by calving seasons were represented by the equationes as follows; Yn=27.05n0.0739e-0.1005n(R2=0.98)……………spring Yn=23.08n0.2040e-0.1202n(R2=0.98)……………summer Yn=26.81n0.0460e-0.1134n(R2=0.98)……………autumn Yn=23.40n0.1299e-0.1101n(R2=0.95)……………winter

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LACTATION CURVE OF HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN COWS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

  • Ali, A.K.A.;Al-Jumaah, R.S.;Hayes, E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.439-447
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    • 1996
  • Monthly test day production for 12,020 records, were collected from six of the largest specialized dairy farms located in central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The records described lactating cows in four parities and two seasons of calving. Monthly test day records were fitted using Wood's model $At{{^b}{_e}}^{-ct}$ with multiple and additive error term. Linear and non-linear regression models were used to find the estimates of the parameters necessary to draw the lactation curves. The shape of the lactation curves of different parities showed that third lactation has the heighest peak (43.08 kg) for linear regression model and (42.08 kg) for non-linear regression model. Fourth lactation has the lowest peak (24.00kg) for linear regression model and (25.64 kg) for non-linear regression models. Cows of second and third lactations reached the peak at 58 day for both linear and non-linear regression models. Cows of first lactation were more persistent and had late peak at 68 and 67 days for both models respectively. While, third lactation cows were lower persistent and had early peak at 58 day for both models. Cows calved at winter months have higher starting values (A), higher ascending slope (b) and higher decending slope (c). Least square means of milk yield of the first four parities and for overall data were 6,653, 7,659, 7,482, 6,988 and 7,614 kg respectively. The corresponding lactation period were 358, 367, 350, 363 and 364 days respectively.

Comparison of the fit of automatic milking system and test-day records with the use of lactation curves

  • Sitkowska, B.;Kolenda, M.;Piwczynski, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.408-415
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The aim of the paper was to compare the fit of data derived from daily automatic milking systems (AMS) and monthly test-day records with the use of lactation curves; data was analysed separately for primiparas and multiparas. Methods: The study was carried out on three Polish Holstein-Friesians (PHF) dairy herds. The farms were equipped with an automatic milking system which provided information on milking performance throughout lactation. Once a month cows were also subjected to test-day milkings (method A4). Most studies described in the literature are based on test-day data; therefore, we aimed to compare models based on both test-day and AMS data to determine which mathematical model (Wood or Wilmink) would be the better fit. Results: Results show that lactation curves constructed from data derived from the AMS were better adjusted to the actual milk yield (MY) data regardless of the lactation number and model. Also, we found that the Wilmink model may be a better fit for modelling the lactation curve of PHF cows milked by an AMS as it had the lowest values of Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, mean square error, the highest coefficient of determination values, and was more accurate in estimating MY than the Wood model. Although both models underestimated peak MY, mean, and total MY, the Wilmink model was closer to the real values. Conclusion: Models of lactation curves may have an economic impact and may be helpful in terms of herd management and decision-making as they assist in forecasting MY at any moment of lactation. Also, data obtained from modelling can help with monitoring milk performance of each cow, diet planning, as well as monitoring the health of the cow.