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Detection of rpoB Gene Mutation in Rifampin-Resistant M. Tuberculosis by Oligonucleotide Chip (Oligonucleotide chip을 이용한 Rifampin 내성 결핵균의 rpoB 유전자 돌연변이 검출)

  • Park, Soon-Kew;Lee, Min-Ki;Chung, Byung-Seon;Kim, Cheol-Min;Chang, Chul-Hun L.;Park, Hee-Kyung;Jang, Hyun-Jung;Park, Seung-Kyu;Song, Sun-Dae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.546-557
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    • 2000
  • Background : Oligonucleotide chip technology has proven to be a very useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of infectious disease. Rifampin resistance is considered as a useful marker of multidrug-resistance in tuberculosis. Mutations in the rpoB gene coding $\beta$ subunit of RNA polymerase represent the main mechanism of rifampin resistance. The purpose of this study was to develop a diagnosis kit using oligonucleotide chip for the rapid and accurate detection of rifampin-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Method : The sequence specific probes for mutations in the rpoB gene were designed and spotted onto the glass slide, oligonucleotide chip. 38 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium were tested. A part of rpoB was amplified, labelled, and hybridized on the oligonucleotide chip with probes. Results were analyzed with a laser scanner. Direct sequencing was done to verify the results. Result : The low-density oligonucleotide chip design어 to determine the specific mutations in the rpoB gene of M. tuberculosis accurately detected rifampin resistance associated with mutations in 28 clinical isolates. Mutations at codons 531, 526, and 513 were confirmed by direct sequencing analysis. Conclusion : Mutant detection using oligonucleotide chip technology is a reliable and useful diagnostic tool for the detection of multidrug-resistance in M. tuberculosis.

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A STUDY FOR OCCLUSAL FEATURES OF FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR AND SECOND PRIMARY MOLAR (제 1대구치와 제 2유구치의 교합면 양상에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, So-Hee;Kim, Jae-Gon;Yang, Yeon-Mi;Baik, Byeong-Ju
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.89-100
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphometrics of primary second molar and permanent first molar. Samples were consisted of normal occlusion in the primary dentition(50 males and 50 females) and permanent dentition(43 males and 43 females). Their upper and lower plaster casts were used and their measuring points were decided, through 3-dimensional laser scanning(3D Scanner, DS4060, LDI, U.S.A.), fitting standard horizontal plane were made for measuring the intercuspal distance, volume of intercuspal area and section curve. The results were as follows; 1. Average distance from the fit plane to the cusp tips of mandibular primary second molar was smaller than any other tooth. (0.05-0.09 mm in male and 0.04-0.09 mm in female). 2. Intercuspal distances of mandibular primary second molar and permanent first molar were larger in male than in female. Especially, there was statistical significance in primary second molar(p<0.05). 3. Intercuspal distance between distobuccal and distolingual cusp was larger in maxillary primary second molar, except cross intercuspal distances. And distances between distal and distolingual cusp, in mandibular primary second molar, between mesiolingual and mesiobuccal cusp, in maxillary first molar, and between distolingual and mesiolingual cusp, in mandibular first molar were larger than any other intercuspal distance. 4. Volume of intercuspal area of primary second molar and permanent first molar was larger in mandible than in maxilla and that of permanent first molar was 1.40-1.75 times of primary second molar (p<0.05). Also it was larger in male than in female, but there was no statistical significance. 5. In most cases, section curves were wider and deeper in permanent dentition than in primary dentition. Except cross intercuspal distances, in maxilla, section curve between mesiobuccal and mesiolingual cusp was the deepest in both dentition. In mandible, section curve between distobuccal and distal cusp was the deepest in permanent dentition and between distolingual and distal cusp was the deepest in primary dentition.

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Comparison of relative fitness between zirconia single coping and 3-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) manufactured by dental CAD/CAM system (치과 캐드/캠 시스템으로 제작된 지르코니아 single 코핑과 3-unit 구조물의 상대적 적합도 비교)

  • Lee, Wan-Sun;Park, Jong-Kyoung;Kim, Wook-Tae
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the marginal and mesial fitness of zirconia single copings and 3-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) manufactured with an identical model. Materials and Methods: An epoxy model in which the maxillary right 2nd premolar is lost and maxillary 1st premolar and 2nd molar are formed as abutments was manufactured and scanned by using a laser scanner. A ten units of zirconia single copings were manufactured for maxillary 1st premolar and 2nd molar, respectively and the same number of 3-unit FPDs were manufactured. For the measurements of fitness, the manufactured silicone replicas were divided into four parts and the fitness were measured by digital microscope at measurement points (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) of each plane. The measured gaps were classified into three categories: marginal gap (MG, P1), axial gap (AG, average of P2 and P3), occlusal gap (OG, average of P4 and P5). Results: The ranges of MG, AG and OG for single copings were 18.47 - 40.54 ${\mu}m$, 39.73 - 73.61 ${\mu}m$ and 116.90 - 134.69 ${\mu}m$, respectively. The ranges of MG, AG and OG for 3-unit FPDs were 45.95 - 87.44 ${\mu}m$, 23.78 - 57.00 ${\mu}m$ and 99.89 - 131.06 ${\mu}m$, respectively. Conclusion: The result of the study shows that the MGs for 3-unit FPDs were higher than those of single copings, though they are within the range of clinical acceptance, indicating that the use of more homogeneous zirconia block and modification of sintering processes are needed to ensure the prevention of increase of gap in 3-unit FPDs.

Evaluation of the Positional Uncertainty of a Liver Tumor using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Gated Orthogonal Kilovolt Setup Images (사차원전산화단층촬영과 호흡연동 직각 Kilovolt 준비 영상을 이용한 간 종양의 움직임 분석)

  • Ju, Sang-Gyu;Hong, Chae-Seon;Park, Hee-Chul;Ahn, Jong-Ho;Shin, Eun-Hyuk;Shin, Jung-Suk;Kim, Jin-Sung;Han, Young-Yih;Lim, Do-Hoon;Choi, Doo-Ho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: In order to evaluate the positional uncertainty of internal organs during radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer, we measured differences in inter- and intra-fractional variation of the tumor position and tidal amplitude using 4-dimentional computed radiograph (DCT) images and gated orthogonal setup kilovolt (KV) images taken on every treatment using the on board imaging (OBI) and real time position management (RPM) system. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer participated in this study. All patients received a 4DCT simulation with an RT16 scanner and an RPM system. Lipiodol, which was updated near the target volume after transarterial chemoembolization or diaphragm was chosen as a surrogate for the evaluation of the position difference of internal organs. Two reference orthogonal (anterior and lateral) digital reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images were generated using CT image sets of 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases. The maximum tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured from 3D conformal treatment planning. After setting the patient up with laser markings on the skin, orthogonal gated setup images at 50% into the respiratory phase were acquired at each treatment session with OBI and registered on reference DRR images by setting each beam center. Online inter-fractional variation was determined with the surrogate. After adjusting the patient setup error, orthogonal setup images at 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases were obtained and tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured. Measured tidal amplitude was compared with data from 4DCT. For evaluation of intra-fractional variation, an orthogonal gated setup image at 50% into the respiratory phase was promptly acquired after treatment and compared with the same image taken just before treatment. In addition, a statistical analysis for the quantitative evaluation was performed. Results: Medians of inter-fractional variation for twenty patients were 0.00 cm (range, -0.50 to 0.90 cm), 0.00 cm (range, -2.40 to 1.60 cm), and 0.00 cm (range, -1.10 to 0.50 cm) in the X (transaxial), Y (superior-inferior), and Z (anterior-posterior) directions, respectively. Significant inter-fractional variations over 0.5 cm were observed in four patients. Min addition, the median tidal amplitude differences between 4DCTs and the gated orthogonal setup images were -0.05 cm (range, -0.83 to 0.60 cm), -0.15 cm (range, -2.58 to 1.18 cm), and -0.02 cm (range, -1.37 to 0.59 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Large differences of over 1 cm were detected in 3 patients in the Y direction, while differences of more than 0.5 but less than 1 cm were observed in 5 patients in Y and Z directions. Median intra-fractional variation was 0.00 cm (range, -0.30 to 0.40 cm), -0.03 cm (range, -1.14 to 0.50 cm), 0.05 cm (range, -0.30 to 0.50 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Significant intra-fractional variation of over 1 cm was observed in 2 patients in Y direction. Conclusion: Gated setup images provided a clear image quality for the detection of organ motion without a motion artifact. Significant intra- and inter-fractional variation and tidal amplitude differences between 4DCT and gated setup images were detected in some patients during the radiation treatment period, and therefore, should be considered when setting up the target margin. Monitoring of positional uncertainty and its adaptive feedback system can enhance the accuracy of treatments.