• Title, Summary, Keyword: Large pit

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Thermal Behavior of Flow Pattern Defect and Large Pit in Czochralski Silicon Crystals and Effects of Large Pit upon Device Yield (쵸크랄스키 Silicon 단결정의 Large Pit과 Flow Pattern defect의 열적 거동과 Large Pit의 소자 수율에의 영향)

  • Song, Yeong-Min;Mun, Yeong-Hui;Kim, Jong-O;Jo, Gi-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.11 no.9
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    • pp.781-785
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    • 2001
  • The thermal behavior of Flow Pattern Defect (FPD) and Large Pit (LP) in Czochralski Silicon crystal was investigated by applying high temperature annealing ($\geq$$1100^{\circ}C$) and non-agitated Secco etching. For evaluation of the effect of LP upon device performance/yield, commercial DRAM and ASIC devices were fabricated. The results indicated that high temperature annealing generates LPs whereas it decreases FPD density drastically. However, the origins of FPD and LP seemed to be quite different by not showing any correspondence to their density and the location of LP generation and FPD extinction. By not showing any difference between the performance/yield of devices whose design rule is larger than 0.35 $\mu\textrm{m}$, LP seemed not to have detrimental effects on the performance/yield.

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Thermal behavior of Flow Pattern Defect and Large Pit in Czochralski Silicon Crystals and Their Effects on Device Yield. (Czochralski 법으로 제조된 실리콘 단결정 내의 Flow Pattern Defect와 Large Pit의 열적 거동 및 소자 수율에의 영향)

  • 송영민;조기현;김종오
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1998
  • Thermal behavior of Flow Pattern Defect (FPD) and Large Pit (LP) in Czochralski Silicon crystals was investigated by applying high temperature ($\geq$1100$^{\circ}C$) annealing and non-agitation Secco etching. For evaluation of the effect of LP upon device performance / yield, DRAM and ASIC devices were fabricated. The results indicate that high temperature annealing generates LPs whereas it decreases FPD density drastically, and LP does not have detrimental effects on the performance /

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Lunar Pit Craters Presumed to be the Entrances of Lava Caves by Analogy to the Earth Lava Tube Pits

  • Hong, Ik-Seon;Yi, Yu;Kim, Eojin
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2014
  • Lava caves could be useful as outposts for the human exploration of the Moon. Lava caves or lava tubes are formed when the external surface of the lava flows cools more quickly to make a hardened crust over subsurface lava flows. The lava flow eventually ceases and drains out of the tube, leaving an empty space. The frail part of the ceiling of lava tube could collapse to expose the entrance to the lava tubes which is called a pit crater. Several pit craters with the diameter of around 100 meters have been found by analyzing the data of SELENE and LRO lunar missions. It is hard to use these pit craters for outposts since these are too large in scale. In this study, small scale pit craters which are fit for outposts have been investigated using the NAC image data of LROC. Several topographic patterns which are believed to be lunar caves have been found and the similar pit craters of the Earth were compared and analyzed to identify caves. For this analysis, the image data of satellites and aerial photographs are collected and classified to construct a database. Several pit craters analogous to lunar pit craters were derived and a morphological pit crater model was generated using the 3D printer based on this database.

Effect of Polar Components on Phase Inversion Temperatures in Systems Containing Nonionic Surfactants and Nonpolar Oils (비이온성 계면활성제, 비극성 오일을 포함한 계에서의 극성 성분의 Phase Inversion Temperature에 대한 영향)

  • Lim, Jong-Choo;Mori, Fuyuhiko
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.274-284
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    • 1994
  • Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) measurements showed that the addition of polar components such as oleyl alcohol and oleic acid to the system comprising n-dodecylpentaoxyethylene monoether ($C_{12}E_5$), nonpolar oil (n-hexadecane) and water produced large reductions in the PIT. The PIT was lowered as the additive-to-surfactant ratio in the surfactant films in the microemulsion phase was increased. Another dramatic effect of additive was the manner in which it affects the volume of the microemulsion phase at the PIT of the oil and water solubilization characteristics. Microemulsion phase volume was increased rapidly with decreasing PIT, i.e., with increasing amounts of additive in the system. Also with a decrease in PIT, the solubilization parameters of both oil and water in the microemulsion phase were strikingly increased. Even though soil removal data were not available for the conditions where our results obtained, PIT measurement seems a useful starting point for estimating conditions when middle-phase microemulsion formation and its associated high solubilization of oil can be expected.

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Effect of Exposed Length of Rootstocks on the Occurrence of Bitter Pit and Tree Vigor of 'Gamhong'/M.26 Apple Cultivar

  • Kang, Seok-Beom;Moon, Young-Eel;Kweon, Hun-Joong;Park, Moo-Yong;Park, Woo-Jung;Sagong, Dong-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.449-455
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    • 2016
  • 'Gamhong' apple cultivar which was bred by National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, has high sugar contents, large types of fruit and mid-season types of cultivar. However, 'Gamhong' apple tree is very sensitive cultivar to bitter pit. Therefore, many farms have not solved the problems on bitter pit to cultivate 'Gamhong' apple tree. This study was carried out to find out the exposed length of rootstocks on the occurrence of bitter pit and fruit quality of 'Gamhong'/M.26 apple tree and seek the ideal cultivation strategy to decrease bitter pit to cultivate it. For this research, ten-years-old 'Gamhong'/M.26 apple trees were used. The difference among the treatments of the exposure of rootstock of RL (5 cm), RM (15 cm) and RH (20 cm) from the soil surface was observed with 4 repetition from 2010 to 2011. Decreased exposure of rootstocks resulted in more vigorous growth, taller height, and greater number of shoots. N and K/Ca of RH was tend to be lower than RM and RL, whereas as the exposure of rootstock decreased, fruit weight and bitter pit increased. Therefore, occurrence of bitter pit in RH was significantly lower than that of RM and RL treatment and fruit weight also decreased. There was no difference on nutrient contents of leaf and the fruit quality by the exposed of rootstock in 'Gamhong' M.26 apple tree. To reduce the occurrence of bitter pit, it may be helpful to keep the optimum exposure of rootstock within 20 cm from the soil surface.

A Study on the Role of Wall Posts in Pit-Houses - In Bronze Age settlement sites in the Kyung-nam Province - (움집 벽주(壁柱)의 흙막이벽 기능에 관한 연구 - 경남지역 청동기 주거지를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Won-Ho;Seo, Chi-Sang
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.7-22
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the function of wall posts in pit-houses in the Bronze Age, in the Kyung-nam Province. Wall posts were found as post-holes, created after wooden posts had decayed. In this research, the role of wall posts is newly defined from the perspective of a construction engineering. While existing studies in archaeology regard wall posts as sub-posts that support the roof of a pit-house, this study views wall posts as piles installed to support the soil wall, not as sub-posts. Based on the existing reports on excavation in prehistoric settlement sites by archaeologists, the study examines the remnants of the wall posts and remains after a fire. The main findings of this study are threefold. First, the wall posts were installed not as posts but as piles, cut sharply and hammered along the building lines of a pit-house. Second, wall piles were used to support the walls during earthwork, such as excavating and banking for low ground, mostly because a large amount of soil is often lost during the process. Third, wall piles were used as post piles of retaining walls that enabled the installation of transverse wall panels, which were used to prevent the soil loss.

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Priority based Image Transmission Technique with DPCM in Wireless Multimedia (무선 멀티미디어 센서 네트워크에서 예측부호화를 통한 우선순위 기반 이미지 전송 기법)

  • Lee, Joa-Hyoung;Jung, In-Bum
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.1023-1031
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    • 2010
  • With recent advances in hardware and wireless communication techniques, wireless multimedia sensor network which collects multimedia data through wireless sensor network has started to receive a lot of attentions from many researchers. Wireless multimedia sensor network requires a research of efficient compression and transmission to process the multimedia data which has large size, in the wireless sensor network that has very low network bandwidth. In this paper, we propose PIT protocol for the transmission based on the priority that classified by the DPCM compression. The PIT protocol sets different priority to the each subbands which are divided by the wavelet transform. The PIT protocol transmits the data with higher priority to guarantee the high image quality. The PIT protocol uses the characteristic of wavelet transform that the transformed image is very insensible to the data loss. In PIT protocol, each subbands of wavelet transformed image has fair weight in the compressed image to utilize the prioriy based transmission. The experiment results show that the PIT protocol improves the quality of image in spite of data loss.

A Method for Enhancing Timely-Delivery and Security Using IGPT in Content-Centric Networking (콘텐츠 중심 네트워킹에서 IGPT를 이용한 적시성 및 보안성 향상 방안)

  • Jung, Seunghoon;Park, Heungsoon;Kwon, Taewook
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.39B no.11
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    • pp.743-754
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    • 2014
  • Recently, Information-Centric Networking(ICN), different from traditional IP-based networking, has been highlighted. Content-Centric Networking(CCN), proposed by Van Jacobson, is a representative scheme of the ICN architectures. It can deliver messages slightly faster than the IP-based networking by focusing on the access and delivery to the content itself. However, CCN is restricted to distribute the information without transmitting the request packet in advance because it is pull-based architecture by content requester. In addition, it has a problem that the Pending Interest Table(PIT) could be overloaded easily when DDoS attack happens. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm using a push-based scheme without request packets and overcoming PIT overload situation by Interest Group Push Table(IGPT). The proposed scheme enables to transmit a large amount of content than an existing scheme during the same amount of time in terms of timely-delivery and security.

A Study on the Selection of Borrow Pits by Using VE Techniques (VE 기법을 이용한 토취장 선정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Ki;Lee, Byung-Suk;Yang, Jae-Hyouk;Lee, Jong-Cheon;Kim, Chan-kee
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to review that the VE techniques can be used as a selection tool of borrow pit locations. The analysis of the soil investigation report is performed for the selection of proposed borrow pit site on a large-scale residential development area. Possible earthwork volume of mining is estimated and the weighting matrix evaluation is applied to the VE techniques. After determining the evaluation items for VE assessment, important degree was calculated. The Rating and evaluation of performance is carried out on a proposed borrow pit site. And, development priority has to be decided for a proposed borrow pit sites. As a result, the relative construction cost is closely related to the haulage distance. As the haulage distance increases, the relative construction cost will be increased. Therefore, it was confirmed quantitatively that haulage distance has a significant impact on the select of borrow pits. Also, it was found that the condition of borrow pits itself is important, but it cannot be ignored the impact of the life cycle cost for the selection of optimal borrow pit sites.

Study on crystal texture of PIT processed Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape (PIT 공정으로 제조한 Bi-2223 다심 고온 초전도 선재의 결정 배향성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, J.K.;Oh, S.S.;Ha, H.S.;Yang, J.S.;Yun, J.K.;Lee, N.J.;Ha, D.W.;Kwan, Y.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.59-63
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crystal texture of the 2223 phase and its relationship with PIT processing parameter. Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 multi-filament tapes were prepared by changing rolling reduction ratio. We analysed the degree of texture for 2223 phase after heat-treatment. According to X-ray pole-figure, the texture of the filaments located near surface and center were not so different each other for all rolling conditions. we found a little higher degree of texture for 60% rolling reduction. But its difference is not so high compared with those tapes with a lower rolling reduction ratio. Reaction induced texturing seemed to contribute with a large portion under present condition.

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