• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lettuce Growth

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Identification of Crop Growth Stage by Image Processing for Greenhouse Automation (영상정보를 이용한 자동화 온실에서의 작물 성장 상태 파악에 관한 연구)

  • 김기영;류관희;전성필
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1999
  • The effectiveness of many greenhouse environment control methodologies depends on the growth information of crops. Acquisition of the growth information of crops requires a non-invasive and continuous monitoring method. Crop growth monitoring system using digital imaging technique was developed to conduct non-destructive and intact plant growth analyses. The monitoring system automatically measures crop growth information sends an appropriate control signal to the nutrient solution supplying system. To develop the monitoring system, a linear model that explains the relationship between the fresh weight and the top projected leaf area of a lettuce plant was developed from an experiment. The monitoring system was evaluated buy successive lettuce growing experiments. Results of the experiments showed that the developed system could estimate the fresh weight of lettuce from a lettuce image by using the linear model and generate an EC control signal according to the lettuce growth stage.

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The Nutrients and Microbial Properties of Animal Manure and Spent Mushroom Compost Tea and the Effect of Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) (가축분뇨와 폐버섯 퇴비차의 양분 및 미생물적 특성과 상추의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.589-602
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    • 2011
  • In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different compost teas on plant growth reponses and yield of leaf lettuce. Compost tea is a liquid extract of compost obtained by mixing compost and water for a defined period of time. The pig manure and spent mushroom compost were made by steeping compost in water. Compost tea was aerated from 24 hours and molasses and kelp were added as supplements. The four types of compost were tested growth of lettuce. EC of animal manure compost tea was higher than that of spent mushroom compost tea. Mineral nutrients were significantly higher in animal manure compost tea compared with spent mushroom compost tea. Compost tea contains nutrient and a ranges of different organisms. The beneficial fungi and actinomycetes were prominent in a spent mushroom compost tea. Compost tea from animal manure had the higher numbers of total bacteria. The actinomycetes densities were high in spent mushroom compost tea. But actinomycetes were not founded in animal manure compost tea. The growth characteristics of lettuce in animal manure compost tea were higher than those of spent mushroom compost tea. And also SPAD value in leaf was high in plot treated with animal manure compost tea. The fresh yield of lettuce in animal compost tea was higher by 181% that of control plot. The effect of compost tea on growth of lettuce was largely attributable to mineral nutrient.

Changes in the Nutrient Components Associated with the Growth of Lettuce in Circulating Hydroponics (순환식 양액재배에서 상추의 성장에 따른 양액성분의 변화)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1075-1084
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigated the changes in the nutrient components ($NO_3{^-}-N$, $NH_4{^+}-N$, $PO_4{^{3-}}P$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$) and environmental parameters (electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH) on the leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown with hydroponics. Recirculating hydroponic cultivation system was consisted of planting port, LED lamp, water tank, and circulating pump for hydroponic. Nutrient solution was used in the standard solution for Japan vegetables experimental station and commercial hydroponic. The result showed that electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH, depending on the growth of lettuce decreased continuously. With the growth of the lettuce, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus were required for periodic replacement. The number of pH compensation due to the growth of lettuce are the most high. The concentration of $Ca^{2+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ during the lettuce growth showed no significant change. However, $K^+$ concentration increased due to the replacement with nitrogen and phosphorus. Electric conductivity and total dissolved solids with total nutrient concentration showed the linear relationship and the correlation coefficient $R^2$ were 0.8601 and the 0.827, respectively.

Crop Growth Measurements by Image Processing in Greenhouse - for Lettuce Growth - (화상처리를 이용한 온실에서의 식물성장도 측정 -상추 성장을 중심으로-)

  • 김기영;류관희
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.285-290
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    • 1998
  • Growth information of crops is essential for efficient control of greenhouse environment. However, a few non-invasive and continuous monitoring methods of crop growth has been developed. A computer vision system with a CCD camera and a frame grabber was developed to conduct non-destructive and intact plant growth analyses. The developed system was evaluated by conducting the growth analysis of lettuce. A linear model that explains the relationship between the relative crop coverage by the crop canopy and dry weight of a lettuce was presented. It was shown that this measurement method could estimate the dry weight from the relative crop coverage by the crop canopy. The result also showed that there was a high correlation between the projected top leaf area and the dry weight of the lettuce.

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Growth Characteristics and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Lettuce 'Fidel' in Plant Factory Using Activated Mineral Groups and Light-emitting Diode Lights

  • Song, Tae-Eui;Park, Seong-Jik;Moon, Joon-Kwan;Kim, In Soo;Lee, Chang Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2019
  • This study is conducted to investigate the effects of growth characteristics (GC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DRSA) of the heading lettuce 'Fidel' depending on four concentrations of activated mineral groups (AMG: 1.6% active minerals and 0.03% CaO) added to basic nutrient solutions (diluted by 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%) and on four different light-emitting diodes (LED; B:R:W ratio = 0:1:12, 0:1:9, 0:5:5, and 2:3:5). Both 0.1 and 0.2% AMG showed better GC of lettuce in plant width, plant length, leaf width, leaf length, and the number of leaves than those of other AMG, while leaf thickness and chlorophyll value did not show significant difference among all AMG. Moreover, 0.1 and 0.2% AMG showed heavier shoot fresh weights than those of other AMG. As for the combinations of AMG and LED, B0:R5:W5 showed the best lettuce GC regardless of AMG compared to other AMG and LED combinations. As shown in the above results of LED, although there was a difference in lettuce growth by LED, the differences of lettuce growth by AMG were statistically significant. The DRSA was the highest at 82.8% in B2:R3:W5, followed by B0:R5:W5 at 77.8%. LED showed differences but AMG did not affect DRSA. Therefore, the optimal conditions in plant factory for GC and DRSA of the lettuce were 0.1% AMG and B0:R5:W5.

Hydroponic Culture of Leaf Lettuce Using Mixtures of Fish Meal, Bone Meal, Crab Shell and the Pig Slurry Leachate of Woodchip Trickling Filter (목편살수여상 침출액비와 어분, 골분, 게껍질 혼합액을 이용한 상추의 수경재배)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.215-226
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    • 2010
  • The pig slurry leachate was dark brown-colored solution that leaches out of woodchip trickling filter. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of pig slurry leachate and byproduct on growth characteristics of leaf lettuce in hydroponics culture. The effects of addition of fish meal, bone meal and crab shell for the growth of leaf lettuce were investigated. Leaf lettuce were grown in each of six combination treatment solutions; slurry leachate, slurry leachate + fish meal, slurry leachate+bone meal, slurry leachate + crab shell and chemical hydroponic solution for lettuce based on EC content. The chemical nutrient solution was the solution of National Horticulture Research Station for the growth of lettuce. The all of nutrient solution was adjusted 1.5 mS/cm in EC in hydroponics culture. 1. The pH level of leachate of trickling filter was increased and EC decreased gradually during treatment. Pig slurry leachate was low in suspended solids (SS), phosphorus (P), but rich in potassium (K). 2. The plot of slurry leachate (SL) was lowest in the growth characteristics of lettuce. The leaf length and width of lettuce treated with mixture plot of slurry leachate and fish meal (SL + FM) was higher compared with plot in slurry leachate. The chlorophyll reading was reduced in plot treated with slurry leachate, but that in plot of SL+FM was similar compared with control plot. 3. The fresh weight of lettuce showed lowest in the plot treated with slurry leachate. The addition of fish meal increased the yield of comparing plot of slurry leachate, but plots of bone meal and crab shell addition were not significantly difference. The fresh weight of leaf lettuce in plot of SL+FM was 87% as 400.0g compared with control. In conclusion, the mixture solution of pig slurry leachate and fish meal could be used as a nutrition solution of organic lettuce hydroponics.

Effects of Artificial Light Sources on the Photosynthesis, Growth and Phytochemical Contents of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in the Plant Factory (식물공장에서 인공광원의 종류가 반결구상추의 광합성, 생육 및 기능성물질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong Eok;Lee, Hye Jin;Kang, Dong Hyeon;Lee, Gong In;Kim, You Ho
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.392-399
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to investigate responses of photosynthesis, plant growth, and phytochemical contents to different artificial light sources for 'Seneca RZ' and 'Gaugin RZ' two butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In this study, fluorescent lamps (FL), three colors LEDs (red, blue and white, 5 : 4 : 1; RBW) and metalhalide lamps (MH) were used as artificial lighting sources. Photoperiod, air temperature, relative humidity, EC, and pH in a cultivation system were maintained at 16/8 h, $25/15^{\circ}C$, 60~70%, $1.4{\pm}0.2dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, and $6.0{\pm}0.5$, respectively. The photosynthetic rate of both two butterhead lettuce were the highest under RBW in middle growth stage. However, in late growth stage, the photosynthetic rate of both two butterhead lettuce were higher under RBW and MH than FL. The light sources showed significant results for plant growth but those effects were different to variety. Fresh and dry weight of 'Gaugin RZ' butterhead lettuce under MH were heavier than other lights in all growth stages. Growth of 'Seneca RZ' butterhead lettuce was maximized highest under MH in middle growth stage and FL in late growth stage. In the leaf tissue of 'Seneca RZ' butterhead lettuce, tipburn symptom occurred under all light sources and in the leaf tissue of 'Gaugin RZ' butterhead lettuce, it occurred under two light sources except for fluorescent lamps in late growth stage. kinds of lamp affect plant growth more than plant quality. Relative growth rate of both two butterhead lettuce was faster in middle growth stage than late stage. Growth of 'Gaugin RZ' was shown by kinds of lamp in middle growth stage and but it was not significantly affected by light sources and variety in late stage. Most of the phytochemical contents of two butterhead lettuce were significantly affected by different light sources. Contents of all vitamins showed higher than other light sources on RBW for both two lettuce, especially ${\beta}$-Carotene content of 'Gaugin RZ' was the highest. Plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytochemical contents were observed significant effects by different light sources for two butterhead lettuce but those effects were highly different between variety and kinds of phytochemicals. Therefore, the selection of optimum light source should be considered by variety and kinds of phytochemicals in the plant factory.

Effect of Artificial Light Sources on the Growth of Crisphead Lettuce in Plant Factory (식물공장에서 인공광원이 결구상추의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • 조영렬;한동욱;이용범
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of artificial light sources(high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp and fluorescent lamp) on growth of crisphead lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) in a plant factory. No significant differences in leaf fresh and dry weight were presented among them. Lettuce plants grown under fluorescent lamp showed the lowest growth. Considering the growth of lettuce and efficiency of lamps, it is worth using HPS(high-pressure sodium) lamp in plant factories. The leaves of lettuce plants grown under artificial light sources showed tipburn symptoms at 14th day after transplanting. The beginning of tipburn symptom have been seen on the ninth to tenth leaves from the cotyledons. It is estimated that the occurrence of tipburn was related to rapid growth and K uptake of the lettuce Plants. The Ca, Mg. Cu and Zn elements tended to be accumulated in the nutrient solutions but the T-N, P, Fe and Mn elements keep in balance in them.

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Effect of Light Emitting Diodes Treatment on Growth and Mineral Contents of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'Chung Chi Ma') (LED 광원이 청치마 상추의 생육 및 무기물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Yong-Seub;Lee, Mun-Jung;Lee, Eun-Sook;Ahn, Joon-Hyung;Do, Han-Woo;Choi, Don-Woo;Jeong, Jong-Do;Lee, Ji-Eun;Kim, Min-Ki;Park, Jong-Uk;Um, Young-Ghul;Park, So-Deuk;Chae, Jang-Heui
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.659-668
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was carried out to elucidate the effect of LEDs (light emitting diodes) irradiation in relation to early growth and inorganic elements in leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'Chung Chi Ma'). In morphological changes of leaves, shoot elongation and hypocotyl length showed poor growth in red light irradiation, while the red+blue light irradiation induced shorter plant height and much greater leaf numbers resulting in increased fresh weight. In change of the Hunter's color and SPAD values, lettuce seedlings grown under in red+blue and fluorescent light irradiation had a higher $a^*$ value, otherwise SPAD values were not changed in these light irradiations. Interestingly, relative chlorophyll contents showed 1.8 times increased redness in the treatment of red+blue light irradiation. Inorganic element (N, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe) and ascorbic acid contents were increased in lettuce plants grown under LEDs light irradiation compared to those of lettuce grown under the fluorescent light which showed higher P and Mn contents. In conclusion, it is considered that red+blue light irradiation which stimulates growth and higher nutrient uptake in leaf lettuce could be employed in containers equipped with LEDs.

Effects of LED Light and Temperature on Lettuce Growth

  • Hong, Pyo-Hwan;Kwon, Oh-Hoon;Lee, Dong-In;Park, Jong-Rak;Ha, Jeong Min;Jeong, Da Un;Han, Seong Ho;Kim, Bonghwan
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2011
  • This study examines the effects of lightemitting diode (LED) light and temperature on lettuce growth. For plant growth, we used an LED bar composed of red, white and blue LEDs (4:1:2). Six types of cultivation equipment were used to measure the temperature. To compare their effects, the heights of the lettuces and the water temperatures were measured. The results demonstrated that the lettuce growth was optimal at $25^{\circ}C$.

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